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Minos, and a new name is given him; Eurygyes (Eupuytoc), “the far-plougher,” or “the possessor of wide-extended acres” (optic and Yūn), and it is worth noticing, that, after having been slain, and previous to his new appellation, he was reawakened to life by A sculapius, or the sun. (Compare Hesych., vol. 1, p. 1332, ed. Alberti, and Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 107.)
ANdrow\che, a daughter of Eetion, king of Hypoplasian Thebe, in Mysia, married Hector, son of Priam, and became the mother of Astyanax. She was equally remarkable for her domestic virtues, and for attachment to her husband. In the division of the prisoners by the Greeks, after the taking of Troy, Andromache fell to the share of Pyrrhus, who carried her to Epirus, where she became the mother of three sons, Molossus, Pielus, and Pergamus. Pyrrhus subsequently conceded her to Helenus, the brother of Hector, who had also been among the captives of the prince. She reigned with Helenus over part of Epirus, and became by him the mother of Cestrinus. (Homer, Il., 6, 22 et 24.— Virg., AEn., 3, 485-Hygin, fab., 123.)
A Norowochus. I. an opulent Sicilian, father of the historian Timaeus. He collected together the inhabitants of the city of Naxos, which Dionysius the tyrant had destroyed, and founded with them Tauromenium. Andromachus, as prefect of the new city, subsequently aided Timoleon in restoring liberty to Syracuse (Diod. Sic., 16, 7 et 68.)—II. A general of Alexander, to whom Parmenio gave the government of Syria. He was burned alive by the Samaritans, but his death was avenged by Alexander. (Quint. Curt., 4, 5.)--III. A brother-in-law of Seleucus Callinicus. --IV. A traitor, who discovered to the Parthians all the measures of Crassus, and, on being chosen guide, led the Roman army into a situation whence there was no mode of escape.—W. A physician of Crete in the age of Nero ; he was physician to the emperor, and inventor of the famous medicine, called after him, Theriaca Andromachi. It was intended at first as an antidote against poisons, but became afterward a kind of panacea. This medicine enjoyed so high a reputation among the Romans, that the Emperor Antoninus, at a later period, took some of it every day, and had it prepared every year in his palace. It consisted of 61 ingredients, the principal of which were squills, opium, pepper, and dried vipers / This absurd compound was in vogue even in modern times, as late as 1787, in Paris. (Galen, de Theriac., p. 470–1d. de antidot., lib. 1, p. 4333.—Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 2, p. 56)
AN prowed A, a daughter of Cepheus, King of Æthiopia, by Cassiope. She was promised in marriage to Phineus, her uncle, when Neptune inundated the coasts of the country, and sent a sea-monster to ravage the land, because Cassiope had boasted herself fairer than Juno and the Nereides. The oracle of Jupiter Ammon being consulted, returned for answer that the calamity could only be removed by exposing Andromeda to the monster. She was accordingly secured to a rock, and expected every moment to be destroyed, when Perseus, who was returning through the air from the conquest of the Gorgons, saw her, and was captivated with her beauty. He promised to deliver her and destroy the monster if he received her in marriage as a reward. Cepheus consented, and Perseus changed the sea-monster into a rock, by showing him Medusa's head, and unbound Andromeda. The marriage of Andromeda with Perseus was opposed by Phineus, but, in the contest that ensued, he and his followers were changed to stone by the head of the Gorgon. Andromeda was made a constellation in the heavens after her death. Consult remarks under the article Perseus. (Apollod., 2, 4.—Hygin., fab., 64.—Manil., 5, 533.)
ANDroNicos Livius. Wid. Livius.
