Obrazy na stronie

was not himself a witness. As for those which passed under his own eyes, where is the historian who, in writing the history of his own times, is wholly exempt from the charge of partiality —The best editions of Paterculus are, that of Burmann, Lugd. Bat., 1744, 2 vols. 8vo; that of Ruhnken, 1779, L. Bat., 2 vols. 8vo; that of Krause, Lips., 1800, 8vo; and that of Lemaire, Paris, 1822, 8vo, which last is, for the most part, a republication of Ruhnken's. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 2, p. 357.) Velocasses or Belocasses, a people of Gallia Belgica, along the northern bank of the Sequana, west of the Bellovaci, and north of the Aulerci Eburovices. Their capital was Rotomagus, now Rouen. (Caes., B. G., 7, 75.-Plin., 4, 18.) VENAFRum, a city of Campania, in the northeast angle of the country, and near the river Vulturnus. (Strabo, 258.) It is much celebrated in antiquity for the excellence of the oil which its territory produced. (Horat., Od., 2, 6, 16. —Id., Sat., 2, 4, 68.-- Mart., 13, 98.—Cato, R. R., 135.—Plin., 16, 2.) VENED1 or WENEDAE, a German tribe, on the eastern bank of the Vistula, near its mouth. They gave name to the Venedicus Sinus, off this coast, and to the Montes Venedici, or the low range of mountains between East Prussia and Poland. (Tac., Germ., 49. —Plin., 4, 27.) VENETI, I, a people of Italy, in Cisalpine Gaul, near the mouths of the Po, fabled to have come from Paphlagonia, under the guidance of Antenor, after the Trojan war. (Vid. Heneti.) On the invasion of Italy in the fifth century by the Huns, under their king Attila, and the general desolation that everywhere appeared, great numbers of the people who lived near the Adriatic took shelter in the islands in this quarter, where now stands the city of Venice. These islands had previously, in A.D. 421, been built upon by the inhabitants of Patavium for the purposes of commerce. The arrival of fresh hordes of barbarians in Italy increased their population, until a commercial state was formed, which gradually rose to power and opulence. —As regards the origin of the ancient Veneti, the tradition which makes them of Paphlagonian origin is, as we have already remarked, purely fabulous. Mannert, on the other hand, has started a learned and plausible theory, in which he maintains, with great ability, their Northern origin. According to this writer, they were a branch of the great Sclavonic race. His grounds for this opinion are, 1, the fact of the Veneti being not an aboriginal people of Italy; 2, the analogy of their name with that of the Vandals, both being derived from the old Teutonic word wenden, and denoting a roving and unsteady mode of life; and, 3, from the existence of the amber-trade among them, and the proof which this furnishes of a communication by an overland trade between them and the nations inhabiting the shores of the Baltic and the countries of the north. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, p. 54, seqq.)--The history of the Veneti contains little that is worthy of notice, if we except the remarkable feature of their being the sole people of Italy who not only offered no resistance to the ambitious projects of Rome, but even, at a very early period, rendered that power an essential service ; if it be true, as Polybius reports, that the Gauls who had taken Rome were suddenly called away from that city by an irruption of the Veneti into their territory (2, 18). The same author elsewhere expressly states that an alliance was afterward formed between the Romans and Veneti (2, 23), a fact which is confirmed by Strabo (216).This state of security and peace would seem to have been very favourable to the prosperity of the Venetian nation. According to an old geographer, they counted within their territory fifty cities, and a population of a million and a half. The soil and climate were excellent, and their cattle were reported to breed twice

