Obrazy na stronie

persevering stand in the post intrusted to them, not as an act of high and heroic devotion, but of simple and indispensable duty. Their spirit spoke in the lines inscribed upon their monument, which bade the passing traveller tell their countrymen that they had fallen in obedience to their laws. How their action was viewed at Sparta may be collected from a story which cannot be separated from the recollection of this memorable day. When the band of Leonidas was nearly enclosed, two Spartans, Eurytus and Aristodemus, were staying at Alpenus, having been forced to quit their ost by a disorder which nearly deprived them of sight. When they heard the tidings, the one called for his arms, and made his helot guide him to the place of combat, where he was left, and fell. But the other's heart failed him, and he saved his life. When he returned to Sparta he was shunned like a pestilence: no man would share the fire of his hearth with him, or speak to him; and he was branded with the name of “the trembler Aristodemus” (6 Tpéaag 'Aptoróðmuog). According to another account, both these Spartans had been despatched from the camp as messengers, and there being sufficient time for both to return, Eurytus did so, but Aristodemus lingered on the way.—The Persians are said to have lost at Thermopylae 20,000 men: among them were several of royal blood. To console himself for this loss, and to reap the utmost advantage from his victory, Xerxes sent over to the fleet, which, having heard of the departure of the Greeks, was now stationed on the northern coast of Euboea, and by public notice invited all who were curious to see the chastisement he had inflicted on the men who had dared to defy his power. That he had previously buried the greater part of his own dead seems natural enough; and such an artifice, so slightly differing from the universal practice of both ancient and modern belligerents, scarcely deserved the name of a stratagem. He is said also to have mutilated the body of Leonidas; and, as this was one of the foremost which he found on a field that had cost him so dear, we are not at liberty to reject the tradition, because such ferocity was not consistent with the respect usually paid by the Persians to a gallant enemy. To cut off the head and right arm of slain rebels was a Persian usage. (Plut., Vit. Artar., c. 13.-Strab., 733.—Herod., 7, 206, seqq.—Thirlwall's Hist. of Gr., vol. 2, p. 282, seqq.)—According to modern travellers, the warm springs at Thermopylae are about half way between Bodontza and Zeitoun. They issue principally from two mouths at the foot of the limestone precipices of CEta. The temperature, in the month of December, was found to be ll 1* of Fahrenheit. Dr. Holland found it to be 103° or 104° at the mouth of the fissures. The water is very transparent, but deposites a calcareous concretion (carbonate of lime), which adheres to reeds and sticks, like the waters of the Anio at Tivoli, and the sulphureous lake between that place and Rome. A large extent of surface is covered with this deposite. It is impregnated with carbonic acid, lime, muriate of soda, and sulphur. The ground about the springs yields a hollow sound like that within the crater of the Solfaterra near Naples. In some places Dr. Clarke observed cracks and fissures filled with stagnant water, through which a aseous fluid was rising in large bubbles to the sur#. its foetid smell bespeaking it to be sulphureted hydrogen. The springs are very copious, and immediately form several rapid streams running into the sea, which is apparently about a mile from the pass. Baths were built here by Herodes Atticus. The defile or strait continues for some distance beyond the hot springs, and then the road, which is still paved in many places, bears off all at once across the plain to Zeitoun, distant three hours from Thermopylae. Near the springs there are saint traces of a wall and circular tower, composed of a thick mass of small stones, and

