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670 miles. into three parts; the Northern Apennines extend from the neighbourhood of Urbino to the Adriatic; the Central Apennines terminate near the banks of the Sangro; the Southern Apennines, situated at an

equal distance from the two seas, form two branches

near Muro ; the least important separates the territory of Barri from that of Otranto; the other, composed of lofty mountains, traverses both Calabrias, and terminates near Aspromonte.—The etymology of the name given to these inountains must be traced to the Celtic, and appears to combine two terms of that language nearly synonymous, Alp or Ap, “a high mountain,” and Penn, “a summit.” Some write the name Aponinus (i.e., Alpes Poeninae), as if derived from the circumstance of Hannibal's having led his army over them, Poenus meaning “Carthaginian.” This etymology, however, is altogether erroneous; nor is it at all more tenable when applied to the Pennine Alps, APER, I. Marcus, a Roman orator, who flourished during the latter half of the first century of our era He was a native of Gaul, but distinguished himself at Rome by his eloquence and general ability. Aper is one of the interlocutors in the dialogue on the causes of the decline of oratory, which some ascribe to Tacitus, others to Quintilian, and others again to Aper himself. He died A.D. 85. (Schulze, Prolegg., c. 2, p. xxi., seqq.)—II. Flavius, supposed by some to have been the son of the preceding. He was consul A D. 130, under Hadrian. (Oberlin., ad Dial. de causs corr. eloq., c. 2.)—III. Arrius, a prefect of the Praetorian guards under Carus, and afterward under his successor Numerianus. Aspiring to the purple, he took advantage of a violent thunder-storm that arose, assassinated Carus, who was lying sick at the time, set fire to the royal tent, and ascribed the death of the prince and the conflagration to lightning. The corpse was so much burnt that no traces of the murder were perceptible. Numerianus, son of Carus, and son-inlaw of Aper, having succeeded to the empire, continued the latter in the office of prefect; but the only return that Aper made was to poison the young monarch, after he had reigned about eight or nine months. Suspicion immediately fell upon Aper, and he was slain by Dioclesian, whom the army had elected emperor. (Aurel. Vict, c. 38–Vopiscus, Car., c. 8.— ld, Numer., c. 12, seq.—Compare the remarks of Crepier, Hist. Emp. Rom., vol. 6, p. 140.) APEs As, a mountain of Argolis, near Nemea, on which, according to Pausanias (2, 16), Perseus first sacrificed to Jupiter Apesantius. . . It is a remarkable mountain, with a flat summit, which can be seen, as we are assured by modern travellers, from Argos and Corinth. (Chandler, vol. 2, ch. 56.—Dodwell, Class. Tour, vol. 2, p. 210.) Aphica, a town of Syria, between Heliopolis and Byblus, where Venus was worshipped. The temple is said to have been a school of wickedness, and was razed to the ground by Constantine the Great. (Euseb., Vit. Const. Mag., 3, 55.) Aphaea, a name of Diana, who had a temple in Ægina. (Pausan., 2, 30–Consult Heyne, Excurs. ad Virg., Cir. 220.-Müller, Æginetica, p. 163, seqq.) Aphar, a city of Arabia, situate on the coast of the Red Sea, not far north from the Promontorium Aromatum. It was the capital of the Homeritae, and is supposed to correspond to Al-Fara, between Mecca and Medina. The ancient name is more commonly iven as Suphar. (Plin., 6, 23.-Ptol.—Arrian, }. Mar. Erythr., p. 154, ed. Blancard.) APHAREus, I. a king of Messenia, who married Arene, daughter of CEbalus, by whom he had three sons. (Pausan., 3, 1.)—II. A step-son of Isocrates, who produced thirty-five or thirty-seven tragedies, and was four times victor. He began to exhibit B.C. 341. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 158.)

