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yia, who accompanied the o to Colchis along with his brother Calais. In Bithynia, the two brothers, who are represented with wings, delivered Phineus from the persecution of the Harpies, and drove these monsters as far as the islands called Strophades. (Vid. Strophades, and Harpyia –Apollod., 1,9; 3, 15. —Hygin., fab., 14.—Ovid, Met., 8, 716.-Pausan., 3, 16.) Zethus, a son of Jupiter and Antiope, brother to Amphion. (Vid. Amphion.) Zeugis or ZEUGITANA, a district of Africa in which Carthage was situated. It extended from the river Tusca to the Hermaan promontory, and from the coast to the mountains that separated it from Byzacium. (Isid., Hist, 14, 5.-Plin, 5, 4.) Zeugma, or the Bridge, the name of the principal passage of the river Euphrates, southwest of Edessa. An ancient fortress by which it was commanded is still called Roum-Cala, or the Roman Castle ; to which may be added, that on the opposite shore there is a place called Zeugme. (Plin., 5, 24.—Curt., 3, 7.—Tacit., Ann., 12, 12.) Zeus, the name of Jupiter among the Greeks. (Wid, remarks under the article Jupiter.) Zeuxis, a celebrated painter, born at Heraclea, in Magna Græcia, and who flourished about B.C. 400. (Plin., 35, 9, 36.-AElian, W. H., 4, 12.-Hardouin, ad Plin, l. c.—Sillig, Dict. Art.. p. 130, not.) He studied under either Demophilus or Neseas, artists respecting whom nothing is known but that one of them was his master. Soon, however, he far outstripped his instructer, as Apollodorus intimated in verses expressive of his indignation that Zeuxis should have moulded to his own use all previous inventions, and stolen the graces of the best masters; thus paying a high though involuntary compliment to his gifted rival. Apollodorus having first practised chiaro-oscuro, could not endure that his glory should be eclipsed by a younger artist, who availed himself of his improvements to rise to a higher degree of excellence. Zeuxis seems to have rapidly risen to the highest distinction in Greece, and acquired by the exercise of his art, not only renown, but riches. Of the latter advantage he was more vain than became a man of exalted genius. He appeared at the Olympic games attired in a mantle on which his name was embroidered in letters of gold, a piece of most absurd display in one whose name was deeply impressed on the hearts and imaginations of those by whom he was surrounded. He does not, however, seen to have been chargeable with avarice ; or, at least, this passion, if it existed, was subservient to his pride; for, when he had attained the height of his same, he refused any longer to receive money for his pictures, but made presents of them, because he regarded them as above all pecuniary value. In the earlier part of his career he was accustomed, however, to exhibit his productions for money, especially his most celebrated painting of Hel. en. The truth seems to have been, that the ruling pas. sion of Zeuxis was the love of pomp, an ever-restless vanity, a constant desire and craving after every kind of distinction.—Very little is known respecting the events of the life of this celebrated painter. He was not only successful in securing wealth and the applause of the multitude, but was honoured with the friendship of Archelaiis, king of Macedon. For the palace of this monarch he executed numerous pictures. Cicero informs us, that the inhabitants of Crotona prevailed on Zeuxis to come to their city, and to paint there a number of pieces, which were intended to adorn the temple of J. for which he was to receive a large and stipulated sum. On his arrival, he informed them that he intended only to paint the picture of Helen, with which they were satisfied, because he was regarded as peculiarly excellent in the delineation of women. He accordingly desired to see the most