A Nikonicus, I. a peripatetic philosopher, a native of Rhodes, who flourished about 80 B.C. He arranged and published the writings of Aristotle, which had been brought to Rome with the library of Apellicon. He commented on many parts of these writings; but no portion of his works has reached us, for the treatise Topi Tatov, and the Paraphrase of the Nicomachean ethics, which have been published under his name, are the productions of another. The treatise Tepi Tatlov was published by Hoesschel in 1593, in 8vo, and was afterward printed conjointly with the Paraphrase, in 1617, 1679, and 1809. The Paraphrase was published by Heinsius in 1607, 4to, at Leyden, as an anonymous work (Incerti Auctoris Paraphrasis, &c.), and afterward under the name of Andronicus of Rhodes, by the same scholar, in 1617, 8vo, with the treatise Topi Tatlov added to it. The two works were reprinted in this form at Cambridge, in 1679, 8vo, and at Oxford, 1809, 8vo –II. Cwrthestes, an astronomer of Athens, who erected, B.C. 159, an octagonal marble tower in that city to the eight winds. On every side of the octagon he caused to be wrought a figure in relievo, representing the wind which blew against that side. The top of the tower was finished with a conical marble, on which he placed a brazen Triton, holding a wand in his right hand. This Triton was so contrived that he turned round with the wind, and always stopped when he directly faced it, pointing with his wand over the figure of the wind at that time blowing. Within the structure was a water-clock, supplied from the sountain of Clepsydra. Beneath the eight figures of the winds lines were traced on the walls of the tower, which, by the shadows cast upon them by styles fixed above, indicated the hour of the day, as the Triton's wand did the quarter of the wind. When the sun did not shine, recourse was had to the water-clock within the tower, which building thus supplied both a vane and a chronometer. The structure still stands, though in a damaged state. To the correctness of the sundials, the celebrated Delambre bears testimony, and he describes the series as “the most curious existing monument of the practical gnomonics of antiquity.” There are two entrances, sacing respectively to the northeast and northwest : each of these openings has a portico supported by two columns. When Stuart explored this building, the lower part of the interior was covered to a considerable depth by rubbish ; and the dervishes who had taken possession of the building performed their religious rites on a wooden platform which had been thrown over the fragments. All this, however, he was permitted to remove, and he found manifest traces of a clepsydra or water-clock carefully channelled in the original floor. (Stuart and Rerett's Athens Abridged, p. 8, seqq.—Wordsworth's Greece, p. 146.)
ANdros, an island in the AEgean Sea, one of the Cyclades, lying to the southeast of the lower cztremity of Euboea. It bore also several other appellations, enumerated by Pliny (4, 12). According to this writer, it is ten miles from the promontory of Gerastus, and thirty-nine from Ceos. The Andrians, as we learn from Herodotus (8, 111 and 121), were compelled to join the armament of Xerxes; and, after the battle of Salamis, they were called upon by Themistocles, at the head of an Athenian squadron, to pay a large sum of money as a contribution: with this demand they declared themselves unable to comply, observing that they were close beset by the two deities, Poverty and Want, which never quitted the island, and Themistocles, after a fruitless attempt to reduce them by force, withdrew to Euboea. We learn, however, from Thucydides (2, 55, and 4, 42), that the island was subsequently reduced and rendered tributary to the Athenians. In the Macedonian war, Livy relates (31,45), that the town of Andros was taken by Attalus and the Romans.
The modern name of the island joined in inflection with the later nominative Anio.—
is the same with the ancient, or else varies from it It rose in the Apennines, near the Sabine town of Tre.
only in dropping the final letter. Greece, vol. 3, p. 410.) AN&MoREA, a town of Phocis, mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, 521) in conjunction with Hyampolis, and doubtless in the immediate vicinity of that city, with which it was even sometimes confounded. (Compare the French Strabo, Ecclairciss., No. 34, vol. 3, Append., p. 154.) Strabo affirms, that it obtained its name from the violent gusts of wind which blew from Mount Catopterius a peak belonging to the chain of Parnassus. He adds that it was named by some authors Anemolea. (Strabo, 423.-Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 186.) ANGELion, an artist, invariably named in connexion with Tectacus, as his constant associate. It is uncertain whether they excelled chiefly in casting brass or in carving marble. They are supposed by Sillig to have flourished about 548 B.C. Mention is made in particular, by the ancient writers, of a statue of Apollo by these artists. According to Müller, they imitated a very ancient statue of the Delian Apollo, made, as Plutarch states, in the time of Hercules. (Sullig, Dict. Art., s. v.) ANgli, a people of Germany at the base of the Chersonesus Cimbrica, in the country answering now to the northeastern part of the Duchy of Holstein. From them the English have derived their name. There is still, at the present day, in that quarter, a district called Angeln. (Tacit., Germ., 40. — Wid. Saxones.) ANGRus, a river of Illyricum, pursuing a northern course, according to Herodotus, and joining the Brongus, which flows into the Danube. (Herodot., 4, 49.) A Nguitta, or ANGiti A, a grove in the country of the Marsi, to the west of the Lacus Fucinus. The name is derived, according to Solinus, from a sister of Circe, who dwelt in the vicinity. It is now Silva d'Albi. (Solin., 8–Serv., ad Virg., AEm., 7, 759.) A Nicérus, I. a son of Hercules by Hebe, the goddess of youth. (Apollod, 2, 7)—II. A freedman who directed the education of Nero, and became the instrument of his crimes. It was he who encouraged the emperor to destroy his mother Agrippina, and who gave the first idea of the galley, which, by falling on a sudden to pieces, through secret mechanism, was to have accomplished this horrid purpose. (Suet, Wit. Ner.) A Nicia, Gems, a family at Rome, which, in the flour1shing times of the republic, produced many brave and illustrious citizens. A Nicius Gallus, I. triumphed over the Illyrians and their king Gentius, and obtained the honours of a triumph A.U.C. 585. He obtained the consulship A.U.C. 594, B C, 150—II. Probus, a Roman consul, A.D. 371, celebrated for his humanity. A Nigrus, a river of Elis, in the district of Triphylia, to the north of Lepraeum. This stream formed into marshes at its mouth, from the want of a fall to carry off the water. The stagnant pool thus created exhaled an odour so fetid as to be perceptible at the distance of twenty stadia, and the fish caught there were so tainted with the infection that they could not be eaten. (Strabo, 346) Pausanias, however, affirms (5, 5) that this miasma was not confined to the marshes, but could be traced to the very source of the river. It was ascribed to the centaur's having washed the wounds inflicted by Hercules's envenomed shafts in the stream. The Anugrus received the water of a sountain said to ssess the property of curing cutaneous disorders. o source issued from a cavern sacred to the Nymphs, called Anigriades. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, . 1 14.) p A Nio, a river of Italy, the earlier name of which was Anien, whence comes the genitive Anienis, which is
(Cramer's Anc. ba, and pursued its course at first to the northwest; it
then turned to the southeast, and joined the Tiber three miles north of Rome. It is not so full a stream as the Nar, but was considered, however, by the Romans as the most important among the tributaries of the Tiber, and hence received also the appellation of Tiberinus, whence comes by corruption the modern name Teverone. The Anio was regarded as the boundary between Latium and the country of the Sabines; not, however, in a very strict sense, for on the left bank lay Antemnae and Collatia, two Sabine towns, while the Albani and other Latins had founded Fidenæ, on the right bank of the Anio, in the Sabine territory. (Mannert, vol. 9, p. 517.) The Anio, in its course, passed by the town of Tibur, the modern Tivoli, where it formed some beautiful cascades, the admiration of the present as well as of former times. Of late, however, the scenery has been marred by an earthquake. It has been doubted by some writers whether there was always a fall of the Anio at Tibur. But, without pretending to examine what change the bed of the river may have undergone in remote ages, we may affirm that, since the days of Strabo, no alteration of consequence has taken place; for that geographer (238) talks of the cataract which the Anio, then navigable, formed there: so also Dionysius of Halicarnassus (5,37) and several of the poets. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 64.) A Nistorgis, a city of Spain, in the southern part of Lusitania, near Pax Julia, called also Conistorgis. (Mannert, vol. 1, p. 343.) Some have doubted, how. ever, whether these two cities were the same. (Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 77.—Ukert, Geogr., vol 2, p. 389.) A Nius, son of Apollo and Rhoeo or Rhoio. He was high-priest of Apollo, and gave AFneas a hospitable reception when the Trojan prince touched at his island. He had by Dorippe three daughters, OEno, Spermo, and Elaia, to whom Bacchus had given the power of changing whatever they pleased into wine, corn, and oil. When Agamemnon went to the Trojan war, he wished to carry them with him to supply his army with provisions; but they complained to Bacchus, who changed them into doves. Thus far we have given Ovid's account. (Met, 13, 642.