They are divided by modern geographers

APHAs, a river of Greece, which falls into the bay of Ambracia. D'Anville calls it the Avas. It is now the Wuro. (Plin., 4, 1.) Aphosas, a mountain of Argolis, near Nemea, said to have been the one on which Perseus first sacrificed to Jupiter Apesantius. The more correct form of the name is Apesas. (Vid. Apesas.) AphetA, a city of Thessaly at the entrance of the Sinus Pelasgicus, or Gulf of Volo, from which the ship Argo is said to have taken her departure for Colchis. (Apoll. Rhod., 1,591.) Herodotus informs us (7, 193 and 196) that the fleet of Xerxes was stationed here previous to the engagement off Artemisium. The same writer makes the distance between Aphetae and Artemisium about eighty stadia. Apheta is supposed to correspond to the modern Fetio. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p 411.) Aphidna, a borough of Attica, belonging to the tribe Leontis, where Theseus is said to have secreted Helen. (Herodot., 9, 73.—Plut., Wit. Thes.) Demosthenes reports that Aphidna was more than 120 stadia from Athens. (De Cor., p. 238.) Aphrodisi A, festivals in honour of Venus, celebrated in different parts of Greece, but chiefly in Cyprus. Aphrodisias, I. a city of Laconia, to the west of Nymbaeum, the same as Boea. (Strabo. 251.—Pluny, 4, 5.—Polybius, 5, 19.)—II. A city in the Thracian Chersonese, between Heraclea to the east and Cardia to the west. (Procopius, AEdific., 4, 10.)—III. A city of Caria, lying south of the Maeander and west of Cibyra. In the time of Hierocles it was the capital of the country (p. 688). Stephanus informs us, that it was founded by the Pelasgi Leleges, and was successively called, city of the Leleges, Megalopolis, Ninoe, and Aphrodisias. In Strabo's time it appears to have belonged to Phrygia; Pliny, however, assigns it to Caria, and styles it a free city (5, 29.-Compare Tacit., Ann., 3, 62, and Brotier, ad loc.). The site of the ancient city at Geyra, about two hours from Antiochia on the Maeander, was discovered by Pococke. (Vol. 2, p. 2, c. 12.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 210.)—IV. A city and promontory of Cilicia Trachea, east of Celenderis. According to Livy, it was a place of some consequence in the reign of Antiochus the Great. (Liv., 33, 20–Compare Diod. Sic., 19, 61.) The ruins found by Capt. Beaufort, at the northeast corner of a bay west of Cape Carallere, appear to mark the site of the ancient city. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 329.)—W. Another name for the Isle of Erythea.— VI. An island sacred to Venus and Mercury, on the coast of Carmania. It is thought by some to have been identical with the Cataea of Arrian. (Plin., 6, 25.)—WII. An island on the coast of Cyrenaica, in the vicinity of Apollonia. (Herodot., 4, 168.) Aphrodisium, I. a city on the eastern parts of Cyprus, and in the narrowest part of the island, being only nine miles from Salamis. (Strabo, 682)—II. One of the three minor harbours into which the Piraeus was subdivided. It seems to have been the middle one of the three. (Cramer's Anc. Gr., vol. 2, p. 350.) Aphrodite, the Grecian name of Venus, from dopóc, “foam,” because Venus is said to have been born from the froth of the ocean. This is the account given by Hesiod (Theog., 196). Homer, however, as well as the Cretan system (Apollod., 1, 3, 1, and Heyne, ad loc.), made her the daughter of Dione. (Vid. Venus, where some remarks will be offered on the origin of the Greek name.) Aphropitopolis, I. a city of Egypt, the capital of the 36th nome, now Alfieh.-II. Another in the same country, the capital of the 42d nome, now Itfu.III. Another in the same country, belonging to the nome Hermonthites, now Ass-un. (Strab., 566.— Steph. Byz., s. v.) Aphthonius, a rhetorician of Antioch, who lived

in the third or fourth century of our era. We have children. She was repudiated by him. Vid. Sejanus.

from him a work entitled Progymnasmata, consisting of Rhetorical Exercises, †. the precepts of Hermogenes; and also forty fables. Aphthonius, according to Suidas, labours under the defect of having neglected to treat of the first elements of rhetoric, and of having nowhere attempted to form the style of those whom he wished to instruct. We find in his treatise nothing more than oratorical rules, and the application of these rules to different subjects. The Progymnasmata, having been long used in the schools, has gone through numerous editions, the best of which are that of Scobarius (Escobar), 1597, 8vo, with the fables added ; and that of D. Heinsius, Lugd. Bat, 1626, 8vo. The treatise has been translated into Latin with most-ability by Escobar, and the version has been also separately printed. Another Latin translation was also made by Rodolph Agricola. The version of Escobar was first published at Barcelona, 1611, in 8vo, and that of Agricola was given from the Elzevir press, at Amsterdam, 1642–1665, in 12mo, with notes by Lorichius. (Biog. Univ., vol. 2, p. 305, seqq.) A phyte, or Aphytis, a city of Thrace, in the peninsula of Pallene, on the Sinus Thermaicus. Here was a celebrated temple of Bacchus, to which Agesipolis, king of Sparta, who commanded the troops before Olynthus, desired to be removed shortly before his death, and near which he breathed his last. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 3, 19.) According to Plutarch, in his

life of Lysander, there was here an oracle of Jupiter'

