Obrazy na stronie

phebolion; and, 3. The Anthesteria or Lenaea, in the month Anthesterion. These last were celebrated within a large enclosure called Lenaeum, and in a quarter of the city termed Limnae, or “the pools.” Meursius had before distinguished the Lenaea from the Anthesteria (Grac. Per., vol. 3, Op. col., 917 and 918.) Böckh also regards the Lenaea as a distinct festival from the Anthesteria. (Vom Unterscheide der Altischen Lenacen, &c., Jahrg., 1816, 1817, p. 47, seqq.) Both the latter opinions, however, are incorrect. (Compare Creuzer, Symbolik, vol 3, p. 319, seqq.) ANtheus, I. a son of Antenor.—II. One of the companions of Æneas. (Virg., AEn , 1, 514.)—III. A statuary mentioned by Pliny (34, 8) as having flour"ished in Olymp. 155, and as approved among the artists of his own time. In some editions of Pliny the name is written Antaeus. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) ANthium, a town of Thrace, afterward called Apollonia. The name was subsequently changed to Sozopolis, and is now pronounced Sizeboli. (Plin., 4, 11.) ANthóres, a companion of Hercules, who followed Evander, and settled in Italy. He was killed in the war of Turnus against AEneas. (Virg, Æn., 10, 778.) ANthropoph KGI, a people of Scythia that scd on human flesh. Herodotus (4, 106) calls them the Androphagi, and states that they lived in a more savage manner than any other nation, having no public distribution of Justice nor established laws. He informs us also that they applied themselves to the breeding of cattle, clothed themselves like the Scythians, and spoke a peculiar language. Rennell thinks that they must have occupied Polish Russia, and both banks of the river Prypetz, the western head of the Borysthenes. (Rennell, Geogr. of Herod., p. 86, 4to ed.) ANthvi.1, A, a city of Egypt about west from the Canopic branch of the Nile, and northwest from Naucratis. It is supposed by Larcher to have been the same with Gynaecopolis. (Compare Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, p. 596) According to Herodotus, it furnished sandals to the wife of the Persian satrap, who was vicero, for the time being, over Egypt. This was in imitation of the royal custom at home, in the case of the queens of Persia. (Herod, 2, 98.-Consult Bahr, ad loc.) Athenaeus says it supplied girdles (1, p. 33. —Compare Bühr, ad Ctes., p. 209 ) Asti, Lex, was made for the suppression of luxury at Rome. Its particulars are not known, but it could not be enforced. The enactor was Antius Resto, who afterward never supped abroad for fear of being himself a witness of the profusion and extravagance which his law meant to destroy, but without effect. (Macrol., 3, 17.) ANr. As a name given to the goddess Fortune, from her splendid temple at Antium, where she was particularly worshipped. (Wid. Antium.) Axticles, a daughter of Autolycus and Amphithea. She was the mother of Ulysses, but not, it is said, by Laertes. This individual was only the reputed father of the chieftain of Ithaca, and the actual paternity belonged to Sisyphus. It is said that Anticlea killed herself when she heard a false report of her son's death. (Homer, Od, 11, 19.-Hygin, fab., 201,243. —Pausan. 10, 29.) ANticlines, a Greek historian, a native of Athens, whose works are lost. (Consult Athenaeus, ed. Schw. –Ind. Auct., s. v., vol. 9) ANtice Agus, a detached chain of the ridge of Mount Cragus in Lycia, running in a northeast direction along the coast of the Sinus Glaucus. It is now called Soumbourlou. Captain Beaufort estimates the height at not less than 6000 feet. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 245.) Antice Atos, a Spartan, who, according to Plutarch, stabbed Epaminondas, the Theban general, at the battle of Mantinea. Great honours and rewards were decreed to him by the Spartans, and an exemption

from taxes to his posterity. (Plut., Wit. Ages., c. 35.] There were, however, other claimants for this honour. The Mantinaeans asserted that one of their citizens, by name Machaerion, gave the fatal blow. The Athenians, on the other hand, make Epaminondas to have fallen by the hand of Gryllus, son of Xenophon. (Compare Pausan., 8, 11.—Id., 9, 15; and Wesseling, ad Diod. Sic, 15, 87.) ANticy R.A., I, a town of Thessaly, at the mouth of the Sperchius. (Herodot, 7, 198–Strabo, 428.) It was said to produce the genuine hellebore, so much recommended by ancient physicians as a cure for insanity. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Avrikupa.)—II. A town of Phocis, on the isthmus of a small peninsula in the Sinus Corinthiacus. It was celebrated, in coinmon with the one already mentioned, for its hellebore (Scylar, p. 14. Theophr., 9, 10.