in the year. Their horses were especially noted for their fleetness, and are known to have often gained prizes in the games of Greece. (Eurip., Hipp., v. 231, et Schol., alloc.—Hesych, s. v. 'Everíðec.) And Strabo affirms that Dionysius, tyrant of Sicily, kept a stud of race-horses in their country. (Strab., 212.) The same writer asserts, that even in his day there was an annual sacrifice of a white horse to Diomed. When the Gauls had been subjugated, and their country had been reduced to a state of dependance, the Veneti do not appear to have manifested any unwillingness to constitute part of the new province, an event which we may suppose to have happened not long after the second Punic war. Their territory from that time was included under the general denomination of Cisalpine Gaul, and they were admitted to all the privileges which that province successively obtained. In the reign of Augustus Venetia was considered as a separate district, constituting the tenth region in the division made by that emperor. (Plin., 3, 18.) Its boundaries, is, for the sake of amplification, we include within them the Tridentini, Meduaci, Carni, and other simaller nations, may be considered to be the Athesis, and a line drawn from that river to the Padus, to the west; the Alps to the north ; the Adriatic, as far as the river Formio (Risano), to the east; and the main branch of the Padus to the south. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 113.)—II. A nation of Gaul, at the south of Armorica, on the western coast, powerful by sea. Their chief city is now called Vannes. (Caes., B. G., 3, 8.) WENETía, the country of the Veneti, in Gallia Cisalpina. (Wid. remarks at the end of the article Weneti I.) We Netus Lacus, the same with the Lacus Brigantinus, or Lake of Constance. (Mela, 3, 2.) WENILIA, a nymph, sister to Amata, and mother of o Turnus by Daunus. (Virg., AEm., 10, 76. – Ocid, Met., 14, 334.—Varro, L. L., 4, 10.) VENTA, I. BELGARUM, a town of Britain, now Winchester.—II. Silurum, a town of Britain, now Caerwent, in Monmouthshire.—III. Icenorum, now Caster, south of Norwich, according to Mannert ; but Reichard is in favour of Lynn. VENTidius BAssus, a native of Picenum, was brought captive to Rome, while yet an infant, along with his mother. When he had grown up, he followed for some time the humble employment of hiring out horses and mules. He afterward accompanied Caesar to Gaul, and, by his punctual discharge of the various tasks consided to him, rose so high in Caesar's favour that the latter bestowed upon him several important stations. After Caesar's death he attached himself to Antony, to whose aid he brought three legions at Mutina. He subsequently obtained the consulship, an elevation which exposed him to many pasquinades. Antony sent him afterward against the Parthians, whom he defeated in three battles, B.C. 39, and was the first Roman honoured with a triumph over this formidable enemy. (Appian, Bell. Cic, 3, 66, seqq.—Id., Bell. Parth, 71, seqq.) VENUs, a Roman or Latin deity, generally regarded as identical with the Greek Aphrodite ('Aopoćirn), though perhaps with but little correctness. The Aphrodite of the Iliad is the daughter of Jupiter and Dione, and by the Alexandrean and the Latin poets she is sometimes called by the same name as her mother. (Theocr., 7, 116.-Bon, 1,93.—Orid, A. A., 3, 3, 769. Id, Fast, 2, 461–Stat., Sylr., 2, 7, 2} Hesiod says that she sprang srom the foam (āopór) of the sea, into which the mutilated part of Uranus had been thrown by his son Saturn. She first, he adds, approached the land at the island of Cythera, and thence proceeded to Cyprus, where grass grew beneath her feet, and Love and Desire attended her. Hes., Theog., 188, seqq.) One of the Homerida sings