Ammon; and it appears that Lysander, when besieging Aphytis, was warned by the god to desist from the attempt. Theophrastus (3, 20) speaks of the wine of Aphytis. (Cramer's Anc. Gr., vol. 1, p. 246.) APIA, an ancient name of Peloponnesus, which it is said to have received from King Apis. The origin of the name Apia ('Atin yī), as applied to the Peloponnesus, was a subject of controversy even among the ancient writers. (Compare Wassenberg, ad Paraphr., p. 42.) According to Heyne (ad Hom, Il., 1, 270), it does not appear to have been a geographical, but a poetical, appellation; and the meaning would seem to be merely, “a far distant land” ('Arim from d76), as used by the Greeks at Troy in speaking of their native land, far away over the waters. In this, however, he is successfully combated by Buttmann (Leril., § 24, s. v.), who shows that this is contrary to the express testimony of the geographers and grammarians, and even of Æschylus himself. Poetical names, particularly all the oldest ones, are purely and really most ancient names, which poetry has preserved to us. If any opinion may be formed on this subject, it would be, that there were two forms of the same name in use among the Greeks: one the appellative drin, derived from a Tó, and meaning merely “distant;" the other a geographical name, deduced from that of the mythic Apis. It is worthy of notice, that the appellative distin, in Homer, has the initial vowel short, whereas, in the geographical name, it is always long. (Compare Soph, OEd. Col., 1303–12sch., Suppl., 275, &c.) The former, then, of these will be a Homeric word, the latter a term found first in the Tragic writers, and based on an old legend alluded to by Æschylus in his Supplices (v. 275). Those grammarians, therefore, who explain 'Arim yaia (Il., 1,270; 3,49) as the old name of the Peloponnesus, are in error, for the two passages of the Odyssey (7,25–16, 18), where the term alone occurs, and where nothing is said of the Peloponnesus, plainly show, that ùrtoo is, as above stated, an old adjective, from iTó, like ivrior from ivri. There are many traces to prove, that in the words Apis and Apia

lie the original name of a most ancient W. who inhabited the European coasts of the Mediterranean. Wid, remarks under the article Opici. (Buttmann,