-Strabo, 418.) Pausanias affirms (10, 36) that the inhabitants of Anticyra were driven from their town by Philip, the son of Amyntas, on the termination of the Sacred War. At a later period it was besieged and taken by Laevinus, the Roman praetor, who delivered it up to the 42tolians. (Liv., 26, 26.) And subsequently, in the Macedonian war, it was occupied by Titus Q. Flamininus, on account of the facilities which its harbour presented for the operations of the Roman fleet in the Corinthian Gulf. (Liv., 32, 18.-Pausan, 10, 36– Polyb., 18, 28–1d., 27, 14.) The site of Anticyra corresponds, as is generally believed, with that of Aspropiti, in a bay of some extent, parallel to that of Salona. “Here is a good port,” says Sir W. Gell (1tin, p. 174), “and some remains of antiquity.” Chandler remarks, that “the site is now called Asprospitia, or the white houses ; and some traces of the buildings, from which it was so named, remain. The port is land-locked, and frequented by vessels for corn.” (Trarels, vol. 2, p. 301.)—The ancients had a proverb, Nariget Anticyram, applied to a person that was regarded as insane, and alluding to the hellebore produced at either Anticyra. (Compare Erasmus, Chil., 1, cent. 8, 52–Nariget Anticyras, IIZetastev cic 'Avrtkopac.) Horace has been supposed by some to allude to three places of this name, but this is a mistake; the poet merely speaks of a head so insane as not to be cured by the produce of three Anticyras, if there even were three, and not merely two. (Ep., ad Pis., 300.) ANtipörus, a Greek painter, a pupil of Euphranor. He flourished about 364 B.C. His colouring was sewere, and his productions were remarkable for their careful execution rather than their number. His principal pieces were a Wrestler and a Flute-player. He was the instructer of Nicias of Athens. (Plin., H. N. 35, 11-Boor. Univ., vol. 2, p. 249.) Antig ENFs, one of Alexander's generals, publicly rewarded for his valour. (Quint. Curt., 5, 14.) ANTIGENiDAs, a famous musician of Thebes, disciple to Philoxenus. He introduced certain innovations in the construction of the flute, and in the art of playing upon it. (Cir., Brut., 97.) ANTIGONE, a daughter of GEdipus, king of Thebes, by his mother Jocasta. After the death of CEdipus and his sons Eteocles and Polynices, Antigone repaired to Thebes, in order to effect the sepulture of her brother Polynices. Creon, monarch of Thebes, her maternal uncle, had forbidden the interment of the young prince under the penalty of death, on account of the war which the latter had waged against his own country. Antigone, however, disregarding all personal considerations, succeeded in sprinkling dust three times on her brother's remains, which was equivalent to sepulture, but was sebsequently seized by the guards who had been placed to watch the corpse and prevent its interment. For this she was immured alive in a tomb, where she hung herself. Harmon, the son of Creon, to whom she had * effected an entrance and killed himself by her corpse, and his mother Eurydice likewise put an end to her existence. This sad story forms the basis of one of the tragedies of Sophocles. (Vid. Sophocles.) ANTigox{A, I a city of Epirus, southwest of Apollonia. (Plin., 4, 1.)—II. One of Macedonia, in the district of Mygdonia, sounded by Antigonus, son of Gonatas. (ld, 4, 10.)—III. One in Syria, on the borders of the Orontes, built by Antigonus, and intended as the residence of the governors of Egypt and Syria, but destroyed by him when Seleucia was built, and the inhabitants removed to the latter city.— IV. Another in Asia Minor. (Vid. Alexandrea, IX.) ANTIGöNus, I. a general of Alexander's, and one of those who played the nost important part aster the death of that monarch. In the division of the provinces after the king's death, he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia. Two years aster the decease of Alexander, he united with Antipater and Ptolemy against Perdiccas, who aimed at the supremacy. Perdiccas having died this same year (B.C. 322), and Antipater being placed at the head of the government, Antigonus was named commander of all the forces of the empire, and marched against Eumenes. After various conflicts, during a war of three years, he succeeded in getting Eumenes into his power by treachery, and starved him to death. Become now all powerful by the death of this formidable rival, he ruled as king, but without assuming the title, over all Asia Minor and Syria; but his conduct eventually excited against him a formidable league, in which Seleucus, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander arrayed themselves against Antigonus, and the celebrated Demetrius, his son. After varied success, the confederates made a treaty with him, and surrendered to him the possession of the whole of Asia, upon condition that the Grecian cities should remain free. This treaty was soon broken, and Ptolemy made a descent into Lesser Asia and on some of the Greek isles, which was at first successful, but he was defeated in a seafight by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, who took the island of Cyprus, made 16,000 prisoners, and sunk 200 