(Hymn, 6), that the moist-blowing west-wind wasted her in soft foam along the waves of the sea, and that the gold-filleted Seasons received her on the shore of Cyprus, clothed her in immortal garments, placed a golden wreath on her head, rings of orichalcum and gold in her pierced ears, and golden chains about her neck, and then led her to the assembly of the immortals, every one of whom admired, saluted, and loved her, and each god desired her for his spouse. The husband assigned to this charming goddess is usually the latne artist Vulcan or Hephæstus, but her legend is also interwoven with those of Mars, Adonis, and Anchises.—According to Homer, Aphrodite had an embroidered gardle (keoroc iusic), which possessed the power of inspiring love and desire for the person who wore it; and Juno, on one occasion, borrowed the magic girdle from the goddess, in order to try its influence upon Jove. (Il., 14, 214.)—The animals sacred to Aphrodite were swans, doves, and sparrows. Horace places her in a chariot drawn by swans (Od., 3, 28, 15. — Ib., 4, 1, 10), and Sappho in one whose * team were sparrows. The bird called Iynx or Frutiltus, of which so much use was made in amatory imagic, was also sacred to this goddess, as was likewise the swallow, the herald of spring. Her favourite plants were the rose and the myrtle. She was chiefly worshipped at Cythera and Cyprus, in which latter island her favourite places were Paphos, Golgi, Idalium, and Amathus ; and also at Cnidus, Miletus, Cos, Corinth, Athens, Sparta, &c. In the more ancient temples of this goddess in Cyprus, she was represented under the form of a rude conical stone. But the Grecian sculptors and painters, particularly Praxiteles and Apelles, vied with each other in forming her image the ulcal of female beauty and attraction. She appears sometimes rising out of the sea and wringing her locks; sometimes drawn in a conch by Tritons, or riding on some marine animal. She is usually nude, or but slightly clad. The Venus de' Medici remains to us a noble specimen of ancient art and perception of the beautiful.—There is none of the Olympians of whom the foreign origin is so probable as this goddess, and she is generally regarded as being the same with the Astarte of the Phoenicians : the tale of Adonis, indeed, sufficiently proves the identification of this last-mentioned goddess with the Aphrodite of the Greeks; and yet, at the same time, the name of the latter (if we reject the common Greek derivation) appears singularly connected with the mythology of Scandinavia; for there one of the names of the goddess of love is Frid-a, and we see the same root lurking in d-opoć-irm. (Compare the English name Friday, the “ dies Veneris.”) —When we turn to the Roman Venus, we find her so thoroughly confounded with the Grecian, Aphrodite, that almost everything peculiar to her has disappeared. And yet Venus cannot have been one of the original deities of Rome, as her name did not occur in the Salian hymns, and we are assured that she was unknown in the time of the kings. (Macrob., Sat, l, 12.) She seems to have been a deity presiding over birth and growth in general, for, as Venus Hortensis, she was the goddess of gardens. She was held to be the same as Libitina, the goddess of funerals, because, says Plutarch (Quast. Rom., 23), the one and the same goddess superintends birth and death. — There was at Rome a temple of Venus Fruti (Festus, s. v. Frutinal), which latter term seems to be merely a corruption of Aphrodite. It may, however, be connected with fructus, and refer to her rural character. Perhaps it may form a presumption in favour of the original rural char. acter of Venus, that, like Pales, her name is of both genders. Thus we meet with Deus and Dea Venus; and with Venus almus and Venus alma. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 515, seqq.) VENUsia, a city of Apulia, on the great Appian Way, leading to Tarentum, and about fifteen miles to 8 M

the south of Aufidus. This place appears to have been a Roman colony of some importance before the war against Pyrrhus. (Dion. Hal., Excerpt. Leg.—Well. Paterc., 1. 14) After the disaster at Cannae it afsorded a retreat to the consul Varro and the handful of men who escaped from that bloody field. The services rendered by the Venusimi on that occasion obtained for them afterward the special thanks of the Roman senate. (Lin., 22, 54.—Id., 27, 10 ) Venusia deserves our attention still more, from the associations which connect it with the name of Horace, who was born there A.U.C. 688. We may infer from Strabo (250), that this town was in a flourishing state in his day. Mention of it is also made by Cicero (Ep. ad Att., 5, 5), Appian (Bell. Cir., 1, 39), Pliny (3, 11), and others. The modern Venosa occupies the ancient site. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 288, seqq.) o Ver Agri, an Alpine tribe, living among the Graian and Pennine Alps. Cellarius, however, reckons them as belonging to Gallia Narbonensis. (Plin., 3, 20.) Verb ANus Lacus, now Lago Maggiore, a lake of Gallia Cisalpina, through which flows the river Ticinus. The Lago Maggiore lies partly in Switzerland, but principally in Italy. It is twenty-seven miles long, and, on an average, eight broad. It contains the Borromean islands, which are the admiration of every traveller. (Plin., 3, 19 —Strab., 209.) Vercellae, a city of Gallia Cisalpina, to the northwest of Ticinum, and the capital of the Libicii. It was situate on the river Sessites, now la Sesia, and its site corresponds with that of the modern Borgo Vercelli. Tacitus styles this place a municipium (History, 1, 70), and Strabo mentions some gold mines in the neighbourhood, near a place called Ictymulorum

Vicus. (Strab, 218.) Ammianus Marcellinus writes the name Vercellum. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 47.)