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(Tacit., Ann., 4, 3.) Apicius. There were three patricians of this name at Rome, in different eras, all noted for their gluttony, to which the second of the three added almost every other vice.—I. The first lived in the time of the dictator Sylla. According to Athenaeus (4, p. 168, d.), he was the cause of Rutilius Rufus being driven into exile. (Compare Casaubon, ad loc.— Ernesti, Clav. Cic. Ind. Hist., s. v. Rutulius.)—II. The second lived during the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. Athenaus (1, p. 7, a.) speaks of his having spent immense sums on the luxuries of the table, and also of various kinds of cake that were called after his name ("A Trikia). He passed most of his time, according to the same writer, at Minturnal, on account of the excellent shellfish found there. He even went on a voyage to Africa, having learned that the shellfish obtained along that coast were superior to all others; but when, as he approached the land, numerous fishermen came off to the vessel with what they declared to be their finest fish, perceiving these to be inferior to the Italian, he ordered the o to put about immediately and return home, without having so much as landed on the shores of Africa. Seneca (Ep., 95—De Wit. Beat., c. 11), Juvenal (4, 23), Martial (Ep., 2, 69, and 10, 63), as well as other ancient writers, frequently allude to his epicurism, of which he formed a kind of school. Falling, at length, into comparative poverty and merited contempt, he is reported to have put an end to his life by poison, through fear of ultimate starvation —III. The third lived under Trajan, and was in possession of a secret for preserving oysters; he sent some of them perfectly fresh to the Emperor Trajan as far as Parthia. (Athen., 1, p. 7, d.)—To which of these three we are to ascribe the work which has come down to us, on the culinary art (De Re Culinaria), is undetermined. Most assign it to the second of the name, M. Gavius Apicius, but without any satisfactory reason for so doing. It is more than probable that the work in question was written by none of the three. The compiler of this collection of receipts, wishing to give his labours an imposing name, would seem to have entitled his book as follows: “Apicius, sire de Re Culinaria, a Callio,” and not “Caelius Apicius, sire de Re Culinaria.” This Caelius, of course, is some unknown person. The work is divided into ten books, each of which has a Greek title that indicates, in a symbolical manner, the subjects treated of in that particular division. These are as follows: 'EToueo, the careful one.” SapkóTrng, the carrer.” Kntrouptká, “things appertaining to gardening.” IIavÖexrmp, “the all-recipient.” 'Qarptoo, “appertaining to pulse.” Asporteric, of flying things.” IIożarežňc, “the sumptuous.” Terpátovo, “the quadruped.” 642 agaa, “the sea.” "Aztec, “the fisherman.” Our modern gourmands would form no very high idea of the state of gastronomic science among the Romans from the perusal of this work. The style, moreover, is very incorrect, and replete with barbarisms. The best edition is that of Almeloveen, Amst., 1709, 12mo. We have also, among others, the edition of Bernhold, Ansbac., 1787 (1800), and that of Lister, 1705, Lond., 8vo. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 242.—Bahr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., 522– Funce. }. immin. L. L. senect., 10, 29, seqq.) A pipinus, one of the chief rivers of Thessaly, rising in Mount Othrys, and, after receiving the Enipeus near Pharsalus, falling into the Penéus a little to the west of Larissa. It is now the Salampria. (Plin., 4, 8–Strab., 297.) - - Arina, a city of Apulia, destroyed with Trica, in its neighbourhood, by Diomede on his arrival in this part of Italy, after the Trojan war. (Plin, 3, 11.) Freret supposes that the towns here mentioned wore. together with the tribes that occupied them (the * and Dardi), of Illyrian origin. (Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., 4c., vol. 18, p. 75.) Apion, I. a surname of Ptolemy, one of the descendants of Ptolemy Lagus. (Vid. Ptolemaeus, XIV.) --II. A grammarian and historical writer, born at Oasis Magna in Egypt, during the first century of the Christian era. He was surnamed Plistonices (IIZetarovíknc), from his frequent successes over his literary opponents, but called himself the Alexandrean, from his having passed a part of his life in the ancient capital of the Ptolemies. Apion subsequently travelled into Greece, and finally established himself at Rome, where he taught grammar, or philological science, during the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. He attained to great celebrity. Although unquestionably a man of learning and research, he was in many respects an arrogant boaster, and in others a mere pretender; and it was in allusion, no doubt, to his vanity and noisy assumption of merit, that the Emperor Tiberius gave him in derision the name of Cymbalum mundi. He is renowned for much trifling on the subject of Homer, in order to trace whose family and country he had recourse even to magic, asserting that he had successfully invoked the appearance of shades to satisfy his curiosity, whose answers he was not allowed to make public. (Plin., 30, 2–Compare Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att, 5, 14.) These pretensions, silly as they were, made him very popular in Greece, although something might be owing to his commentaries on the same great poet, which are mentioned by Eustathius and Hesychius. Pliny makes particular mention of the ostentatious character of this critic, who used to boast that he bestowed immortality on those to whom he dedicated his works; whereas it is only by the mention of others that these works are now known to have actually existed. One of the chief of them was, “On the Antiquity of the Jews,” to which people he opposed himself with the hereditary resentment of an Egyptian. The reply of Josephus, “Against Apion,” has survived the attack, the author of which attack showed his enmity to the Jewish people by other means besides, writing against them; for he was employed by his fellow-citizens of Alexandrea to head a deputation to the Emperor Caligula, complaining of the Jews who inhabited that city. Apion also wrote an account of the antiquities of Fo in which work he is supposed to have treated largely on the Pyramids, Pliny quoting him as the prin. cipal authority on the subject. After having ridiculed the rite of circumcision, he was compelled by a malady to submit to it, and, by a divine punishment, says Josephus, died soon after from the consequences of the operation. It is in allusion to Apion that Bayle observes, “how easily the generality of people may be deceived by a man of some learning, with a great share of vanity and impudence.” Extracts from Apion's commentary on Homer are given in the Etymologicum Gudianum, published by Sturz. (Joseph., contr. Ap. —Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 16, scqq.) Apis, I. one of the earliest kings of the Peloponnesus, son of Phoroneus and Laodice, and grandson of Inachus. He is said to have reigned in Argos, after the death of his father, about 1800 B.C. Others make him to have been the son of Apollo, and king of Sicyon. He chased the Telchines from the Peloponnesus, according to a third statement, governed tyrannically, and lost his life in consequence. From him some have derived the old name, supposed to have been given at one time to the Peloponnesus, namely “Apian land.” (Vid. Apia.) Apis, in fact, is one of those mythological personages, to whose earlier legend each succeeding age adds its quota of the marvellous, until the whole becomes one mass of hopeless absurdity. Hence we find Varro and St. Augustine gravely maintaining, that the Grecian monarch Apis led a colony into Egypt, gave laws and civilization to that country, was deified after death under the form of an ox, and was, of course,