of his ships. After this famous naval battle, which happened 26 years after Alexander's death, Antigonus and his son assumed the title of kings, and their example was sollowed by all the rest of Alexander's generals. From this period, B.C. 306, his own reign in Asia, that of Ptolemy in Egypt, and those of the other captains of Alexander in their respective territories, properly commence. Antigonus now formed the design of driving Ptolemy from Egypt, but failed. His power soon be: came so formidable that a new confederacy was formed against him by Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Piolemy. The contending parties met in the plain of Ipsus in Phrygia, B.C. 3:1. Antigonus was defeated, and died of his wounds; and his son Demetrius fled from the field. Antigonus was 84 years old when he died. (Vid. Demetrius. – Pausan., 1, 6, &c.— Justin, 13, 14, et 15 —C. Nep., Vnt. Eumen.—Pluto, Wit. Demetr.—Eumen. et Arat.)—II. Gonatas, so called from Gonni in Thessaly, the place of his birth, was the son of Demetrius, and grandson of Antigonus. He made himself master of Macedonia B.C. 277, and assumed the title of king. In the course of his reign, he destated, with great slaughter, the Gauls, who had made an irruption into his kingdom. Having refused succours to Pyrrhus of Epirus, he was driven from his throne by that warlike monarch. He afterward recovered a great part of Macedonia, and followed Pyrrhus to the neighbourhood of Argos. . In a conflict that ensued there, Pyrrhus was slain. After the death of Pyrrhus, he recovered the remainder of Macedonia, and died aster a reign of 34 years, leaving his son, Demetrius the Second, to succeed, B.C. 243. (Justin, el et 25.)—III. The guardian of his nephew, Philip, the son of Demetrius, who married the widow of De

metrius, and usurped the kingdom. He was called Doxon (dodov. “about to give," i. e., always promising), from his pronising inuch and giving nothing. He conquered Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and obliged him to retire into Egypt, because he favoured the AEtolians against the Greeks. He died B.C. 222, after a reign of 11 years, leaving his crown to the lawful possessor, Philip, who became conspicuous by his cruelties and the war he made against the Romans. (Justin, 28 et 29.-Plut., Wit. Cleum )—l V. Son of Echecrates, and nephew of Philip, the father of Perseus. He was the only one of the Macedonian nobles who remained faithful when Perseus conspired against his parents; and to him, moreover, Philip owed the discovery of the plot. Charmed with his virtuous and upright character, the monarch intended to inake him his successor, but the death of Philip prevented this being done. Perseus succeeded his father, and, a few days after, put Antigonus to death, B C. 179. (Lir, 40, 54, &c.)—V. Son of Aristobulus II, king of Judae, was conducted to Rome along with his father, after the capture of Jerusalem by Poinpey. When Caesar became dictator, Antigonus endeavoured, but in vain, to get himself re-established in his hereditary dominions, and at last was conpelled to apply to Pacorus, king of the Parthians. Pacorus, on the promise of 1000 talents, marched into Judaea at the head of a large army, and replaced Antigonus on the throne; but Marc Antony, at the solicitation of Herod, sent Gabinius against him, who took Jerusalem, and put Antigonus to an ignominious death. He reigned 3 years and 3 months. (Justin, 20, 29, &c.)—VI. Carystius, an historian in the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who wrote the lives of some of the ancient philosophers: also a heroic poein, entitled “Antipater,” mentioned by Athenæus ; and other works. The only remains we have of them are his “Collections of wonderful Stories” concerning animals and other natural bodies. This work was first published at Basle, 1568, and was afterward reprinted at Leyden by Meursius, 1619, in 4to. It forms a part also of the volume entitled Historiarum Mirabilium Auctores Graeci, printed at Leyden in 1622, in 4to. ANtilib ANus, a ridge of mountains in Syria, east of, and running parallel with, the ridge of Libanus. (Vul. Libanus. – Plan., 5, 20.) ANti Lochus, I. the eldest son of Nestor by Eurydice. He went to the Trojan war with his father, and was killed by Memnon, the son of Aurora, according to Homer (Od, 4, 187), who is followed by Pindar (Pyth., 6, 28), and by Hyginus (fab., 113). Ovid, on the contrary, makes him to have been slain by Hector (Her., l, 15). We must therefore alter the text of the latter, and for Antilochum read either Anchualum with Muncker (from Hom., Il. 18, 185), or Amphimachum with Scoppa (from Dares Phrygius, c. 20).