Vercing etúrix, a young nobleman of the Arverni, distinguished for his abilities, and for his enmity to the Romans. He was chosen commander-in-chief of the confederate army raised by the states of Gaul, when the great insurrection broke out in that country against the Roman power; and he used every endeavour to free his native land from the Roman yoke. His efforts, however, were unsuccessful; he was besieged in Alesia, compelled to surrender, and, after being led in triumph to Rome, was put to death in prison. (Cas., B. G., 7, 4, seqq. Dio Cass., 40, 41.) The name Vercingetorix appears to be nothing more than a title of command. Ver-cinn-cédo-righ, “great captain” or “generalissimo.” (Thierry, Hist, des Gaulois, vol. 3, p. 97.) VERG Ellus, a small river near Cannae, falling into the Aufidus. It is said to have been choked with the dead bodies of the Romans on the day of their disastrous overthrow. (Flor., 2, 6–Val. Maz., 9, 2.) Vergili.e., a name given to the Pleiades from their rising in the spring (rere.—Wid. Pleiades). WERGobrotus, a term used among the ancient Gauls as a judicial appellation, and a title of office, Ver-gobreith, “a man for judging,” or “a judge.” (Caes., B. G., 1, 16–Thierry, Hist. des Gaulois, vol. 2, p. 115.) VeroMANdui, a people of Gallia Belgica Secunda, below the Nervii and Atrebates. Their capital was Augusta Veromanduorum, now St. Quentin. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4.—Plin, 4, 17.) VERöNA, a city of Gallia Cisalpina, in the territory of the Cenomanni, and situate on the river Athesis, in an eastern direction from the southern extremity of the Lacus Benacus. The modern name is the same with the ancient. The history of its foundation is somewhat uncertain, for Pliny (3, 19) ascribes it to the Rhaeti and Euganei, while Livy as positively attributes it to the Cenomanni (5, 35). It will be easy to 1377

reconcile these two opinions by admitting that the Cenomanni made this settlement in the territory previously possessed by the Rhaeti and Euganei. Under the dominion of the Romans it soon became a large and flourishing city. (Strab., 212.) It is supposed to have been colonized by Pompeius Strabo. Tacitus speaks of it in later times as a most opulent and important colony, the possession of which enabled Vespasian's party to begin offensive operations against the forces of Vitellius, and to strike a decisive blow. (Tacit., Hist., 3, 8.) The celebrity of Verona is still farther established as being the birthplace of Catullus (Op., Am., 3, 14.— Martial, 14, 193) and of Pliny the naturalist, who, in his preface, calls himself the countryman of Catullus. It was in the neighbourhood of Verona that the famous Rhaetic wine, so highly commended by Virgil, was grown. (Georg., 2, 94.—Crawler's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 70.) WeRREs, C., a Roman who governed the province of Sicily as praetor. The oppression and rapine of which he was guilty while in office were of the most flagrant description, and he was accused by the Siciljans of extortion on the expiration of his office. Cicero managed the prosecution, Hortensius appeared for the defence. Of Cicero's six orations against Verres that have come down to us, only one was pronounced. Driven to despair by the depositions of the witnesses aster the first oration, he submitted, without awaiting his sentence, to a voluntary exile. The other five orations of Cicero, forming the series of harangues which he intended to deliver after the proof was completed, were subsequently published in the same shape as if Verres had actually stood his trial, and had made a regular defence. He perished afterward in the proscription of Antony, whom he had offended by refusing to share with him his Corinthian vases. Verres appears during his exile to have lived in great affluence on his ill-gotten gains. (Cic. in Verr.) Verrius Flaccus, a freedman and grammarian, famous for his powers in instructing. He was appointed tutor to the grandchildren of Augustus, and also distinguished himself by his writings, which were historical and grammatical. Suetonius also informs us that he caused to be incrusted on a semicircular building at Praeneste twelve tablets of marble, on which was cut a Roman calendar, which Suetonius and Macrobius often cite. Four of these tablets, or, rather, fragments of them, were discovered in 1770, and published by Foggini in 1779. They contain the months of January, March, April, and December, and throw great light on the Fasti of Ovid. Verrius Flaccus was at the head of a celebrated school of grammarians. His principal work in this line was entitled de Verborum Significatione. It was abridged by Festus, a grammarian of the fourth century. The abridgment has reached us, but the original work is lost. (Wid. Festus.—Aul. Gell., 4, 5.—Sueton., Illustr. Gram., 17.) Vertumnus or Wortumnus, a deity among the Romans. According to some, he was, like Mercury, a deity presiding over merchandise. (Ascon. ad Cic. in Verr., 2, 1, 59.-Schol. ad Horat., Epist., 1, 20, 1.) Varro, in one place, says he was a Tuscan god, and that, t.erefore, his statue was in the Tuscan street at Rome (L. L., 4, 4, p.14); in another, he sets him among the gods worshipped by the Sabine king Tatius. (L. L., p. 22.) Horace uses Vertumni in the plural number (Epist., 2, 7, 14), and the scholiast observes that his statues were in almost all the municipal towns of Italy.—Wertumnus (from verto, “to turn” or “change”) is probably the translation of a Tuscan name; and the most rational hypothesis re. specting this god is, that he was a deitv presiding over the seasons, and their manifold productions in the ve

getable world. (Propert., 4, 2. —Muller, Etrusk., vol.