-Coimpare Virg., AEm., 3, 80.) Tzetzes, however, states, that Anius endeavoured to prevail upon the forces of Agamemnon to remain with him nine years, and told them that, in the tenth year, they would take Troy. He promised to nurture them also by the aid of his daughters. Tzetzes cites as his authority the author of the Cyprian epic (ad Lycoph, 570). Creuzer sees in all this an agricultural myth, Rhoeo being the pomegranate, or, in other words, a new Proserpina, and her three children the daughters of the seed. (Symbolik, vol. 4, op. 379) ANNA, a goddess, in whose honour the Romans instituted a festival. She was, according to the common account, Anna, the daughter of Belus, and sister of Dido, who, after her sister's death, gave up Carthage to Iarbas, king of Gaetulia, who had besieged the place, and fled to Melita, now Malta. From Melita she proceeded to Italy, and was there kindly received by Eneas. Lavinia, however, conceived so violent a jealousy against her, that Anna, warned in a dream, by Dido, of her danger, took flight during the night, and threw herself into the Numicius, where she was transformed into a Naiad. The Romans instituted a festival, which was always celebrated on the 15th of March, in her honour, and generally invoked her aid to obtain a long and happy life; thence, according to some,the explanation of the epithet Anna Perenna assigned to her after deification. (Ovid, Fast., 3,653.-Sil. Ital, 8, 79, &c.) The key to the different legends relative
monies attending her festival. It was a feast commemorative of the year and the spring, and the hymns sung on this occasion bore the free and joyous character of orgiastic strains. In them Anna Perenna was entreated to make the entire year roll away in health and prosperity (“Ut annare perennareque commode liceat.”—Macrob., Sat., 1, 12). Now, this new year, this year full of freshness and of benefits invoked, is no other than Anna herself, a personification of the old lunar year. (Compare Hermann und Creuzer, Briefe, &c., p. 135.) Anna is the same word, in fact, as annus, or anus according to the primitive Roman orthography; in Greek évoc or ēvoc, whence the expression £vm kai véa, proving that the word carries with it the accessory idea of antiquity, just as tros appears analogous to vetus. (Compare Lennep, Etymol. Gr., p. 210, seqq.—Walckenaer, ad Ammon., p. 196, 197.) Anna Perenna is called the moon, kat' isotov, and it is she that conducts the moons her sisters, and who at the same time directs and governs the humid sphere: thus she reposes for ever in the river Numicius, and runs on for ever with it. She is the course of the moons, of the years, of time in general. It is she that gives the flowers and fruits, and causes the harvest to ripen: the annual produce of the seasons (annona) is placed under her protecting care.—The Anna Perenna of the Romans has been compared with the Anna Pourna Deri, or Annada, of the Hindu mythology; the goddess of abundance and nourishment, a beneficent form of Bhavani. The characteristic traits appear to be the same. (Compare the remarks of Paterson and Colebrooke, in the Asiatic Researches, vol. 8, p. 69, seqq., and p. 85.—Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 501, seqq.) ANNA CoMNENA, a Greek princess, daughter of Alexius Comnenes I., emperor of the East. She was born A.D. 1083, and was originally betrothed to Constantine Ducas; but his death preventing the engagement from being ratified, she subsequently married Nicephorus Bryennius. On the decease of her father, she conspired against her brother John (Calo:Johannes), who had succeeded him in the empire, and when the design was prevented by the fears or scruples of her husband, she passionately exclaimed that nature had mistaken the two sexes, and had endowed Bryennius with the soul of a woman. After the discovery of her treason, the life and fortune of Anna were forfeited to the laws; the former, however, was spared by the clemency of the emperor. After the death of her husband she retired to a convent, where, at the age of sixty years, she sought to relieve the disappointment of her ambitious feelings by writing a life of her father. The character of this history does not stand very high, either for authenticity or beauty of composition: the historian is lost in the daughter; and instead of that simplicity of style and narrative which wins our belief, an elaborate affectation of rhetoric and science betrays in every page the vanity of a female author. (Gibbon's Decline and Fall, c. 48.) And yet, at the same time, her work forms a useful contrast to the degrading and partial statements of the Latin historians of that period. The details, moreover, which she gives respecting the first crusaders on their arrival at Constantinople, are peculiarly interesting; and we may there see the impression produced by the simple and rude manners of the heroes of Tasso on a polished, enlightened, and effeminate court. The work of Anna is entitled Alertas, and is divided into fifteen books. It commences with A.D. 1069, and terminates with A.D. 1118. The first edition of the Alexias appeared in 1610, 4to, by Hoesche, Argent. It contains only the first eight books. Some copies bear the date of 1618. A complete edition was published in 1651, Paris. . The best edition, however, will be the one intended to form part of the Byzantine Historians (Corpus Scriptorum Historia Byzantinae), at present in a course of publi