apparently not of high antiquity. The foot of the mountain, however, Mr. Dodwell says, is so covered with trees and impenetrable bushes as to hide any vestiges which may exist of early fortifications. The wall, of which mention has more than once been made by us, was, at a later day, renewed and fortified by Antiochus when defending himself against the Romans; and was afterward restored by i. when that monarch thought to secure the tottering empire by fortresses and walls: he is stated also to have constructed cisterns here for the reception of rain-water. The question is, whether this be the site of the ancient wall, as Dr. Holland and Mr. Dodwell suppose, or whether the spring referred to by Herodotus be not the fountain mentioned by Dr. Clarke, who describes the wall, not as traversing the marsh, but as extending along the mountainous chain of CEta from sea to sea. The cisterns built by Justinian would hardly be in the marshy plain, but must be looked for within the fortified pass. Formidable, however, as the defile of Thermopylae may seem, it has never opposed an effectual barrier to an invading army; the strength of these gates of Greece being rendered vain by the other mountain routes which avoid them. “The Persians,” says Procopius, “sound only one path over the mountains; now there are many, and large enough to admit a cart or chariot.” A path was pointed out to Dr. Clarke to the north of the hot springs, which is still used by the inhabitants in journeying to Salona. After following this path to a certain distance, another road branches from it towards the southeast, according to the route pursued by the Persians. Dr. Holland ascended Mount CEta by “a route equally singular and interesting, but difficult, and not free from danger.” When the Gauls under Brennus invaded Greece, the treacherous discovery made to him of a path through the mountains compelled the Greeks to retreat, to prevent their being taken in rear. Antiochus was in like manner forced to retreat with precipitation, on seeing the heights above the pass occupied by Roman soldiers, who, under the command of M. Porcius Cato, had been sent round to seize these positions. In the reign of Justinian the army of the Huns advanced to Thermopylae, and discovered the path over the mountains. When Bajazet entered Greece towards the close of the fourteenth century, there appears to have been little need of these artifices: a Greek bishop is stated to have conducted the Mohammedan conquerors through the pass to enslave his country. During the late revolution, Thermopylae never opposed any serious barrier against the Turkish forces. The passes of Callidromus and Cnemis were disputed on one occasion with success by a body of Armatoles under Odysseus; but the foe were afterward repeatedly suffered to cross the ridges of Othrys and CEta without opposition. TherMus or TherMUM, an unwalled city of Ætolia, northeast of Stratos, regarded as the capital of the country. It is supposed by Mannert to have derived its name from some warm springs in the neighbourhood, and Polybius (5, 7) speaks of it as rôtov i v Toic *}spuolo. Its situation among the mountains rendered it, notwithstanding the want of walls, a place very difficult of access, and hence it was regarded as a kind of citadel for all AEtolia. It was here that the assemblies for deciding the elections of magistrates were held, as well as the most splendid festival and commercial meetings. Hence the place was stored, not only with abundance of provisions and the necessaries of life, but with the most costly surniture, and with utensils of every kind adapted for entertainments. Philip III. of Macedon surprised the place by a rapid narch, and obtained great booty, although many of the more valuable articles were either carried off or de stroyed by the inhabitants. (Polyb, 5, 9.) In the pillage of the town, the Macedonians did not spare

even the temples; but, in revenge for the excesses committed by the AEtolians at Dium and Dodona, defaced the statues, which amounted to more than two thousand, set fire to the porches, and finally razed the buildings themselves to the ground. They found also in Thermus a quantity of arms, of which they selected the most costly to carry away, but the greater part they destroyed, to the number of 15,000 complete suits of armour. In like manner, whatever was not worthy of removal, was consumed in heaps before the camp. All these facts attest the size and opulence of the place ; of which, however, so little is known, that, with the exception of Strabo and Polybius, its name occurs in no ancient author. Philip subsequently made another attack upon the town, and destroyed all that had been spared before. (Polyb., de virt. et cit., c. 11.)—Under the Roman sway, when the national assemblies of the AEtolians had ceased to be held, Thermus became speedily forgotten in history. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 8, p. 111—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 87.) Thers ANDER, a son of Polynices and Argia. He was one of the Epigoni, and, after the capture of Thebes, received the city from the hands of his victorious fellow-chieftains. (Pausan., 9, 8.-Heyne, ad Apollod., 3, 7, 4.) At a subsequent period, when already ad. vanced in years, he accompanied the Greeks to the Trojan war, but was slain on the shores of Mysia by Telephus. (Dict. Cret., 2, 2.—Heyne, ad Virg., AEn., 2, 261.—Pind., Ol., 2, 76. –Schol. ad Pind., l.c.) The Rsites, one of the Greeks in the army before Troy. Homer describes him as equally deformed in person and in mind. Such was his propensity to indulge in contumelious language, that he could not abstain from directing it against not only the chiefs of the army, but even Agamemnon himself. He ultimately fell by the hand of Achilles, while he was ridiculing the sorrow of that hero for the slain Penthesilea. (Hom, Il., 2, 212, seqq.) TheseidAE, a patronymic given to the Athenians from Theseus, one of their kings. (Virg., G., 2,383) Theseus (two syllables), king of Athens, and son of AEgeus by Æthra, the daughter of Pittheus, monarch of Troezene, was one of the most celebrated heroes of antiquity. He was reared in the palace of his grandfather; and, when grown to the proper age, his mother led him to the rock under which his father had deposited his sword and sandals, and he removed it with ease and took them out. He was now to proceed to Athens, and present himself to Ægeus. As, however, the roads were infested by robbers, his grandfather Pittheus pressed him earnestly to take the shorter and safer way over the Saronic Gulf; but the youth, feeling in himself the spirit and the soul of a hero, resolved to signalize himself like Hercules, with whose same all Greece now rang, by destroying the evil-doers and the monsters that oppressed and ravaged the country; and he determined on the more perilous and adventurous journey by land. On his way to Athens he met with many adventures, and destroyed Periphates, Sinis, Sciron, Procrustes, and also the monstrous sow Phaea, which ravaged the country in the neighbourhood of Crommyon. Having overcome all the perils of the road, Theseus at length reached Athens, where new dangers awaited him. He found his father's court all in confusion. The Pallantidae, or sons and grandsons of Pallas, the brother of Ægeus, had long seen with jealousy the sceptre in the hands of an old man, and now meditated wresting it from his feeble grasp. Thinking, however, that his death could not be very remote, they resolved to wait for that event; but they made no secret of their intentions. The arrival of Theseus threatened to disconcert their plan. They feared that if this young stranger should