2, p. 51, seq) Ceres and Pomona were associated with him. The Wortumnalia were in October. (Varro, L. L., 5, p. 57—Keightley's Mythology, p. 534.) Werus, L. A. Lius, father of the Emperor Werus, was adopted by the Emperor Hadrian, and received from him the title of Caesar, A.D. 136. He died, however, a few months before Hadrian. Verus appears to have been of but moderate abilities, and too much addicted to the pleasures of the table, as well as other indulgences. (Spartian., Wit. Ver.)—II. L. AElius, Aurelius, Ceionius, Commodus, son of the preceding, was adopted by Antoninus Pius, along with Marcus Aurelius, in accordance with the express wish of Hadrian. At the time of his adoption he was only in the seventh year of his age, and he afterward married Lucilla, the daughter of his adoptive parent. After the death of Antoninus Pius, the senate declared Marcus Aurelius sole emperor; but this good prince hastened to share the throne with his adopted brother Verus. The dissimilarity between the characters of these two emperors, Aurelius all purity and excellence, and Werus most profligate and licentious, was, perhaps, the cause of the cordial harmony which subsisted between them during the course of their common reign. Verus took the command of the army which was sent against the Parthians, over whom, by the skill and valour of his generals, he obtained several considerable victories, and captured several towns, while he himself was revelling in debaucheries at Antioch. At the conclusion of this war, Verus returned to enjoy the honours of a triumph which he had no share in obtaining. Not long after this, when the war of the Marcomanni and other tribes of similar origin broke out, the two emperors left Rome to take the field in person against these dangerous antagonists. Verus died, however, of apoplexy soon after the commencement of the war, at the age of 39. In licentiousness and debauchery, Werus equalled the worst Roman emperors, but he was altogether free from the charge of cruel or tyrannical acts. (Capitol. Wit. Ver.) V Es Evus. Vid. Vesuvius. Vespast RNus, Titus Flavius, a Roman emperor, descended from an obscure family at Reate His valour and prudence, but, above all, the influence of Narcissus, the freedman of Claudius, obtained him the consulship, A.D. 52, for the last three months of the year. Some years after this, during the reign of Nero, he fell into disgrace with that emperor for having suffered himself to be overcome by sleep during the reading of some of that prince's poetry. The Jews having revolted towards the close of the year 64, Nero, who did not wish to place at the head of his forces a man whose birth or talents might win the favour of the soldiery, gave the command to Vespasian. While the latter was prosecuting the war with great success, and was engaged in the siege of Jerusaleg, Nero was cut off; Galba hardly reached the capital before he lost his crown and life ; Otho, his successor, slew himself after the defeat at Bedriacum; and, amid the ferment and agitation that everywhere prevailed, the ardour of his troops, and the wishes of a large portion of the East, induced Vespasian to contest the crown with Vitellius. He was proclaimed emperor by his legions, July 1st, A.D. 69, and on the 20th December of the same year, his general Antonius Primus made himself master of Rome. Vespasian obtained possession of the throne in his fifty-ninth year, and became the sounder of a dynasty which gave three emperors to Rome. He was a man of rare and excellent virtues, thoroughly matured by a life spent in the exercise of public duties, and with no object superior to that of promoting the public welfare. Being well aware of the glaring abuses which had long been perpetrated with impuntty in all branches of the administration, he set himself vigorously to the dangerous task of effecting a thor ough reform. He restored the privileges of the sen ate, and gave it once more an actual power in the government. Tho, courts of law were also subjected to a