-II. A poet, who wrote some verses in praise of Lysander, and received a cap full of silver in return. (Plus., Vit. Lysandr., c. 18.) ANti Māchus, I. a poet of Colophon, and pupil of Panyasis. He was the contemporary of Chaerilus, and flourished between 460 and 431 B.C. With Antimachus would have commenced a new era in the history of epic verse, if that department of poetry had been capable of resuming its former lustre. In common with Choerilus, he perceived that the period of the Homeric epic had irrevocably passed; but in place of substituting the historic epic, as the former did, he returned to mythological subjects; merely treating them, however, in a manner more in accordance with the taste of the day. The success which he obtained, and the admiration which was subsequently testified for his productions by the Alexandrean school, prove that he was not mistaken in the judgment he had formed of the spirit of the age, and that he augured well respecting the opinion of posterity. The Alexandrean critics (according to Quintilian, 10, 1) cited his Thebais as a work worthy of being compared with the poems of Homer, and of terminating the list of epic poems of the first class. They extolled the grandeur of his ideas and the energy of his style, but they consessed, at the same time, that he was deficient in elegance and grace. Antimachus was also the author of an elegy entitled Lyde, which the ancients regarded as a chef-d'oeuvre. It is now entirely lost. The Anthology has preserved for us one of his epigrams The fragments of Antimachus have been collected and published by Schellenberg, under the title “Antimachi Colophonii fragmenta, nunc primum conquisita,” &c., Hala, 1786, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 1, p. 245, and 2, p. 126.)—II. A Trojan, whom Paris bribed to oppose the restoring of Helen to Menelaus and Ulysses, who had come as ambassadors to recover her. He recommended to put them to death. His sons, Hippolochus and Pisander, were killed by Agamemnon. (Il., 11, 122, seqq.) ANTINoeia, annual sacrifices and quinquennial games in honour of Antinous, instituted by the Emperor Hadrian at Mantinea, where Antinous was worshipped as a divinity. They were celebrated also at Argos. (Potter, Gr. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 424.) ANtinoopólis or ANTINoe, a town of Fqypt, built in honour of Antinous, opposite Hermopolis Magna, on the eastern bank of the Nile. It was previously an obscure place called Besa, but became a magnificent city. (Vid. Antinous.) It is now called Ensené, and a revered sepulchre has also caused it to receive the name of Shek-Abadé. (Ammian. Marcellin., 19, 12–Dio Cass., 69, 11.-Spartian., Vit Hadr., 14. —Description de l'Egypte, vol. 4, p. 197, seqq.) ANT1 Nous, I. a youth of Bithynia, of whom the Emperor Hadrian was so extremely fond, that at his death he erected temples to him, established a priesthood for the new divinity, built a city in honour of him (rid. Antinoopolis), and caused a constellation in the heavens to be called by his name. According to one account, Antinous was drowned in the Nile, while another and more correct statement gives the occasion of his death as follows: Hadrian, consulting an oracle at Besa, was informed that he was threatened with great danger, unless a person that was dear to him was immolated for his preservation. Upon hearing this, Antinous threw himself from a rock into the Nile, as an offering for the safety of the emperor, who built Antinoopolis on the spot. Nor was this all. The artists of the empire were ordered to immortalize by their skill the grief of the monarch and the memory of his favourite. Painters and statuaries vied with each other, and some of the master-pieces of the latter have descended to our own times. The absurd and disgusting conduct of Hadrian needs no comment. —II. A native of Ithaca, son of Eupeithes, and one of Penelope's suiters. He was brutal and cruel in his manners, and was the first of the suiters that was slain by Ulysses on his return. (Od. 22, 8, &c.) A Noriochia, I. a city of Syria, once the third city of the world for beauty, greatness, and population. It was built by Scleucus Nicator, in memory of his father Antiochus, on the river Orontes, about 20 miles from its mouth, and was equidistant from Constantinople and Alexandrea, being about 700 miles from each. Here the disciples of our Saviour were first called Christians, and the chief patriarch of Asia resided. It was afterward known by the name of Tetrapolis, being divided, as it were, into four cities, each having its separate wall, besides a common one enclosing all. The first was built by Seleucus Nicator, the second by those who repaired thither on its being made the capital of the Syro-Macedonian empire, the third by Scleucus Callinicus, and the fourth by Antiochus Epiphanes. (Strabo, 750–Compare Mannert, vol. 6, part 1, p. 468, seqq.) It is now called