ceeded that AEgeus was on the point of sacrificing his son, when he recognised him, and then acknowledged him in the presence of all the people. The Pallantidae had recourse to arms, but Theseus defeated and slew them. Medea, it is also said, who was married to ACgeus, fearing the loss of her influence when Theseus should have been acknowledged by his father, resolved to anticipate that event; and, moved by her calumnies, AEgeus was presenting a cup of poison to his son, when the sight of the sword left with Æthra discovered to him who he was. The bull which Hercules had brought from Crete was now at Marathon, and the country was in terror of his ravages. Theseus went in quest of him, overcame, and exhibited him in chains to the astonished Athenians, and then sacrificed the animal to Apollo Delphinius. The Athenians were at this period in deep affliction on account of the tribute which they were forced to pay to Minos, king of Crete. (Wid. Androgeus and Minotaurus.) Theseus resolved to deliver them from this calamity, or die in the attempt. Accordingly, when the third time of sending off this tribute came, and the youths and maidens were, according to custom, drawn by lot to be sent, in spite of the entreaties of his father to the contrary he voluntarily offered himself as one of the victims. The ship departed, as usual, under black sails, which Theseus promised his father to change for white ones in case of his returning victorious. When they arrived in Crete, the youths and maidens were exhibited before Minos; and Ariadne, the daughter of the king, who was present, became deeply enamoured of Theseus, by whom her love was speedily returned. She furnished him with a clew of thread, which enabled him to penetrate in safety the windings of the labyrinth till he came to where the Minotaur lay, whom he caught by the hair and slew. He then got on board with his companions, and sailed for Athens. Ariadne accompanied his flight, but was abandoned by him on the isle of Dia or Naxos. (Wid. Ariadne.) Before Theseus returned to Athens, he sailed to Delos to pay his vow; for, ere setting out on his perilous expedition, he had made a vow to send annually, if successful, to the sacred island a ship with gifts and sacrifices. (Vid. Delia II.) He also consecrated in Delos a statue of Venus, made by Daedalus, on account of the aid she had given him. He, moreover, to commemorate his victory, established there a dance, the evolutions of which imitated the windings of the labyrinth. (Compare Hom., Il., 18, 590, seqq.) On approaching the coast of Attica, Theseus forgot the signal appointed by his father, and returned under the same sails with which he had departed; and the old king, thinking he was deprived of his newly-found son, destroyed himself. (Vid. AEgeus.) The hero now turned his thoughts to legislation. The Attic territory had been divided by Cecrops into twelve demi or boroughs, each of which had its own government and chief magistrate, and was almost wholly independent. The consequence was, frequent and sanguinary wars arose among them. Nothing but pressing external danger forced them to union, which was again dissolved as soon as the storm was over. Theseus therefore invited not merely the people of Attica, but even strangers, to come and establish themselves at Athens, then nothing but a small settlement on a rock. By his prudence and his authority he induced the heads of boroughs to resign their independent power, and intrust the administration of justice to a court, which should sit constantly at Athens, and exercise jurisdiction over all the inhabitants of Attica. He abolished the previous division of the people of Attica into four tribes, and substituted that of a distribution into three classes, the Nobles, the Husbandmen, and the

be received as a son of the old king, he might find in Artisans (Eötarpiðat, Teouápot, and Autovoyo:). him a protector and avenger; and they resolved to This object he is said to have accomplished partly by

poison his mind against him. Their plot so far suc- force, partly by persuasion.