beautiful maidens in the city, and, having selected five of the fairest, copied all that was most beautiful and perfect in the form of each, and thus completed his Helen. Pliny, in his relation of the same circumstance, omits to give the particular subject of the painting, or the terms of the original contract, and states that the whole occurred, not among the people of Crotona, but those of Agrigentum, for whom, he says, the piece was executed, to fulfil a vow made by them to the goddess. This great artist, on several occasions, painted pictures for cities and states. He gave his Alcmena, representing Hercules strangling the serpents in his cradle, in the sight of his parents, to the Agrigentines, and a figure of Pan to his patron Archelaús of Macedon. The most celebrated of the pictures of Zeuxis, besides the Helen and the Alcmena, were, a Penelope, in which Pliny assures us that not only form, but character, was vividly expressed; a representation of Jupiter seated on his throne, with all the gods around doing him homage ; a Marsyas bound to a tree, which was preserved at Rome; and a wrestler, beneath which was inscribed a verse, to the effect that it was easier to envy than to imitate its excellence. Lucian has left us an admirable description of another painting of his, representing the Centaurs, in which he particularly applauds the delicacy of the drawing, the harmony of the colouring, the softness of the blending shades, and the excellence of the proportions. He left many draughts in a single colour on white. Pliny censures him for the too great size of the heads and joints, in comparison with the rest of the figures. Aristotle complains that he was a painter of forms rather than of manners, which seems contrary to the eulogium passed by Pliny on the representation of Penelope.—The story respecting the contest between Zeuxis and Parrhasius has been frequently related. It is said that the former painted a cluster of grapes with such perfect skill that the birds came and pecked at them. Elated with so unequivocal a testimony of his excellence, he called to his rival to draw back the curtain, which he supposed concealed his work, anticipating a certain triumph. Now, however, he found himself entrapped, for what he took for a curtain was only a painting of one by Parrhasius; upon which he ingenuously consessed himself defeated, since he had only deceived birds, but his antagonist had beguiled the senses of an experienced artist. Another story is related of a simiiar kind, in which he overcame himself, or, rather, one part of his work was shown to have excelled at the expense of the other. He painted a boy with a basket of grapes, to which the birds as before resorted; on which he acknowledged that the boy could not be well painted, since, had the similitude been in both cases equal, the birds would have been deterred from approaching. From these stories, if they may be credited, it would appear that Zeuxis excelled more in depicting fruit than in painting the human form. If this were the case, it is strange that all his greater efforts, of which any accounts have reached us, were portraits, or groups of men or deities. The readiness which Zeuxis has, in these instances, been represented as manifesting to acknowledge his weakness, is scarcely consistent with the usual tenour of his spirit. At all events, the victory of Parrhasius proved very little respecting the merit of the two artists. The man who could represent a curtain to perfection would not necessarily be the greatest painter in Greece. Even were exactness .# imitation the sole excellence in the picture, regard must be had to the cast of the objects imitated, in reference to the skill of the artists by whom they were chosen. —Zeuxis is said to have taken a long time to finish his chief productions, observing, when reproached for his slowness, that he was painting for eternity.—Festus relates that Zeuxis died with laughter at the picture of an old woman which he himself had painted. So

extraordinary a circumstance, however, would surely Have been alluded to by some other writer, had it been true. There seems good reason, therefore, to believe it fictitious. (Encyclop. Metropol, div. 2, vol. 1, p. 405, seqq.) Zoilus, a sophist and grammarian of Amphipolis, who rendered himself known by his severe criticisms on the poems of Homer, for which he received the name of Homeromastic, or the chastiser of Horner, and also on the productions of Plato and other writers. AElian (V. H., 11, 10) draws a very unfavourable picture of both his character and personal appearance. In all this, however, there is very probably much of exaggeration. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ep. ad Pomp ) appears, on the other hand, to praise the man ; he ranks him, at least, among those who have censured Plato, not from a feeling of envy or enmity, but a desire for the truth. The age of Zoilus is uncertain. Vitruvius (Praef, ad lib. 7) refers him to the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and is followed by Vossius. Reinesius, however (War. Lect., 3, 2), and Ionsius (de Script. Hist. Phil., c.9) are opposed to this, because Zoilus is said to have been a hearer of Polycrates, who lived in the time of Socrates. (Consult the remarks of Perizonius on this subject, ad AElian., W. H. l. c.) Some say that Zoilus was stoned to death, or exposed on a cross, by order of Ptolemy, while others maintain that he was burned alive at Smyrna. According to another account, he recited his invectives against Homer at the Olympic games, and was thrown from a rock for his offence. (AElian, W. H., l.c.—Longin., 9, 4.) Zox A or Zone, a city on the Ægean coast of Thrace, near the promontory of Serrhium. It is mentioned by Herodotus (7, 59) and by Hecataeus (ap. Steph. Byz.). Here Orpheus sang, and by his strains drew aster him both the woods and the beasts that tenanted them. (Apollon. Rhod, 1, 28.) Zox MRAs, a Byzantine historian, who flourished towards the close of the eleventh and the commencement of the twelfth centuries. He held the offices originally of Grand Dungarius (commander of the fleet) and chief secretary of the imperial cabinet; but he afterward became a monk, and attached himself to a religious house on Mount Athos, where he died subsequently to A. D. l l 18. His Annals, or Chronicle, extend from the creation of the world down to 1118 A.D., the period of the death of Alexis I. They pos. sess a double interest: for more ancient times, he has availed himself, independently of Eutropius and Dio Cassius, of other authors that are lost to us; and at a later period he details events of which he himself was a witness. Though deficient in critical spirit, he has still displayed great good sense in adding nothing of his own to the extracts which he has inserted in his history, except what might serve to unite them together in regular order. There results from this, it is true, a great variety of style in his work, but this is easily pardoned, and the only regret is, that Zonaras had not indicated with more exactness the authors whence he drew his materials. The impartiality of the writer is worthy of praise. This work is found in the collections of the Byzantine Historians.—Zonaras was the author also of a Glossary or Lexicon, in the manner of Hesychius and Suidas. It was published