Antakia, and has suffered severely by a late earthquake. At the distance of four or five miles below was a celebrated grove, called Daphne; whence, for the sake of distinction, it has been called Antiochia near Daphne, or Antiochia Epidaphnes ('Avrtóxeta # Tpúc Adovnv. Hierocl. Synecdem , p. 711–Plin., 5, 21–Antiochia Epidaphnes, vid. Daphne.)—II. A city of Lycaonia, near the northern confines of Pisidia, sometimes called Antiochia of Pisidia ('Avrtółela IItaióiac). According to Strabo, it was founded by a colony from Magnesia on the Maeander. This probably took place under the auspices of Antiochus, from whom the place derived its name. It became, under the Romans, the chief city of their province of Pisidia, which extended farther to the north than Pisidia proper. (Hierocles, p. 672.)—III. A city of Cilicia Trachea, situate on a rocky projection of the coast termed Cragus, whence the place, for distinction' sake, was called 'Avrtóreta Śri Kpayo. (Strabo, 669.) The Byzantine writers call it the Isaurian Antiochra. Hierocles makes mention of it (Synecdem, p. 708), as also the writers on the Crusades, under the name of Antioceta. (Sanuti, secreta fideloum, l. 2, p. 4, c. 26. —Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 84.)—IV. A city at the foot of Mount Taurus, in Comagene, a province of Syria. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 497.)—V. A city of Caria, on the river Maeander, where that stream was joined by the Orsinus or Massinus. (Plin., 5, 29.) Steph. Byz. states, that it was founded by Antiochus, son of Seleucus, in honour of his mother. It had been previously called Pythopolis. . The environs abounded in fruit of every kind, but especially in the fig called “triphylla.” The ancient site corresponds with Jenisher. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol.2, p. 209 )—VI. A city of Cilicia Trachea, in the district of Lamotis (Ptol., p. 129.) ANtiochis, I, the name of the mother of Antiochus, the son of Seleucus.-II. A tribe of Athens. ANTiêchus, I. surnamed Soter, was the eldest son of Seleucus, the first king of Syria and Babylonia. He succeeded his father B.C. 280 When still young, he fell into a lingering disease, which none of his father's physicians could cure for some time, till it was discovered that his pulse was more irregular than usual when Stratonice, his stepmother, entered his room, and that love for her was the cause of his illness. This was told to the father, who willingly gave Stratonice to save a son on whom he sounded all his hopes. When Antiochus came to the throne, he displayed, at the head of his forces, talents worthy of his sire, and gained many battles over the Bithynians, Macedonians, and Galatians. He attacked also Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, at the instigation of Magas, who had revolted against this prince, but without success. He sailed also in an expedition which he undertook aster the death of Phileterus, king of Pergamus, with a view of seizing on his kingdom, and he was vanquished near Sardis by Eumenes, the successor of that prince. He returned after this to Antioch, and died not long subsequently, having occupied the throne for nineteen years. He was called Soter (Xoršp) or “Preserver,” for having preserved his subjects from an irruption of the Galatians or Gauls, whom he deseated in battle. His successor was Antiochus Theos. (Justin, 17, 2, &c.)—II. Son of Antiochus Soter, and surnamed Theos (Oesc), “God,” by the Milesians, because he put to death their tyrant Timarchus. He succeeded his father B.C. 261, and at the instigation of his sister Apamea, the widow of Magas, renewed the war with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. He was as unsuccessful, however, as his father had been ; and, being compelled to sue for peace, only obtained it on condition of repudiating his wife Laodice, and espousing Berenice the sister of Ptolemy. The male issue, moreover, of this latter marriage were to inherit the crown. It was during this war that * all his rovinces beyond the Euphrates by a revolt of the o: and Bactrians. Ptolemy dying two years after this, Antiochus repudiated Berenice and restored Iaodice. The latter, resolving to secure the succession to her son, poisoned Antiochus and suborned Artemon, whose features were similar to his, to represent him as king. Artemon, subservient to her will, pretended to be indisposed, and, as king, recommended to them Seleucus, surnamed Callinicus, son of Laodice, as his successor. After this ridiculous imposture, it was made public that the king had died a natural death, and Laodice placed her son on the throne, and despatched Berenice and her son, B.C. 246. (Justin, 27, 1 — Appian.)