cation in Germany. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 6, p. 389, seqq.) ANNALes, a chronological history which gives an account of all the important events of every year in a state, without entering into the causes which produced them. The annals of Tacitus may be considered in this light. The Romans had journalists or annalists from the ve beginning of the state. The Annals of the o were of the same date, if we may believe Cicero (de Orat., 2, 13), as the foundation of the city; but others have placed their commencement in the reign of Numa (Vopiscus, Wit. Tacit.), and Niebuhr not till after the battle of Regillus, which terminated the hopes of Tarquin. (Römische Gesch., vol. 1, p. 367.) In order to preserve the memory of public transactions, the Pontifex Maximus, who was the official historian of the republic, annually committed to writing, on wooden tablets, the leading events of each year, and then set them up at his own house for the instruction of the people. (Cic, de Orat., 2, 13.) The Pontifex Maximus was aided in this task by his four colleagues, down to A.U.C. 453, and after that period by four additional pontiffs, created by the Ogulnian law. (Cic, de Rep., 2, 14.) These annals were continued to the pontificate of Mucius, A.U.C. 629, and were called Annales Marimi, as being periodically compiled and kept by the Pontifer Marimus, or Publici, as recording public transactions. Having been inscribed on wooden tablets, they would necessarily be short, and destitute of all circumstantial detail; and being annually formed by successive pontiffs, could have no appearance of a continued history, their contents would resemble the epitome prefixed to the books of Livy, or the Register of Remarkable Occurrences in modern almanacs. But though short, jejune, and unadorned, still, as records of facts, these annals, if spared, would have formed an inestimable treasure of early history. Besides, the method which, Cicero informs us, was observed in preparing these annals, and the care that was taken to insert no fact of which the truth had not been attested by as many witnesses as there were citizens at Rome, who were all entitled to judge and Inake their remarks on what ought either to be added or re trenched, must have formed the most authentic body of history that could be desired. The memory of transactions which were yet recent, and whose con comitant circumstances every one could remember, was therein transmitted to posterity. By this means they were proof agaist falsification, and their veracity was incontestably fixed. These valuable records, however, were, for the most part, consumed in the conflaration of the city consequent on its capture by the Fauls; an event which was, to the early history of Rome, what the English invasion by Edward I. proved to the history of Scotland. The practice of the Pontifex Maximus in preserving such records was discontinued after that eventful period. A feeble attempt was made to revive it towards the end of the second Punic war; and from that time the custom was not entirely dropped till the Pontificate of Mucius, in the year 629. It is to this second series of Annals, or to some other late and ineffectual attempt to revive the ancient Roman history, that Cicero must allude when he talks of the Great Annals in his work De Legibus (1,2), since it is undoubted, that the pontifical records of events previous to the capture of Rome by the Gauls almost entirely perished in the conflagration of the city. (Livy, 6, 1.). Accordingly, Livy never cites these records, and there is no appearance that he had any opportunity of consulting them; nor are they mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus in the long catalogue of records and memorials which he had employed in the composition of his Historical Antiquities. The books of the pontiffs, some of which were recovered in the search after what the flames had spared, are, indeed, occasionally mentioned. But these were works explaining the mysteries of religion, with instructions as to the ceremonies to be observed in its practical exercise, and could have been of no more service to Roman, than a collection of breviaries or missais to modern, history. (Dunlop's Rom. Lit., vol. 2, p.97, seqq., Lond, ed.—Le Clerc, des Journaur chez les Romains, Introd.) ANNills lex, settled the age at which, among the Romans, a citizen could be admitted to exercise the offices of the state. Originally there was no certain age fixed for enjoying the different offices. A law was first made for this purpose (Lex Annalis) by L. Willius or L. Julius, a tribune of the commons, A.U.C. 573, whence his family got the surname of Annales. (Liv., 40, 43.) What was the year fixed for enjoying each office is not ascertained. It is certain that the praetorship used to be enjoyed two years after the aedileship (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 10, 25), and that the fortythird was the year fixed for the consulship. (Cic., Phil , 5, 17.) If we are to judge from Cicero, who frequently boasts that he had enjoyed every office in its proper year, the years appointed for the different offices by the Lex Willia were, for the quaestorship thirty-one, for the aedileship