by Tittman, in 1808, at the Leipzig press, along with the Lexicon of Photius, in 3 vols. 4to, the first two volumes being devoted to the Lexicon of Zonaras. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 6, p. 288.)

Zopyrus, a Persian, son of Megabyzus, who gained possession of Babylon for Darius Hystaspis by a stratagem similar to that by which Sextus Tarquinius gained Gabii for his father. (Vid. Tarquinius III.— Herod., 3, 154, seqq.)

Zoroaster, a celebrated reformer of the Magian religion, whose era is altogether uncertain. In what points his doctrines may have differed from those of the preceding period is an obscure and difficult question. It seeins certain, however, that the code of sacred laws which he introduced, founded, or at least enlarged, the authority and influence of the Magian caste. Its members became the keepers and expounders of the holy books, the teachers and counsellors of the king, the oracles from whom he learned the Divine will and the secrets of futurity, the mediators who obtained for him the savour of Heaven, or propitiated its anger. According to Hyde, Prideaux, and many others of the learned, Zoroaster was the same with the Zerdusht of the Persians, who was a great patriarch of the Magi, and lived between the beginning of the reign of Cyrus and the latter end of that of Darius Hystaspis. This, however, seems too late a date.—The so-called “Oracles of Zoroaster” have been frequently published. (Consult, on this whole subject, the very learned and able remarks of Parisot, Biogr. Univ., vol. 52, p. 434, seqq., and also Rhode, die hellige Sage, &c., der Baktrer, Meder, &c., p. 112, seqq)

Zosimus, I. a Greek historian, who appears to have flourished between A.D. 430 and 591. He was a public functionary at Constantinople. Zosimus wrote a history of the Roman emperors from the age of Augustus down to his own time. His object in writing this was to trace the causes which led to the downsas. of the Roman empire, and among these he ranks the introduction of Christianity. There are many reasons which induce the belief that the work of Zosimus was not published in his lifetime, one of the strongest of which is the boldness with which he speaks of the Christian emperors. It is probable that he intended to continue the work to his own times, a design which his death prevented. A certain negligence of style, which indicates the absence of a revision on the part of the author, strongly countenances this supposition. The best editions of Zosimus have been that of Cellarius, 8vo, Jenae, 1728, and that of Reitemier. 8vo, Lips., 1784. The best edition now, however, is that by Bekker in the Corpus Byz. Hist, Bonn, 1837, 8vo. —II. A native of Panopolis, in Egypt, who wrote, according to Suidas, a work on Chemistry (Xvuevrtká), in 28 books. The Paris and Vienna MSS. contain various detached treatises of this writer, which formed part, in all likelihood, of this voluminous production; such as a dissertation on the sacred and divine art of forming gold and silver, &c. There exist also five other works of this same writer, such as “On the Art of making Beer” (Trept offiov trous geog), &c. An edition of this last-mentioned work was published in 1814, by Grüner, Solisbac, 8vo. (Hoffman, Ler. Bibliogr., vol. 3, p. 830.-Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 210.)