most salutary reform, and rendered again, what they

had long ceased to be, courts of justice. The insubordination of the army, which had been the cause of so imany bloody revolutions, he repressed with a firm and steady hand; and restored, in a great measure, the discipline which had made it so powerful in its better days. He directed his attention also to the treas: ury, which had been quite exhaustcd by the prodigal and corrupt expenditure of his predecessors; and, in order to replenish its coffers, he regulated anew the tribute and custom-dues of the provinces, and imposed a number of taxes; by which means, though he was accused of avarice, he placed once more the revenues of the empire on a stable basis, and restored them to a flourishing condition. The large sums thus raised Vespasian did not expend in revelry, neither did he hoard up in useless masses. He rebuilt the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which had been destroyed during the tumults that accompanied the fall of Vitellius; and adorned the city with many other public buildings of great elegance and splendour; thus evincing, that, though rigorous and exact in his methods of amassing treasure, he knew, on proper occasions, how to use it with no parsimonious hand. Under him the empire began to breathe with fresh life, and to exhibit signs of prosperity and happiness, such as it had not known since the reign of Augustus. His son Titus being raised to the dignity of Caesar, by which name the successor to the throne was designated, the peace and welfare of the empire seemed secured on a stable basis. During the reign of Vespasian, the arms of Rome were prosperous in various parts of the world. Several states bordering on the Roman dominions were reduced by his generals to the condition of provinces. But the most celebrated, though not the most formidable war which distinguished his reign, was that in which he was engaged when he was called to the throne, the war against the Jews. This was conducted by his son Titus after his departure to Rome to enter on the possession of imperial power. The events of this memorable war are so well known that they need not here be detailed. Suffice it to state, that after Jerusalem had been closely invested, the Jews refused all terms of capitulation, blindly trusted in some terrible interposition of divine power to save them and consume their enemies, butchered each other with inconceivable barbarity during every temporary cessation of warfare, enduring the wildest extremes of famine, and, after suffering every form and kind of misery, to a degree unparalleled in the world's history, their city was taken, and, together with their celebrated temple, was reduced to heaps of shapeless ruins; and such of them as survived these awful calamities were scattered over the face of the earth, and rendered a mockery, a proverb, and a reproach among nations. In consequence of this victory over the Jews, Titus and the emperor enjoyed together the honours of a splendid triumph, while the rich vessels of the temple of Jerusalem were in gorgeous procession borne in the train of the conquerors. Soon after this trimph, the Batavian war broke out, caused by the civil wars for the empire, and threatening Rome with the loss of a province. It was at length brought to a propitious conclusion by Cerealis, aster several sharp encounters, and by a treaty rather than a conquest. The Roman arms were more successful in Britain during the reign of Vespasian and his immediate successor than they had previously been. In his younger days, the emperor had himself been engaged in British wars; and, being desirous of reducing the island completely under the Roman yoke, he gave the command to Cheius Julius Agricola, a man of extraordinary merit, a general and a statesman worthy of the best days of Rome. Not only the southern division of the island was sub