thirty-seven, for the .." forty, and for the consulship forty-three. ut even under the republic popular citizens were freed from these restrictions, and the emperors, too, granted that indulgence to whomsoever they pleased. ANNIBAL. Vid. Hannibal. ANNicer Ris, a philosopher of the Cyrenaic sect, and a follower of Aristippus. He so far receded from the doctrine of his master as to acknowledge the merit of filial piety, friendship, and patriotism, and to allow that a wise man might retain the possession of himself in the midst of external troubles; but he inherited so much of his frivolous taste as to value himself upon the most trivial accomplishments, particularly upon his dexterity in being able to drive a chariot twice round a course in the same ring. (Biog. Laert., 2, 87.— Sundas, s. v.–Enfield's Hill, of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 196.) ANNo. Vid. HANNo. ANopaea, a mountain of Greece, part of the chain of CEta. A small pass in this mountain, called by the same name, formed a communication between Thessaly and the country of the Epicnemidian Locri. (Herodot., 7, 216.) ANser, a Roman poet, intimate with the triumvir Antony, and one of the detractors of Virgil. (Compare Virg., Eclog., 9, 36.-Serpius, ad Virg., l.c.) Ovid (Trist., 2, 435) calls him “procar.” ANsibarii, a people of Germany, mentioned by Tacitus (Ann., 13, 55) as having made an irruption, during the reign of Nero, into the Roman territories along the Rhine. Mannert makes them to have been a branch of the Cherusci. The same writer alludes to the hypothesis which would consider their name as denoting “dwellers along the Ems,” and as marking this for their original place of settlement. He views it, however, as untenable. (Geogr., vol. 6, p. 156, seqq) ANTA:opälls, a city of Egypt on the eastern bank of the Nile, and the capital of the nome Antaeopolites. It derived its name from Antaeus, whom Osiris, according to Diodorus Siculus (1,17), left as governor of his Libyan and Æthiopian possessions, and whom Hercules destroyed. It was a place of no great importance. The modern village of Kau (Qaou) stands near the ruins of the ancient city. (Mannert, vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 388, seqq.--Compare Description de l'Egypte, vol. 4, p. 111.) ANTAEus, I., a monarch of Libya, of gigantic dimensions, son of Neptune and Terra. He was famed for his strength and his skill in wrestling, and engaged in
a contest with Hercules. As he received new strength nerva, and Venus was decided by Paris.
hero lifted him up in the air, and squeezed him to death in his arms. (Apollod., 2, 5.)—II. A governor of libya and AEthiopia under Osiris. (Diod. Sic., 1, 17.)—Both these accounts are, in fact, fabulous, and refer to one and the same thing. The legend of Hercules and Antaeus is nothing more than the triumph of art and labour over the encroaching sands of the desert. Hercules, stifling his adversary, is, in fact, the Nile divided into a thousand canals, and preventing the arid sand from returning to its native deserts, whence again to come forth with the winds and cover with its waves the fertile valley. (Constant, de la Religion, vol. 2, p. 416.) The very position of Antaeopolis, indeed, has reference to the identity of Antaeus with the sands of the desert; for the place was situate in a long and deep valley of the Arabian chain, where the most fearful hurricanes and sand-winds were accustomed to blow. (Compare Ritter, Erdkunde, 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 779.) ANTAGöras, a Rhodian poet, who lived at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, where he acquired the reputation of a gourmand. He composed a poem entitled Thebais; and the Boeotians, to whom he read it, heard him with yawns. (Mich. Apost. Proverb. Cent, 5, 82.) We have one of his epigrams remaining. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 128.) ANtAlcidas, of Sparta, son of Leon, was sent into Persia, where he made the well-known peace with Artaxerxes Mnemon. The terms of this peace were as follows: that all the Greek cities of Asia should belong to the Persian king, together with the island of Clazomenae (as it was called) and that of Cyprus: that all other Grecian cities, small and great, should be independent, except the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros, which were to remain subject to the Atheni: ans. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 1–Consult Schneider, ad loc.) Polybius (1, 6) fixes the year of this celebrated peace, and Aristides (vol. 2, p. 286) the name of the archon (6eóðoroc to ot, helpffwn byévero). The treaty seems to have been concluded in the beginning of the year of Theodotus, about autumn; because the Man: tinean war, which was carried on in the archonship of Mystichides, was in the second year after the peace : and because the restoration of Plataa, accomplished after the treaty, took place nevertheless in the year of the treaty, as Pausanias implies. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, 2d ed., p. 102.) ANTANdrus, a city of Troas, on the northern side of the Gulf of Adramyttium. According to Thucydides (8, 108), it was founded by an AEolian colony, which had probably dispossessed a body of the Pelasgi in this quarter, since Herodotus (7, 42), names the place the Pelasgic Antandrus. If we follow the ancient mythology, however, we will find different accounts of its origin. These are given by Mela (1, 18), who states that the city was called Antandrus according to some, because Ascanius, the son, of AEneas, having fallen into the hands of the Pelasgi, gave them up this city as a ransom ; and hence Antandrus, i. e., &vr' drépác (“in the stead,” or “place, of a man") ; while others maintain that it was founded by certain inhabitants of Andros, who had been driven from home by civil dissensions, and that hence the city was called Antandrus, i.e., “instead of Andros,” implying that it was to them a second country. Pliny (5, 30), on the other hand, believes that its first name was Edouis, and that it was subsequently styled Cimmers. During the Persian times, Antandrus, like many other parts of this coast, was subject to Mytilene, in the island of Lesbos. The Persians, however, held the citadel, which would seem to have stood on a mountain near the city. This mountain is probably, the same with the one called Alexandrea, and on which, accordog to Strabo (606), the controversy between Juno, Mi(Mannert, ANtem NAe, a city of Italy, in the territory of the Sabines, at the confluence of the Anio and Tiber. is said to have been more ancient than Rome itself. We are told by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (2, 36), that Antemnae belonged at first to the Srculi, but that afterward it was conquered by the Aborigines, to whom, probably, it owes its Latin name. (Varro, de Ling. Lat., 4.—Festus, s. v. Antemna.) That it afterward formed a part of the Sabine confederacy is cvident from its being one of the first cities which resented the outrage offered to that nation by the rape of their women. (Liv., 1, 10.—Strabo, 226.-Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 301.) ANtENor, I. a Trojan prince related to Priam. He was the husband of Theano, daughter of Cisseus, king of Thrace, and father of nineteen sons, of whom the most known were Polybus (Il., 11, 59), Acamas (Ii., 2, 823), Agenor (Ill., 4, 533), Polydamas, Helicaon, Archilochus (Ill., 2, 823), and Laodocus (11., 4, 87). ń. is accused by some of having betrayed his country, not only because he gave a favourable reception to Diomedes, Ulysses, and Menelaus, when they came to Troy, as ambassadors from the Greeks, to demand the restitution of Helen, but also because he withheld the fact of his recognising Ulysses, at the time that hero visited the city under the guise of a mendicant. (Od., 4, 335.) After the conclusion of the war, Antenor, according to some, migrated with a party of followers into Italy, and built Patavium. According to others, he went with a colony of the Heneti from Paphlagonia to the shores of the Hadriatic, where the new settlers established themselves in the district called by them Venetia. Both accounts are fabulous. (Liv., 1, 1–Plin., 3, 13–Virg., AEm., 1, 242. – Tacit., 16, 21.)—II. A statuary, known only as the maker of the original statues of Harmodius and Aris. togiton, which were carried off by Xerxes, and restored by Alexander. (Pausan., 1, 8.—Arrian, Erp. Al, 3, 16.-Plin., 34, 8.) ANtENorides, a patronymic given to the sons of Antenor. ANTERos. The original meaning of the name Anteros is the deity who avenges slighted love. By later writers it is applied to a brother of Cupid, but in constant opposition to him ; and in the palaestra at Elis he was represented contending with him. The signification of mutual love is given to the word only by later writers, according to Böttiger. (Schneider, Wörterb., s. v.–Pausan., 1, 30.-Id., 6, 23.-Plu. tarch, Erot., 20.) ANTHEA, one of the three towns on the site of which the city of Patrae, in Achaia, is said to have been built. The other two were Aroe and Messatis. These three were founded by the Ionians when they held possession of the country. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 66.) ANthèDoN, I. a city of Boeotia, on the shore of the Euripus, and, according to Dicaearchus, about seventy stadia to the north of Salganeus. (Stat. Graec., p. 19.) The same writer informs us, that from Thebes to Anthedon the distance was 160 stadia by a crossroad open to carriages. The inhabitants were, for the most part, mariners and shipwrights; at least, so says Dicaearchus; and the fisheries of the place were very important. The wine of Anthedon was celebrated. (Athenaeus, 1, 56.) Pausanias states (9, 22) that the Cabiri were worshipped here; there was also a temple of Proserpina in the town, and one of Bacchus without the walls. Near the sea was a spot called the leap of Glaucus. (Strabo, 404.—Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Avômóðv.–Pliny, Hist. Nat., 4, 7.) Sir W. Gell reports, that the ruins of this city are under Mount Ktypa, about seven miles from Portzumadi, and six from Egripo. (Itin., p. 147. – Cramer's Ancient
from his mother as often as he touched the ground, the vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 418.)