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ABAs, III, the twelfth king of Argos. He was the son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, and grandson of Danaus. He married Ocaleia, who bore him twin sons, Acrisius and Proetus. (Apollod., 2, 2, 1. – Hygin.., Fab., 170.) When he informed his father of the death of Danaus, he was rewarded with the shield of his grandfather, which was sacred to Juno. He is described as a successful conqueror, and as the founder of the town of Abae in Phocis (Paus., 10, 35, 1), and of the Pelasgic Argos in Thessaly. (Strab., 9, p. 431.) The fame of his warlike spirit was so great, that even after his death, when people revolted whom he had subdued, they were put to flight by the simple act of showing thein his shield. (Virg., AEn., 3, 286–Serv., ad loc) It was from this Abas that the kings of Argos were called by the patronymic Abantiades. ABAscANtus ('Abūakavros), a physician of Lugdunum (Lyons), who probably lived in the second century after Christ. He is several times mentioned by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. secund. Locos, 9, 4, vol. 13, p. 278), who has also preserved an antidote invented by him against the bite of serpents. (De Antid., 2, 12, vol. 14, p. 177.) The name is to be met with in numerous Latin inscriptions in Gruter's collection, five of which refer to a freedman of Augustus, who is supposed by Kühn (Additam. ad Elench Medic. Vet. a J. A. Fabricio in “Bibl. Gr.” Echih) to be the same person that is mentioned by Galen. This, however, is quite uncertain, as also whether IIapakzijrtoo 'Abūakavtso; in Galen (De Compos. Medicam. secund. Locos., 7, 3, vol. 13, p. 71) refers to the subject of this article. ABDIAs ('A66iac), the pretended author of an Apocryphal book, entitled The History of the Apostolical contest. This work claims to have been written in Hebrew, to have been translated into Greek by Eutropius, and thence into Latin by Julius Africanus. It was, however, originally written in Latin, about A.D. 910. It is printed in Fabricius, Coder Apocryphus Nori Test., p. 402, 8vo, Hamb., 1703. Abdias was called, too, the first Bishop of Babylon. ABELLIo is the name of a divinity found in inscriptions which were discovered at Comminges in France. (Gruter, Inscr., p. 37, 4.—J. Scaliger, Lectiones Ausoniana, 1, 9.) Buttmann (Mythologus, 1, p. 167, &c.) considers Abellio to be the same name as Apollo, who in Crete and elsewhere was called 'A6éâtor, and by the Italians and some Dorians Apello (Fest., s. v. Apellinem.— Eustath. ad Il., 2, 99), and that the deity is the same as the Gallic Apollo mentioned by Caesar (Bell. Gall, 6, 17), and also the same as Belis or Belenus mentioned by Tertullian (Apologet, 23) and Herodian (8, 3– Comp. Capitol., Marimin., 22). As the root of the word he recognises the Spartan Béâa, i. e., the sun (Hesych., s. v.), which appears in the Syriac and Chaldaic Belus or Baal. Abis AREs or Abiss KREs ('A6174pm), called Embisarus ('Eufficapoc) by Diodorus (17, 90), an Indian king beyond the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embassies to Alexander the Great, both before and after the conquest of Porus, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and on his death

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appointed his son as his successor. (Arrian, Anah, 5, 8, 20, 29–Curt., 8, 12, 13, 14; 9, 1; 10, 1) Abitix Nus ('A61 rotavóc), the author of a Greek treatise De Urints inserted in the second volume of Ideler's Physici et Medici Graci Minores, Berol, 8vo, 1842, with the title IIepi Oipov IIpaywarcia 'Apiarm to Xoborátov Itapú asy Ivčoic A22 m Eury. row Xtvá #rot 'A727 viot to Xtvá, Itapú 68 Irazoic 'A6trotavot. He is the same person as the celebrated Arabic physician Arıcenna, whose real name was Abū ‘Ali Ibn Sīnā, A. H. 370 or 375-428 (A.D. 980 or 985–1038), and from whose great work Ketāb al-Kànàn f 't-Tebb, Liber Canonis Medicinae, this treatise is probably translated. Abl, Abius ("A02.46toc), I. a physician on whose death there is an epigram by Theosebla in the Greek Anthology (7,559,) in which he is considered as inferior only to Hippocrates and Galen. With respect to his date, it is only known that he must have lived aster Galen, that is, some time later than the second century after Christ.—II. The illustrious (IZZoëarptoc), the author of an epigram in the Greek Anthology (9, 762) “on the quoit of Asclepiades.” Nothing more is known of him, unless he be the same person as Ablabius, the Novatian bishop of Nicaea, who was a disciple of the rhetorician Troilus, and himself eminent in the same profession, and who lived under Honorius and Theodosius II., at the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth centuries after Christ. (Socrates, Hist. Ecc., 7, 12.) AbrocóMAs ('A6poköuac), II one of the satraps of Artaxerxes Mnemon, was sent with an army of 300,000 men to oppose Cyrus on his march into Upper Asia. On the arrival of Cyrus at Tarsus, Abrocomas was said to be on the Euphrates; and at Issus four hundred heavy-armed Greeks, who had deserted Abrocomas, joined Cyrus. Abrocomas did not defend the Syrian passes, as was expected, but marched to join the king. He burned some boats to prevent Cyrus from crossing the Euphrates, but did not arrive in time for the battle of Cunaxa. (Xen., Anab., 1, 3, § 20; 4, § 3, 5, 18; 7, § 12–Harpocrat. and Sundas, s. v.) AbroN or HAB Ron ('A6pov or "A6pov), I. son of the Attic orator Lycurgus. (Plut., Wit. dec. Orat., p. 843)—II. The son of Callias, of the deme of Bate in Attica, wrote on the festivals and sacrifices of the Greeks. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Barff.) He also wrote a work Tepi Tapovićuov, which is frequently referred to by Stephanus Byz. (s. v. 'Ayatom, 'Apyoc, &c.) and other writers.-III. A grammarian, a Phrygian or Rhodian, a pupil of Tryphon, and originally a slave, taught at Rome under the first Caesars. (Suidas, s. v. 'A6pov.)—IV. A rich person at Argos, from whom the proverb "Aspovoc Bioc, which was applied to extravagant persons, is said to have been derived. (Suidas, s. v.) Apronychus ('Abbévvyoc), the son of Lysicles, an Athenian, was stationed at Thermopylae with a vessel to communicate between Leonidas and the fleet at Artemisium. He was subsequently sent as ambassador to Sparta with Themistocles and Aristides respecting the fortifications of Athens after the Persian war. (Herod., 8, 21.-Thuc., 1, 91.) Abulites ("Abovåttm;), the satrap of Susiana, 1409