identical with the Apis of Egyptian worship. (Pausan, 2, 5–Apollod, 2, 1–Augustin., Cir. D., 18, 5.) And yet there is reason to believe, that the name Apis is connected with that of a very early people, who dwelt along the European shores of the Mediterranean, and of whom the Italian Opici formed a part. (Vid. Apia.)—II. The same with Epaphus, the fabled son of Jupiter and Io. Such at least is the statement of Herodotus, 6 & 'Arto Rara Tov "EZ2 is vov yżoacáv čar 'Estadoc (2, 153). Wesseling is inclined to regard the passage as spurious, but consult AElian (Hist. An., 11, 10), where the same thing is stated. Jablonski makes Epaphus mean “giant” §. AEgypt., p. 65). Zoega, on the other hand, gives it the force of “bos pater” (Num. Ægypt., p. 81), and De Rossi, that of “taurus pracipuus.” (Etymol. AEgypt., p. 15.) It is more than probable, however, that the name Epaphus was confounded by the Greeks with Apophis, one of the Egyptian appellations for Typhon, the evil genius, and hence may have arisen the legend which made the Grecian Apis a cruel tyrant. (Vid. Epaphus.)—III. A sacred bull, worshipped by the Egyptians. Its abode was at Memphis, near the temple of Phtha, or Vulcan, and it was in this city that peculiar honours were rendered it, an account of which is given by Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, Diodorus Siculus, Plutarch, and other ancient writers. The Apis was distinguished from other animals of the same kind ..by the following characteristics. He was supposed to be generated, not in the ordinary course of nature, but by a flashing from on high (atzac {x Toi oiparot.— Herod., 3, 27), or, according to others, by the contact of the moon (; Taoj Tic as Affymc.—Plut., Sympos., 8, p. 718). As, however, this evidence of his divinity was rather dubious, several external marks were superadded, to satisfy his votaries of his claims to adoration. His colour was black, in order that the distinctive marks might the more clearly appear: these were a square white spot on the forehead, the figure of an eagle on the back, a white crescent on the right side, the mark of a beetle on the tongue, and double hair on the tail. (Herod., 3, 28–Strab., 806.-Plin., 8, 46.-Creuzer, Comment. Herod., p. 132, seqq.) The marks in question, which thus stamped his claims to divinity, were of course the contrivance of the priests, though of this the people were kept profoundly ignorant. This animal was regarded with the highest veneration, and more than regal honours were rendered him. He was waited upon, also, by numerous attendants, a particular priesthood were set apart for him, stalls were provided, furnished with every convenience, and his food was presented to him in vessels of gold. He was frequently displayed to the view of the people, while strangers could also behold him in a species of enclosed court, or through a kind of window. (Strab., l. c.) He also gave oracles, and the mode of giving them was as follows. The priests, having led him forth from his abode, caused food to be offered him by the person who had come for a response. If he received what was thus offered, it was a favourable omen; if otherwise, an unfavourable one. So also, after the food had been offered him, he was allowed to go into one or the other of two stalls, according as he might feel inclined. His going into one of these was looked upon as a good omen, into the other the reverse. Germanicus, when in Egypt, consulted in this way the sacred Apis ; and as the animal refused the food which was offered him by the Roman prince, this circumstance was regarded as an omen of evil, that was subsequently verified by the death of the latter. (Plin., 8, 46. |-Amm. Marcell., 22, 14.) The annual festival of Apis was celebrated with the utmost splendour. It always began with the rising of the Nile, and presented, for seven successive days, a scene of uninterrupted rejoicing and festivity. The Greeks called this cele