dued by this distinguished commander, but even the more remote regions of Caledonia, hitherto impervious to the Roman legions, were laid open. The gallant resistance of the brave Caledonians, under their leader Galgacus, was ineffectual ; their untaught valour could not withstand the steady discipline of the Roman army. and they sustained a severe overthrow at the base of the Grampians. The Roman fleet, coasting the shore, ascertained the insular character of Britain; but so formidable were the mountain-sastnesses of Caledonia, that Agricola did not attempt to penetrate farther into the country, contenting himself with constructing a chain of sorts between the Friths of Clyde and Forth, to defend the southern districts, and to restrain the recoil and assaults of the unconquered Caledonians. Thus glorious abroad and beloved at home, Vespasian's life began to draw near its termination. Feeling the effects of age and weakness, he retired to Campania, to enjoy the benefits of a purer air than that of Rome, together with some relaxation from the cares of state. There he was seized with a malady which his own sensations told him would speedily prove mortal. His anticipations proved true; and he expired in the arms of his attendants, in the seventieth year of his age and the tenth of his reign. It is worthy of remark, that Vespasian was the second of the Roman emperors that died a natural death, and the first that was succeeded by his son. (Hetherington's History of Rome, p. 187, seqq.) West A, a goddess among the Romans, the same with the Greek Hestia ("Eatia). An idea of the sanctity of the domestic hearth (Éaria), the point of assembly of the family, and the symbol of the social union, gave the Greeks occasion to fancy it to be under the guardianship of a peculiar deity, whom they named, from it, Hestia. This goddess does not appear in the poems of Homer, though he had abundant opportunities of noticing her. By Hesiod (Theog., 454) she is said to have been the daughter of Saturn and Rhea. The hymn to Venus relates that Hestia, Diana, and Minerva were the only goddesses that escaped the power of the queen of love. When wooed by Neptune and Apollo, Hestia, placing her hand on the head of Jupiter, vowed perpetual virginity. Jupiter, in place of marriage, gave her “to sit in the middle of the mansion, receiving the choicest portions of the sacrifice, and to be honoured in all the temples of the gods.” (Hymn. in Ven., 22, seqq.) In the Prytaneum of ev-ery Grecian city stood the hearth, on which the sacred fire flamed, and where the offerings were made to Hestia. (Pind., Nem, 11, 1, seqq) In that of Athens there was a statue of the goddess.-The same obscurity involves the Vesta of the Romans as the corresponding Hestia of the Greeks, with whom she is identical in name and office ('Earia, Fearía, Vesta). There is every reason to believe her worship to have formed part of the religion of the ancient Pelasgian population of Latium (Dion. Hal., 2, 66), as it is by all testimony carried back to the earliest days of the state, and its introduction is ascribed to Numa. (Liv., 1, 20.—Plut., Wit. Num, 9, seqq.) Like Hestia, she was a deity presiding over the public and private hearth: a sacred fire, tended by six virgin-priestesses, called Vestals, flamed in her temple at Rome. As the safety of the city was held to be connected with its conservation, the neglect of the virgins, is they let it go out, was severely punished, and the fire was rekindled from the rays of the sun. —The temple of Westa was round: it contained no statue of the goddess. (Opid, Fast., 6, 295, seq.) Her festival, celebrated in June, was called Vestatia : plates of meat were sent to the Vestals to be offered up ; the millstones were wreathed with garlands of flowers, and the mill-asses, also crowned with violets, went about with cakes strung round their necks. (Orid, Fast., 6, 311, seqq. Propert. 4, 1, 23.) In the forum at Rome there was a statue

of the Stata Mater, placed there that she might protect the pavement from the effect of the fires which used to be made on it in the nighttime. The people followed the example, and set up similar statues in several of the streets. Stata Mater is generally supposed to have been Westa. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 95, 513, seq.) VEstāles, priestesses among the Romans consecrated to the service of Westa. They are said to have been first established by Numa, who appointed four. Tarquinius Priscus added two inore ; and the number continued to be six ever after. The Westal virgins were bound to their ministry for thirty years After thirty years' service they might leave the temple and marry; which, however, was seldom done, and was always reckoned ominous. (Dion. Hal., 2, 67.) These priestesses were bound to observe the strictest purity of morals. If any one of them violated her vow of chastity, she was buried alive in the Campus Sceleratus, and her paramour was scourged to death in the Forum. (Wid. Westa.) WestiNi, a mountaineer race of Italy, whose territory was bounded on the south and southwest by the Peligmi and Marsi, on the east by the Adriatic, and on the north and northwest by the Praetutii and Sabines. The history of the Westini offers no circumstances of peculiar interest: they are first introduced to our notice in the Roman annals as allies of the Samnites, to whom they are said not to have been inferior in valour; but, being separately attacked by the Romans, the Vestini, too weak to make any effectual resistance, were soon compelled to submit, A.U.C. 451. (Liv., 8, 29. —ld., 10, 3.) This people, however, were not behind-hand with their neighbours in taking up arms on the breaking out of the Social war. They bore an active part in the exertions and perils of that fierce and sanguinary contest, and received their share of the rights and privileges which, on its termination, were granted to the confederates. Their chief city was Pinna, now Civita di Penna. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 335.) Wesvius. Vid. Vesuvius. V Estilus, now Monte Viso, a mountain at the termination of the Maritime, and commencement of the Cottian, Alps. . It is celebrated in antiquity as giving rise to the Padus or Po. Pliny (3. 16) mentions the source as being a remarkable sight. The Po flows from two small lakes, the one situate immediately be. low the highest peak of Monte Viso, the other still higher up, between that peak and the lesser one called Visoletto. The waters of this second lake find vent in a great cavern; and this, probably, is the source to which Pliny alludes. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 28.) Vesuvius, a mountain of Campania, about six miles southeast of Naples, celebrated for its volcano. It appears to have been first known under the name of Wesevus (Lucr., 6, 747.-Virg., Georg., 2, 224.—Stat., Sylv., 4, 8, 4); but the appellations of Wesvius and Wesbius are no less frequently applied to it. (Sil. Ital, 17,594. —Wal. Flacc., 3, 208. —Mart., 4, 44.) Strabo describes this mountain as extremely fertile at its base, an account in which many ancient writers agree, but as entirely barren towards the summit, which was mostly level, and full of apertures and cracks, seemingly produced by the action of fire; whence Strabo was led to conclude that the volcano, though once in a state of activity, had been extinguished from want of fuel. (Strabo, 246.) Diodorus Slculus (4, 21) represents it also as being in a quies. cent state, since he argues, from its appearance at the time he was writing, that it must have been on fire at some remote period. The volcano was likewise apparently extinct, when, as Plutarch and Florus relate, Spartacus, with some of his followers, sought refuge in the cavities of the mountain from the pursuit of