surrendered Susa to Alexander when the latter approached the city. The satrapy was restored to him by Alexander, but he and his son Oxyathres were afterward executed by Alexander for the crimes they had committed in the government of the satrapy. (Curt., 5, 2–Arrian, Anab., 3, 16; 7, 4.—Diod., 17, 65.) AbüRIA GENs, plebeian. On the coins of this gens we find the cognomen GEM., which is perhaps an abbreviation of Geminus. The coins have no heads of persons on them. The most distinguished members of this gens were—I. C. Abu Rius, one of the ambassadors sent to Masinissa and the Carthaginians, B.C. 171. (Liv., 42, 35.)—II. M. Aburius, tribune of the plebs, B.C. 187, opposed M. Fulvius, the proconsul, in his petition for a triumph, but withdrew his opposition chiefly through the influence of his colleague Ti, Gracchus. (Liv., 39, 4, 5.) He was praetor peregrinus, D.C. 176. (Liv., 41, 18, 19.) ABURNUs WALENs, a Roman lawyer, probably the same with the Valens who formed one of the consilium of the Emperor Antoninus Pius. (Capitolinus, Ant. Pius, 12.) We have, in the Pandects, selections from his seven books of “Fideicommissa.” I Zimmern, Gesch. d. Röm. Privatrechts, 1, 1, 334.) AcacAllis ('Akaka??ic), daughter of Minos, by whom, according to a Cretan tradition, Hermes begot Cydon; while, according to a tradition of the Tegeatans, Cydon was a son of Tegeates, and immigrated to Crete from Tegea. (Paus., 8, 53, § 2.) Apollo begot by her a son, Miletus, whom, for sear of her father, Acacallis exposed in a forest, where wolves watched and suckled the child until he was sound by shepherds, who brought him up. (Antonin. Lib., 30.) Other sons of her and Apollo are Amphithemis and Garamas. (Apollon., 4, 1490, &c.) Apollodorus (3, 1, § 2) calls this daughter of Minos Acalle ('Aká22m), but does not mention Miletus as her son. Acacallis was in Crete a common name for a narcissus. (Athen., 15, p. 681–Hesych., s. v. ) AcAcus ('Akakos), a son of Lycaon and king of Acacesium in Acadia, of which he was believed to be the founder. (Paus., 8, 3, 1.—Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Akakjatov.) AcARNAN ('Akapwāv), one of the Epigones, was a son of Alcmaeon and Calirrhoë, and brother of Amphoterus. Their father was murdered by Phegeus when they were yet very young, and Calirrhoë prayed to Zeus to make her sons grow quickly, that they might be able to avenge the death of their father. The prayer was granted, and Acarnan, with his brother, slew Phegeus, his wife, and his two sons. The inhabitants of Psophis, where the sons had been slain, pursued the murderers as far as Tegea, where, however, they were received and rescued. At the request of Achelous, they carried the necklace and peplus of Harmonia to Delphi, and from thence they went to Epirus, where Acarnan founded the state called aster him Acarnania. (Apollod., 3, 7, § 5–7. —Oc., Met, 9, 413, &c.—Thucyd., 2, 102–Strab., 10, p. 462.) Accius, I. or Attius, L., an early Roman tragic poet and the son of a freedman, was born, according to Jerome, B.C. 170, and was fifty years younger than Pacuvius. He lived to a great age; Cicero, when a young man, frequently conversed with him. (Brut., 28.) His tragedies were chiefly imitated from the Greeks, especially from AEschylus, but he also wrote some on Roman subjects (Praetextata); one of which, entitled Brutus, was probably in honour of his patron D. Brutus. (Cic, De Leg., 2, 21; Pro Arch, 11.) We possess only fragments of his tragedies, of which the most important have been preserved by Cicero, but sufficient remains to justify the terms of admiration in which he is spoken of