bration. Theophania, because during its continuance the god Apis was displayed to the view of the people arrayed in festal attire, his head surmounted with a kind of tiara, and his body adorned with embroidered coverings, while a troop of boys accompanied him singing hymns in his praise. These boys, becoming on a sudden inspired, predicted future events. During the continuance of this festival, the crocodiles in the Nile were harmless, but regained their ferocity at its close ! (Plin., l.c.) Sacrifices were seldom offered unto Apis ; when this, however, was done, red cattle were always selected, red being the colour of Typhon, the enemy of Osiris. So also, when Apis died, a red steer, and two or three other animals that were deemed sacred to Typhon, were buried along with him, in order to thwart the joy which the evil spirits would otherwise have felt at the death of the sacred Apis. When Apis died a natural death, the whole of Egypt was plunged in mourning, from the king to the peasant; and this mourning continued until a new Apis was found. The deceased animal was embalmed in the most costly manner, and the priests after this traversed the whole land in quest of his successor. When a calf was found with the requisite marks, all sorrow instantly ceased, and the most unbounded joy prevailed. Herodotus alludes to one of these scenes in his account of the Persian Cambyses (3, 27). When that monarch returned to Memphis, from his unsuccessful expedition against the AEthiopians, he found the Egyptians giving loose to their joy on account of the reappearance of Apis. Irritated at this, and fancying that they were rejoicing at his ill success, he ordered the sacred animal to be brought before him, wounded it in the thigh with his dagger (of which wound it afterward died), caused the priests to be scourged, and commanded the proper of. ficers to kill all the Egyptians they should find making public demonstrations of joy.—Whenever a new Apis was obtained, the priests conducted him first to Nilopolis, where they fed him forty days. He was then transported in a magnificent vessel to Memphis. During the forty days spent at Nilopolis, women only were allowed to see him ; but after this the sight of the god was forbidden them. (Diod. Suc., 1, 85.)—It is worthy of remark, that although so much joy prevailed on the finding of a new Apis, and so much sorrow when he died a natural death, yet, whenever one of these animals reached the age of 25 years, the period prescribed by the sacred books, the priests drowned him as a matter of course, in a sacred fountain, and there was no mourning whatever for his loss.-According to an Egyptian legend, the soul of Osiris passed on his death into the body of Apis, and as often as the sacred animal died, it passed into the body of its successor. So that, according to this dogma, Apis was the perfect image of the soul of Osiris. (Plut., de Is. et Os., p. 472, ed. Wyttenb.) It is very easy, however, to see in the worship of the sacred Apis the connexion of Egyptian mythology with astronomy and the great movements of nature. The Egyptians believed that the moon, making her total revolution in 309 lunations, and in 91.25 days, returned consequently, at the end of 25 years, to the same point of Sothis or Sirius. Hence the life of Apis was limited to 25 years, and hence the cycle known as the period of Apis, with reference, no doubt, to the passage of the moon into the celestial bull, which it would have to traverse in order to arrive at Sothis In worshipping Apis, therefore, the Egyptian priesthood worshipped, in fact, the great fertilizing principle in nature, and hence we see why females alone were allowed to view the Apis at Nilopolis, that the sight of the sacred animal might bless them with a numerous progeny. (Compare Guigni. aut, 1, 905. – Vollmer, Wortcrb der Mythol., p. 279)

A pitius GALBA, a celebrated buffoon in the time of Tiberius. (Schol, ad Jup, 5, 4.—Compare Spalding, ad Quintil, 6, 3, 27–Wernsdorf, in Poet. Lit. Min., vol. 6, p. 418, seq.)