—III. Surnamed Hierar ('Ispas), “hird of prey,” son of Antiochus Theos and Laodice, was the brother of Seleucus Callinicus. . Froin his early years this prince was devoured by ambition. In order to attain to power, no crime or evil act deterred him; his thirst for rule, as well as his wicked and turbulent spirit, obtained for him the appellation, so characteristic of his movements, which we have mentioned above. Under pretext of aiding his brother against Ptolemy Euergetes, he attempted to dethrone him. Seleucus having marched against him for the purpose of counteracting his ambitious designs, Hierax defeated him near Ancyra. He could not, however, derive any advantage from this victory, since the Gauls, who formed the principal part of his army, revolted and declared themselves independent; and it was only by paying a large sum of monev that Hierax could save his life. Eumenes, king of Pergamus, took advantage of this circumstance to rid himself of an unquiet and troublesome neighbour. He attacked Hierax, defeated him, and compelled him to take refuge with his brother-inlaw Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. Ariarathes soon became tired of him, and formed the design of putting him to death; but Hierax, informed of his design, fled into Egypt. He was thrown into prison by Ptolemy, and perished a few wears after in attempting to make his escape.—l W. The Great, as he was surnamed, was the third of the name that actually reigned, and the son of Seleucus Ceraunus, and succeeded his father 223 B.C. He passed the first years of his reign in regulating the affairs of his kingdom, and in bringing back to their duty several of his officers who had made themselves independent. Desirous after this of regaining Syria, which had been wrested from Seleucus Callinicus by Ptolemy Euergetes of Egypt, he was met at Raphia and defeated by Ptolemy Philopater, 218 B.C., and was compelled to surrender the whole of his conquests in Syria which he had thus far made. He was more successful, however, in Upper Asia, where he recovered possession of Media, and made treaties with the kings of Parthia and Bactria, who agreed to aid him in regaining other of his fortner provinces, if their respective kingdoms were secured to them. He crossed over also into India, and renewed his alliance with the king of that country. After the death of Philopater, he resumed his plans of conquest, and Ptolemy Epiphanes being yet quite young, he seized upon the whole of Syria. He granted, however, peace to Ptolemy, and even gave him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage, with Syria for her dowry. Antiochus then turned his arms against the cities of Asia Minor and Greece; but shese cities having implored the aid of Rome, the senato sent to Antiochus to summon him to surrender his conquests. Excited, however, by Hannibal, to whom he had given an asylum, he took no notice of this order, and a war ensued. The plan, however, which Hannibal traced out for him, was not followed. Defeated at Thermopylae by Glabrio, he fled into Asia, where a second and more complete defeat, by Scipio Asiaticus, at Magnesia, compelled him to sue for peace, which he obtained only on the hardest condtions. He was obliged to retire beyond Mount Taurus. All his territories on this side of Taurus became Roman

provinces, and he had also to pay a yearly tribute of 2000 talents. His revenues being insufficient for this heavy demand, he attempted to plunder the treasures of the temple of Belus in Susiana; but the inhabitants of the country were so irritated at this sacrilege, that they slew him, together with his escort, B.C. 187. He had reigned thirty-six years. In his character of king, Antiochus was humane and liberal, the patron of learning, and the friend of merit. He had three sons, Seleucus Philopater, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Deinetrius. The first succeeded him, and the two others were kept as hostages by the Romans. (Justin, 31 et 32.—Lir., 34, 59–Flor, 2, 1–Appian, Bell. Syr.) —V. Surnamed Epiphanes, or Illustrious, was king of Syria after the death of his brother Seleucus Philopater, having ascended the throne 175 B.C. He was the fourth of the name, and was surnamed Epiphanes ("Erupaio), “the Illustrious,” and reigned eleven

years. Taking advantage of the infancy of Ptolemy

Philometor, he seized upon Coelosyria, and even penetrated into Egypt, where he took Memphis, and obtained possession of the person of the young king, whom he kept prisoner for many years. The guardians of the young Ptolemy, however, having applied for aid to the Romans, the senate sent Popilius Laenas unto Epiphanes, who compelled him to renounce his conquests and set the Egyptian monarch at liberty. The Jews having revolted during the reign of Epiphanes, he marched against Jerusalem, deposed the highpriest Onias, profaned the temple by sacrifices to Jupiter Olympius, plundered all the sacred vessels, and slaughtered, it is said, 80,000 inhabitants of this illfated city. Aster this he proceeded into Persia, and, while traversing Elymais, wished to plunder the temples that were there : but the inhabitants having revolted, he was compelled to retreat to Babylon. There he learned that the Jews, commanded by Matathias and Judas Maccabæus, had gained several victories over the generals whom he had left in Judaea. Transported with sury at the intelligence, he assembled a new army, and swore to destroy Jerusalem; but, at the moment of his departure, he fell from his chariot, was subsequently seized with a disgusting malady, and died in the most agonizing sufferings. The Persians attributed the manner of his death to his impious enterprise against the temple of Elymais; the Jews saw in it the anger of Heaven, for his having profaned the temple of Jerusalem. He died B C, 164. Epiphanes was not without some good qualities. He was generous, loved the arts, and displayed considerable ability in the wars in which he was engaged ; but his vices and follies tarnished his character. (Justin, 34, 5.