their enemies, and succeeded in eluding their search. (Plut., Vit. Crass —Flor., 3, 20–Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 176.)—The first great eruption on record took place on the 24th of August, A.D. 79, and on the same day the towns of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiao were buried under showers of volcanic sand, stones, and scoriae. Such was the immense quantity of volcanic sand (called ashes) thrown out during this eruption, that the whole country was involved in pitchy darkness; and, according to Dion, the ashes fell in Egypt, Syria, and various parts of Asia Minor. This eruption proved fatal to the elder Pliny. He had the command of the Roman fleet on the coast of Campania, and, wishing to succour those persons who might want to escape by sea, and also to observe this grand phenomenon more nearly, he left the Cape of Misenum, and approached the side of the bay nearest to Vesuvius. He landed, and advanced towards it, but was suffocated by the sulphureous vapour.—Aster this, Vesuvius continued a burning mountain for nearly a thousand years, having eruptions at intervals. The fire then appeared to become nearly extinct, and continued so from the beginning of the 12th to that of the 16th century. Since the eruption of 1506, it has remained burning to the present time, with eruptions of lava and ashes at intervals. Vesuvius rises to the height of 3600 feet above the sea. It has two summits, the more northern one of which is called Somma, the other is properly called Vesuvius. Somma is supposed to have been part of the cone of a larger volcano, nearly concentric with its present cone, which, in some great eruption, has destroyed all but this fragment. WettöNes, a nation of Lusitania, lying along the eastern boundary. The city of Augusta Emerita (now Merida) took from them the name of Vettoniana Colonia. (Caos., Bell. Civ., 1, 38.-Plin., 4, 20.) Vetulonii, one of the most powerful and distin guished of the twelve cities of Etruria, a few miles to the southwest of Veterna. Its position was long a matter of uncertainty, until an Italian antiquary, §: menes, proved the ruins of the place to exist in a forest still called Selva di Vetleta.—If we may believe Silius Italicus (8, 488), it was Vetulonii that first used the insignia of magistracy common to the Etruscans, and with which Rome afterward decorated her consuls and dictators. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 187.) Weruria, the mother of Coriolanus. (Wid. Coriolanus.) UFENs, I, the Aufente, a river of Latium, rising in the Wolscian Mountains, above Setia and Privernum, and, in consequence of the want of a sufficient fall in the Pontine plains, through which it passed, contributing, with other streams, to form the Pontine marshes. #: communicated its name, which was originally written Ousens, to the tribe Ousentina, according to Lucilius, as quoted by Festus (s. v. Ousens). Virgil alludes to its sluggish character. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 97.)—II. A prince who assisted Turnus against AEneas, and was slain by Gyas. He was leader of the Nursian forces. (Virg., En., 7, 745.—Id. ib., 10, 518, &c.) UFENTiNa, or, more correctly, Our ENTiNA, a Roman tribe, first created A.U.C. 435, with the tribe Falerina, in consequence of the great increase of population at Rome. (Liv., 9, 20.—Festus, s. v. Oufens.—Wid. Usens.) Wia, I. A. Milia. (Wid. AEmilia W. and WI.)—II. Appia. (Wid. Appia Via, &c.) Wiśdrus or Viadus, a river of Germany, generally regarded as answering to the modern Oder, Reichard, however, considers the Viadus as the same with the Wipper. (Bischoff und Möller, Worterb, der Geogr., p. 1005.) Vibius, I. Crispus, a Latin rhetorician, to whom some ascribe the declamation against Cicero which has

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