Apollin Ares LUDI. Wid. Lupi Apollixir Es. Apollin ARIs, I. Sidonius, a Christian poet. Wid. SidoNius.-II. Sulpitius, a grammarian. Wid. SulPitius. ApollíNis ProMontorium, was situate on the coast of Africa, east of Utica, and north of Carthage. It is now Ras-Zebid. (Plin., 5, 4.—Mela, 1, 7– Liv., 30, 24.) Apollinopólis MAGNA, the capital of the 52d Egyptian nome, in the southern part of Upper Egypt, about twenty-five miles nearly north of the great cataracts. It is now Edfou. (Ptol.—Steph. Byz., s. v. —Anton. Itin.—AElian, Hist. An., 10, 21.) There are two temples at Edfou, in a state of great preservation. One of them consists of high pyramidal propyla, a pronaos, portico, and sekos, the form most generally used in Egypt; the other is peripteral, and is, at the same time, distinguished by having on its several columns the appalling figure of Typhon, the emblem of the Evil Principle. The pyramidal propylon, which forms the principal entrance to the greater temple, is one of the most imposing monuments extant of Egyptian architecture. (Russell's Egypt, p. 201.) Apollinopólis Parva, a city of Egypt in the Nome of Coptos, northwest of Thebes. It was a celebrated place of trade, and lay on the commercial road by which the products of the east were conveyed to Alexandrea. It is now Kous, and displays the ruins of a temple. (Ptol.—Steph. By2.-Strabo, 561.) Apollo, the son of Jupiter and Latona. In Homer he is the god of archery, prophecy, and music. His arrows were not merely directed against the enemies of the gods, such as Otus and Ephialtes (Hom., Od., 11, 318): all sudden deaths of men were ascribed to his darts; sometimes as a reward (rid. Againedes), at other times as a punishment (rid. Niobe). He was, by his shafts, the god of pestilence, and he removed it when duly propitiated. At the banquets of the gods on Olympus, Apollo played on his lyre (96puty :), while the Muses sang. (Hom , Il., 1,601.) Eminent bards, as Demodocus, were held to have derived their skill from the teaching of Apollo or the Muses. (Od., 8, 488.) Prophets in like manner were taught by him. At Delphi he himself revealed the future. (Od., 8, 80.) According to the Homeric hymn to the Delian Apollo, the birth of the god took place in this manner: Latona, persecuted by Juno, besought all the islands of the AEgean Sea to afford her a place of rest; but all feared too much the potent queen of heaven to assist her rival. Delos alone consented to become the birthplace of the future god, provided Latona would pledge herself that he would not contemn her humble isle, and would erect there the temple vowed by his mother. Latona assented with the oath most binding on the gods, namely, by the Styx, and the friendly isle received her. (H. in Apoll., 83.) All the goddesses save Juno and Lucina (whom the art of Juno kept in ignorance of this great event) were assembled in the floating isle to attend the delivery of Latona, whose labour continued for nine days and nights. Moved with compassion for her sufferings, they despatched Iris to Olympus, who brought Lucina secretly to Delos. Here then Apollo sprang to light, Earth smiled around, and all the goddesses shouted aloud to celebrate his birth. They washed and swathed the infant deity, and Themis gave him nectar and ambrosia. As soon as he had tasted the divine food, his bands and swaddling-clothes no longer retained him : he sprang up, and called to the goddesses to give him a lyre and a bow, adding that he would thenceforth declare to men the will of Jove. He then, to the amazement of the assembled goddesses, walked firmly on the ground; and Delos, exulting with joy, became covered with golden flowers. A somewhat different account of the birth of Apollo is given by Callimachus. (Homn in Apoll.)—in the Homeric hymn to Aro,” inallner of his first getting possession of Delphi (IIv%) is thus related: When Apollo resolved to choose the site of his first temple, he came down from Olympus into Pieria; he sought throughout all Thessaly; thence went to Euboea, Atuca, and Boeotia; but could find no lace to his intnd. The situation of Tilphussa, near ake Copais, in Boeotia, pleased him; and he was about to lay the foundations of his temple there, when the nymph of the stream, afraid of having her own fame eclipsed by the vicinity of the oracle of Apollo, dissuaded him, by representing how much his oracle would be disturbed by the noise of the horses and mules coming to water at her stream. She recommends to him Crissa, beneath Mount Parnassus, as a quiet, sequestered spot, where no unseemly sounds would disturb the holy silence demanded by an oracle. Arrived at Crissa, the solitude and sublimity of the scene charm the god. He forthwith sets about erecting a temple, which the hands of numerous workmen speedily raise, under the direction of the brothers Trophonius and Agamedes. Meanwhile Apollo slays with his arrows the monstrous serpent which abode there and destroyed the people and cattle of the vicinity. As it lay expiring, the exulting victor cried, “Now rot (Tübev) there on the man-feeding earth;” and hence the place and oracle received the appellation of Pytho. The sane was now erected, but priests were wanting. The god, as he stood on the lofty area of the temple, cast his eyes over the sea, and beheld far south of Peloponnesus a Cretan ship sailing for Pylos. He plunged into the sea, and, in the form of a dolphin, sprang on board the ship. The crew sat in terror and amazement; a south wind carried the vessel rapidly along; in vain they sought to land at Taenarus; the ship would not obey the helm. When they came to the bay of Crissa, a west wind sprang up and speedily brought the vessel into port; and the god, in the form of a blazing star, left the boat, and descended into his temple. Then, quick as thought, he came as a handsome youth, with long locks waving on his shoulders, and accosted the strangers, inquiring who they were and whence they came. To their question in return, of what that place was to which they were come, he replies by informing them who he is and what his purpose was in bringing hem thither. He invites them to land, and says that, as he had met them in the form of a dolphin (68%iv), they should worship him as Apollo Delphinius; and hence, according to the fanciful etymology of the earlier poetry, Delphi in Phocis derived its name. They now disembark: the god, playing on his lyre, precedes them, and leads them to his temple, where they become his priests and ministers.--A god so beautiful and ac. complished as Apollo could not well be supposed to be free from the influence of the gentler emotions; yet it is observable that he was not remarkably happy in his love, either meeting with a repulse, or having his amour attended with a fatal termination. (Vid. Daphne, Coronis, &c.). After the death of AEsculapius his son, who sell by the thunderbolt of Jove for having extended his skill in the healing art so far as to bring even the dead to life, Apollo, incensed at the sate of his offspring, slew the Cyclopes, the forgers of the thunderbolts, and was for this deed exiled from heaven. Coming down to earth, he took service as a herdsman with Admetus, king of Pherae in Thessaly, and pastured his herds on the banks of the Amphrysus. The kindnesses bestowed by him on Admetus have been mentioned elsewhere. (Wid. Admetus, and Alcestis). —Apollo, it is said, was taught divination by Pan. For his lyre he was indebted to the invention of his half-brother Mercury, and the triumph of this instrument over the tones of the reed is recorded in the legend of Marsyas. (Wid. Marsyas.) The Homeric Apollo is a personage totally distinct from Helius ("H2toc) or the Sun, though, in all likelihood, originally the same.