—Macchab., 1, 1, &c.)—VI. Eupator, son of the preceding (from ei and Traffip, “born of an illustrious sire”), succeeded to the throne at the age of nine years. The generals of this prince continued the war against the Jews, and Jerusalem was on the point of becoming, for the second time, the prey of the Syrians, when Demetrius Soter, the cousin german of Eupator, by a sudden invasion, seized upon the capital of Syria. The generals of Eupator made peace with the Jews, and marched against Demctrius; but the soldiers, ashamed of serving a mere child, went over to the invader, who put Eupator to death aster a reign of about eighteen months —VII. (the sixth of the name) Son of Alexander Bala, took the surname of Theos (“God”), claiming descent, like his father, from Antiochus Theos already mentioned. To this surname he afterward added that of Epiphanes (“the illustrious”). Demetrius Nicator having disbanded his army, and being entirely without apprehension of any foe, Tryphon took advantage of this, and having brought Antiochus from Arabia, still young in years, caused him to be proclaimed king, about 144 B.C. The attempt succeeded. Demetrius was defeated, and Antiochus ascended the throne. He reigned, however, only in name. The actual monarch was Tryphon, who had him put to death at the end of about two years, and caused himself to be proclaimed in his stead. (Justin, 36, 1.)— VIII. Surnamed Sidetes (Xuântic), “the hunter,” son of Demetrius Soter, ascended the throne 139 B.C. He drove from Syria the usurper Tryphon, made war on the Jews, besieged Jerusalem, and compelled it to i. a tribute. He then marched against Phraates, ing of Parthia, who menaced his kingdom, gained three victories over him, and obtained possession of Babylon. The following year he was vanquished in turn by the Parthian king, and lost his life in the conflict. He was a prince of many virtues, but he tarnished all by his habits of intemperance.—IX. The eighth of the name, surnamed Grypus (Tpuróc) from his aquiline nose, was son of Demetrius Nicator and Cleopatra. He was raised to the throne B.C. 123, to the prejudice of his brothers, by the intrigues of his mother, who hoped to reign in his name. When he was declared king, the throne of Syria was occupied by Alexander Zebinas. He marched against this impostor, defeated, and put him to death. He then married Tryphena, daughter of Ptolemy Euergetes II., which ensured peaceable relations between Syria and Egypt. After having for some time yielded to the authority of his mother, he resolved at last to reign in his own name, a step which nearly cost him his life. His mother prepared a poisoned draught for her son, but, being suspected by him, was compelled to drink it herself. A bloody war soon after broke out between this prince and Antiochus the Cyzicenian, his brother, in .. the latter compelled Grypus to cede to him Coelosyria. They thus reigned conjointly for some time. Grypus was at last assassinated by one of his subjects, B.C. 96. (Justin, 39, 1–Joseph., Ant. Jud.)—X. Surnamed Cyzicenus, from his having been brought up in the city of Cyzicus, was the ninth of the name. He was son of Antiochus Sidetes, and succeeded his brother Grypus, after having reigned over Caelosyria, which he had previously compelled his brother to yield to him. He was a dissolute and indolent prince, and possessed of considerable mechanical talent. His nephew Seleucus, son of Grypus, dethroned him, B.C. 95.—XI. The tenth of the name, ironically surnamed Pius, because he married Selena, the wife of his father and of his uncle. He was the son of Antiochus IX., and he expelled Seleucus, the son of Grypus, from Syria; but he could not prevent two other sons of Grypus, namely, Philip and Demetrius, from seizing on a part of Syria. He perished soon after by their hands. (Appian.—Joseph., Ant. Jud., 13, 21.)—After his death, the kingdom of Syria was torn to pieces by the factions of the royal family or usurpers, who, under a good or false title, under the name of Antiochus or his relations, established themselves for a little time either as sovereigns of Syria, or Damascus, or other dependant provinces. At last Antiochus, surnamed Asiaticus, the son of Antiochus the ninth, was restored to his paternal throne by the influence of Lucullus, the Roman general, on the expulsion of Tigranes, king of Armenia, from the Syrian dominions; but four years after, Pompey deposed him, and observed that he who hid himself while a usurper sat upon his throne, ought not to be a king. From that time, B.C. 65, Syria became a Roman province, and the race of Antiochus was extinguished.