by the ancient writers. He is particularly praised for the strength and vigour of his language and the sublimity of his thoughts. (Cic., Pro Planc., 24; Pro Sest., 56, &c.—Hor., Ep., 2, 1, 56.—Quintil, 10, 1, § 97.-Gell., 13, 2.) Besides these tragedies, he also wrote Annales in verse, containing the history of Rome, like those of Ennius; and three prose works, “Libri Didascalion,” which seems to have been a history of poetry, “Libri Pragmaticon,” and “Parerga :” of the two latter no fragments are preserved. The fragments of his tragedies have been collected by Stephanus in “Frag. vet. Poet. Lat.,” Paris, 1564; Maittaire, “Opera et Frag. vet. Poet. Lat.,” Lond, 1713; and Bothe, “Poet. Scenici Latin...” vol. v., Lips., 1834; and the fragments of the Didascalia by Madvig, “De L.Attii Didascaliis Comment.,” Hafnia’, 1831. Aces ANDER ('Akégavópor) wrote a history of Cyrene. (Schol. ad Apoll., 4, 1561, 1750; ad Pind., Pyth., 4, init., 57.) Plutarch (Symp., 5, 2, § 8) speaks of a work of his respecting Libya (rept Auffing), which may, probably, be the same work as the history of Cyrene. The time at which he lived is unknown. Acks as (Akeasic), a native of Salamis in Cyprus, famed for his skill in weaving cloth with variegated patterns (polymitarius). He and his son Helicon, who distinguished himself in the same art, are mentioned by Athenaeus (2, p. 48, b.). Zenobius speaks of both artists, but says that Acesas (or, as he calls him, Aceseus, 'Axeoetic) was a native of Patara, and Helicon of Carystus. He tells us, also, that they were the first who made a peplus for Athena Polias. When they lived, we are not informed; but it must have been before the time of Euripides and Plato, who mention this peplus. (Eur., Hec., 468.—Plat., Euthyphr., § 6.) A specimen of the workmanship of these two artists was preserved in the temple at Delphi, bearing an inscription to the effect that Pallas had imparted marvellous skill to their hands. AcEsias ("Areataç,) an ancient Greek physician, whose age and country are both unknown. It is ascertained, however, that he lived at least four hundred years before Christ, as the proverb Akector idolato, Acesias cured him, is quoted on the authority of Aristophanes. This saying (by which only Acesias is known to us) was used when any person's disease became worse instead of better under medical treatment, and is inentioned by Suidas (s. v. 'Akeaiac), Zenobius (Properb., Cent., 1, §52), Diogenianus (Properb., 2, 3), Michael Apostolius (Properb., 2, 23), and Plutarch (Proverb, quibus Alexandr usi sunt, $98). See also Properb, c Cod. Bodl., § 82, in Gaisford's Paramiographi Graeci, 8vo, Oxon., 1836. It is possible that an author bearing this name, and mentioned by Athenaeus (12, p. 516, c.) as having written a treatise on the Art of Cooking (inpaproTuká), may be one and the same person, but of this we have no certain information. (J. J. Baier, Adag. Medic. Cent., 4to, Lips., 1718.) AcEssus ('Akéctoc), II, a bishop of the Novatians in the reign of the Emperor Constantine, A.D. 325, who was present at the Council of Nice, and advocated the exclusion from the communion of those who were found guilty of gross sin after baptism. (Socrat., Hist., 1, 10–Sozom., 1, 2.) AcestodóRus ("Axeoróðapoc), a Greek historical writer, who is cited by Plutarch (Them., 13), and whose work contained, as it appears, an account of the battle of Salamis among other things. The time at which he lived is unknown. Stephanus (s. v. Meyāān Tóżtc) speaks of an Acestodorus of Megalopolis, who wrote a work on cities (repi IroA fav), but whether this is the same as the abovementioned writer is not clear. Ackstor ('Akécrop), II. a surname of Apollo

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