With the lower classes 1327 e

we read, he found no difficulty; but the powerful men were only induced to comply with his proposals by his promise that all should be admitted to an equal share of the government, and that he would resign all his royal prerogatives except those of commanding in war and of watching over the laws. To the nobles, therefore, he reserved all the offices of state, with the privi. lege of ordering the affairs of religion, and of interproting the laws both human and divine. The result of these and other regulations was the increase of the city and of the population in general. Thucydides fixes on this as the epoch when the lower city was added to the ancient one, which had covered, as we have remarked, little more than the rock that afterward became the citadel. And hence there may seem to have been some soundation for Plutarch's statement, that Theseus called the city Athens, if this name properly signified the whole enclosure of the Old and New Town.—As a sarther means of uniting the people, Theseus established numerous festivals, particularly the Panathenaea, solemnized with great splendour every fifth year, in commemoration of this union of the inhabitants of Attica. Theseus firmly established the boundaries of the Attic territory, in which he inclu

ed Megaris, and set up a pillar on the Isthmus of Corinth to mark the limits of Attica and the Peloponnesus. These civic cares did not prevent Theseus from taking part in military enterprises: he accompanied Hercules in his expedition against the Amazons, who then dwelt on the banks of the Thermodon; and he distinguished himself so much in the conflict, that Hercules, after the victory, bestowed on him, as the reward of his valour, the hand of the vanquished queen. (Wid, Antiope.) When the Amazons asterward, in revenge, invaded the Attic territory, they met with a signal defeat from the Athenian prince. (Wid. Amazones.) Theseus was also a sharer in the dangers of the Calydonian hunt; he was one of the adventurous band who sailed in the Argo to Colchis; and he aided his friend Pirithous and the Lapitha in their conflict with the Centaurs. The friendship between him and Pirithotis was of a most intimate nature, yet it had ori#. in the midst of arms. (Vid. Pirithous.) Like aithful comrades, they aided each other in every project. Each was ambitious in love, and would possess a daughter of the gods. . Theseus, in whose favour the lot had fallen, carried off, with the assistance of his friend, the celebrated Helen, daughter of Leda, then a child of but nine years, though already of surpassing loveliness, and placed her under the care of his mother Æthra, at Aphidnae, whence she was subseuently rescued by her brothers Castor and Pollux.

e then prepared to aid his friend in a bolder and more perilous attempt, the abduction of Proserpina from the palace of Pluto; an attempt which resulted in the imprisonment of both by the monarch of Hades. From this confinement Theseus was released by Hercules; but Pirithous remained ever a captive. (Wid. Pirithois.) After the death of Antiope, who had borne him a son named Hippolytus, Theseus married Phaedra, the daughter of Minos, and sister of Ariadne. Hippolytus lost his life in consequence of a false charge preferred against him by his stepmother; Phaedra ended her days by her own hand; and Theseus, when too late, learned the innocence of his son. (Vid Hipolytus.)—The invasion of Attica by Castor and Polo for the recovery of their sister Helen, and an insurrection of the Pallantidae, brought on Theseus the usual sate of all great Athenians—exile. - He voluntarily retired to Lycomedes, king of the island of Scyros, and there he met with his death, either by accident or by the treachery of his host; for, ascending, with Lycomedes, a lofty rock, to take a view of the island, he fellor was pushed off by his companion, and lost his life by the fall. The Athenians honoured his mem. ory by feasts and temples, placed him among the gods,