were introduced into Greece, these deities were united, or, perhaps we might say, reunited. Apollo, at the same period, also usurped the place of Paeon, and became the god of the healing art.—This god was a fa

vourite object of Grecian worship, and his temples were numerous. Of these the most celebrated were, that of Delphi in Phocis, of Delos, of Patara in Lycia, Claros in Ionia, Grynium in A. olis, and Didymi at Miletus; in all of which his oracles gave revelations of the future.—The favourite animals of Apollo were the hawk, the swan, the cicada, &c. His tree was the bay. He himself was represented in the perfection of united manly strength and beauty. His long curling hair hangs loose, and is bound behind with the strophium ; his brows are wreathed with bay; in his hands he bears his bow or lyre. The wonderful Apollo Belvidere shows at the same time the conception which the ancients had of this benign deity, and the high degree of perfection to which they had attained in sculpture.—Few deities had more appellations than the son of Latona. He was called Delian, Delphian, Pataraean, Clarian, &c., from the places of his worship. He was also styled: 1. The Lorian god, from the ambiguity of many of his predictions; 2. Herding, as keeping the flocks and herds of Admetus; 3. Silver-bowed; 4. Far-shooter; 5. Light-producer; 6. Well-haired; 7. Gold-haired; 8. Gold-sworded, &c. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 87, seqq.)—Proclus assures us, that the Orphic doctrine recognised the identity of Apollo and the Sun. (Orph., Hymn., 8–ld., 12–Id., 34.— Fragm., 28, ed. Herm.—AEschyl, in Eratosth. Catast., p. 19, ed. Schaub.) The Oriental origin of the god is clearly shown even in his very name, for which the Greeks so often and so vainly sought an etymology in their own language. The Cretan form for Helios ("HZuo,) was Abelws ('A6éžtoc), i.e., 'AéZuoc, with the digamma inserted. (Maitt., Dial., p. 185, cd. Sturz. —Compare the Doric 'Arezzov for "ATóż żov, Maitt, p. 206, and the form Apellinem for Apollinem, cited by Festus.) We have here the Asiatic root, Bel or Hel, an appellation for the sun in the Semitic languages. (Creuzer’s Symbolik, par Gungnaut, vol. 2, p. 131. —Compare Selden, de D. S., 2, 1, p. 144.—Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. 1, p. 167.)—A very striking analogy exists between the Apollo of the Greeks and the Crishna of the Hindus. Both are inventors of the flute. (Compare Asiatic Researches, vol. 8, p. 65.) Crishna is deceived by the nymph Tulasi, as Apollo is by Daphne, and the two maidens are each changed into trees, of which the tulasi is sacred to Crishna, as the bay-tree is to Apollo. The victory of Crishna over the serpent Caliya-naga, on the borders of the Yamuna, recalls to mind that of Apollo over the serpent Python: and it is worthy of remark, that the vanquished reptiles respectively participate in the homage that is rendered to the victors. Nor does the legend of Apollo betray a resemblance merely with the fables of India. A very strong affinity exists, in this respect, between the religious systems also of Egypt and Greece. We find the same animal, the wolf, which, by its oblique course, typified the path of the star of day, consecrated to the sun, both at Lycopolis and Delphi. This emblem transports into the Greek traditions the fables relative to the combats of Osiris. The Egyptian deity comes to the aid of his son Horus, under the figure of a wolf, and Latona disguises herself under the form of this same animal, when she quits the Hyperborean regions to take refuge in Delos

(Compare Pausamas, 2, 10–Diod. Suc., 1, 88.— Synes. de Provid., 1, 116–Euseh, Prap. Ep., 1, 50. —Aristot., Hist. An., 6, 35–AElian, Hist. An, 4, 4.) In the festival of the Daphnephoria, which the Thebans celebrated every ninth year in honour of Apollo, it is impossible to avoid seeing an astronomical character. It took its name from the bay

When mysteries and secret doctrines |tree, which the fairest youths of the city carried round

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