Greece, vol. 2, p. 254.)—II. A town of Palestine,
salled also Agrippias, on the seacoast, to the south
west of Gaza. Herod gave it the second name in It
honour of Agrippa. It is now Daron. (Plin, 4, 7.) A Nth Elk, a small town of Thessaly, in the interval between the river Phoenix and the Straits of Thermopylae, and near the spot where the Asopus flows into the sea. In the immediate vicinity were the temples of Ceres Amphictyonia, that of Amphictyon, and the seats of the Amphictyons. It was one of the two places where the Amphictyonic council used to meet, the other being Delphi. The place for holding the assembly here was the temple of Ceres. (Wid. Amphictyones. – Herodot, 7, 200 —Straho, 428.) ANTHEMUs, a town of Macedonia, to the northeast of Thessalonica, and which Thucydides seems to com- . prise within Mygdonia. (Thucyd, 2, 99.) ANTHEMUsia, I. a district in the northern part of Mesopotamia, which was subsequently incorporated into Osroene. (Amm. Marcell., 14, 9–Eutrop., 8, 2)—II The capital of the district just mentioned, lying east of the Euphrates and west of the city of Edessa. It is also called Anthemus. The name was derived from the Macedonian city of Anthemus. (Plun., 6, 26.-Strab, 514.) ANThéNs, a town of Cynuria in Argolis, once occupied by the AEgineta, together with Thyrea. (Pausun., 2, 38) It was restored to the Argives after the battle of Amphipolis. (Thucyd., 5, 41.) ANTHERMus, a Chian sculptor, son of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He flourished about Olymp. 50, and was the father of the two artists Bupalus and Athenis. (Wid. Bupalus.) As the name Anthermus is not Greek, Brotier reads Archennus, which Sillig sollows. (Plin., 36, 5–Sillig, Dict. Art... s. v.) ANTHEsphoria, a festival celebrated by the people of Syracuse in honour of Proserpina, who was carried away by Pluto as she was gathering flowers. The word is derived from dro toi opew in thea, i. e., from rarrying flowers. The Syracusans showed, near their city, the spot where Proserpina was carried off, and from which a lake had immediately proceeded. Around this the festival was celebrated. The lake in question is formed by the sources of the Cyane, whose waters join the Anapus. (Compare Münter, Nachricht ron Neap. und Sicil., p. 374.)—Festivals of the same name were also observed at Argos in honour of Juno, who was called Antheia. (Polluz, Onom., l, 1 ) ANth Esteria, festivals in honour of Bacchus among the Greeks. They were celebrated in the month of February, called Anthesterion, whence the name is derived, and continued three days. The first day was called IIuffosyta, ārū Toi Titovc olyetv, because they tapped their barrels of liquor. The second day was called Xoër, from the measure rost, because every individual drank of his own vessel, in commemoration of the arrival of Orestes, who, after the murder of his mother, came, without being purified, to Demophoön, or Pandion, king of Athens, and was obliged, with all the Athenians, to drink by himself for fear of polluting the people by drinking with them before he was purified of the parricide. It was usual on that day to ride out in chariots, and ridicule those that passed by. The best drinker was rewarded with a crown of leaves, or rather of gold, and with a cask of wine. The third day was called Xúrpot, from Airpa, a vessel brought out full of all sorts of seed and herbs, deemed sacred to Mercury, and therefore not touched. The slaves had the permission of being merry and free during these festivals; and at the end of the solemnity a herald proclaimed, Ovptise, Käpec, oix or 'Avteatopta, i. e., Depart, ye Carian slaves, the festivals are at an end. (AElian, W. H., 2, 41–Potter, Gr. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 422, seqq.) Ruhnken (Auct. Emend, ad Hesych., vol. 2, s. v. Atovic) makes the Athenians to have celebrated three festivals in honour of Bacchus: 1. Those of the country, in the month Posideon : 2. Those of the city, or the greater festivals, in the month Ela