—There were also other individuals of the same name, among whom the most deserving of mention are the following: I. A native of Syracuse, descended from an ancient monarch of the Sicani. He wrote a history of Sicily, which was brought down to the 98th Olympiad, and which Diodorus Siculus cites among the sources whence he derived aid for his compilation. He comsed also what appears to have been a very curious so, of Italy, some fragments of which are pre

served by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. (Compare islands. T

Heyne, de Fontibus Hist. Diod.—vol. 1, p. lxxxv., ed. Bip.)—II. A rhetorician and sophist of Ægea, the pupil of Dionysius of Miletus. Dio Cassius (77, p. 878) relates, that, in order to rouse the spirits of the Roman army, who were worn out with fatiguin marches, he assumed the character of a cynic, .# rolled about in the snow. This conduct gained for him the favour of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. He af. terward went over to Tiridates, king of the Parthians, whence Suidas styles him Airópio) of, or “the deserter.”—III. A native of Ascalon, the last preceptor of the Platonic school in Greece. He was the disciple of Philo, and one of the philosophers whose sectures Varro, Cicero, and Brutus attended, for he taught, at different times, at Athens, Alexandrea, and Rome. He attempted to reconcile the tenets of the different sects, and maintained that the doctrines of the Stoics were to be found in the writings of Plato. Cicero greatly admired his eloquence and the politeness of his manners, and Lucullus took him as his companion into Asia. He resigned the academic chair in the 175th Olympiad. After his time the professors of the Academic philosophy were dispersed by the tumults of war, and the school itself was transferred to Rome. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 199, seqq.—Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 258, seqq.) ANTIOPE, I. daughter of Nycteus, who was a son of Neptune and king of Thebes, received the addresses of Jupiter, the god having appeared to her under the form of a satyr. Terrified at the threats of her father, on the consequences of her fault becoming apparent, Antiope fled to Sicyon, where she married Epopeus. Nycteus, out of grief, put an end to himself, having previously charged his brother Lycus to punish Epopeus and Antiope. Lycus accordingly marched an army against Sicyon, took it, slew Epopeus, and led away Antiope captive. On the way to Thebes, she brought forth twins at Eleutherae. The unhappy babes were exposed on a mountain; but a shepherd having found them, reared them both, calling the one Zethus, the other Amphion. The former devoted himself to the care of cattle, while Amphion passed his time in the cultivation of music, having been presented with a lyre by Mercury. Meanwhile, Lycus had put Antiope in bonds, and she was treated with the utmost cruelty by him and his wife Dirce. But her chains became loosed of themselves, and she fled to the dwelling of her sons in search of shelter and protection. Having recognised her, they resolved to avenge her wrongs. Accordingly, they attacked and slew Lycus, and tying Dirce by the hair to a wild bull, let the animal drag her until she was dead. (Wid. Dirce, Amphion, Zethus. – Apollod., 3, 5.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 299.)—II. A queen of the Amazons. According to one account, Hercules, having taken her prisoner, gave her to Theseus as a reward of his valour. The more common tradition, however, made her to have been taken captive and carried off by Theseus himself, when he made an expedition with his own fleet against the Amazonian race. She is also called Hippolyta. Justin says that Hercules gave Hippolyta to Theseus, and kept Antiope for himself. (Plut., Wit. Thes, 27 —Justin, 2, 4.) ANTiPARos, a small island in the AEgean, ranked by Artemidorus among the Cyclades, but excluded from them by Strabo (10, p. 484, ed. Casaul.). It lay opposite to Paros, and was separated from this latter island, according to Heraclides of Pontus (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'QZiapoc), by a strait eighteen stadia wide. The same writer affirms (Plin., H. N., 4, 12), that it had been colonized by Sidonians. Its more ancient name was Olarus. It is now Antiparo. This island is famed for its grotto, which is of great depth, and was believed by the ancient Greeks to communicate, beneath the waters, with some of the neighbouring


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