and at a later day obtained his bones from the island of Scyros, and interred them beneath the soil of Attica. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 387, seqq. Plut., Wit. Thes,)—Theseus, whose name signifies the Orderer or Regulator (0matic, from Géa, -íaw, “to place” or “establish”), seems rather to indicate a period than an individual, though it is very possible that the name may have been borne by one who contributed the iargest share, or put the finishing hand, to the change which is commonly considered as his work. Theseus, indeed, is represented by the ancients in quite an ambiguous light; as, on the one hand, the founder of a government which was, for many centuries after him, rigidly aristocratical; and, on the other hand, as the parent of the Athenian democracy. If we make due allowance for the exaggerations of poets or rhetoricians, who adorn him with the latter of these titles in order to exalt the antiquity of the popular institutions of later times, we shall perhaps find that neither description is entirely groundless, though the former is more simply and evidently true. §. institutions were aristocratical, because none were then known of any other kind. The effect of the union would even be, in the first instance, to increase the influence of the noble class, by concentrating it in one spot; and hence it proved too powerful sor both the king and the people. In this sense we may say with Plutarch, that Theseus gained the assent of the great men to his plan by surrendering his royal prerogatives, which they shared equally among them. The king was no more than the first of the nobles; the four kings of the tribes (Pv2.00aatzeic.—Pollux, 8, 111), all chosen from the privileged class, were his constant assessors, and acted rather as colleagues than as counsellors. The principal difference between them and him appears to have consisted in the duration of their office, which was probably never long enough to leave them independent of the body from which they were taken and to which they returned.—But there was also a sense in which Theseus might, without impropriety, be regarded as the founder of the Athenian democracy, both with respect to the tendency and remote consequences, and to the immediate effect, of the institutions ascribed to him. The incorporation of several scattered townships in one city, such as took place in Attica, was in many, perhaps in most, parts of Greece the first stage in the growth of a free commonalty, which, thus enabled to feel its own strength, was gradually encouraged successfully to resist the authority of the nobles. And hence, in later times, the dismemberment of a capital, and its repartition into a number of rural communities, was esteemed the surest expedient for establishing an aristocratical government. (Thirlwall's Hist. of Greece, vol. 2, p. 9, seqq.)—Regarded as the patron-hero of that people of Greece among whom literature flourished most, Theseus is presented to us under a more historic aspect than the other heroes of mythology. Though his adventures are evidently founded on those of Hercules, whom he is said to have emulated, we are struck by the absence of the marvellous in them : indeed, the exploits of Theseus are generally such essects as would be produced in historical times by the course of events in the formation of a polity : such, at least, are his achievements in and about Attica. Theseus yielded few subjects, therefore, to the Attic dramatists. When they brought him on the stage, it was hardly ever as the principal character of the piece. He always, however, appears as the model of a just and moderate ruler, the example of a strict obedience to the dictates of law and equity, the protector of the suppliant, the scourge of the evil-doer, and the author of wise and good regulations. (Keightley, l.c.) Theswoth Ét A., a name given to the six remaining archons at Athens, aster the chief archon, the Basileus or King-Archon, and the Polemarch. (Wid. Archontes.) THEspíA or Thespi E, a town of Boeotia, forty stadia from Ascra, according to Strabo, and near the foot of Helicon, looking towards the south and the Crissean Gulf. Its antiquity is attested by Homer, who names it in the catalogue of Boeotian towns. (Il, 2, 498.) The Thespians are worthy of a place in history for their brave and generous conduct during the Persian war. When the rest of Boeotia basely submitted to Xerxes, they alone refused to tender earth and water to his deputies. The troops also under Leonidas, whom they sent to aid the Spartans at Thermopylae, chose rather to die at their posts than desert their commander and his heroic followers. (Herod., 7, 132 et 222.) Their city was, in consequence, burned by the Persians after it had been evacuated by the inhabitants, who retired to the Peloponnesus. (Herod, 8, 50.) A small body of these, however, fought at Plataea under Pausanias. (Herod., 9, 31.) The Thespians distinguished themselves also in the battle of Delium against the Athenians, being nearly all slain at their post. (Thucyd., 4, 96.) The Thebans afterward basely took advantage of this heavy loss to pull down the walls of their city and bring it under subjection, on pretext of their having favoured the Athenians. (Thucyd., 4, 133.) They subsequently made an attempt to recover their independence; but, failing in this enterprise, many of them sought refuge at Athens. (Thucyd., 6, 95.) Thespiae was occupied by the Lacedaemonians at the same time that they seized upon the citadel of Thebes. (Xen. Hist. Gr. 5, 4, 42.)—The celebrated courtesan Phryne was born at Thespiae. It is mentioned, that on her having received, as a present from Praxiteles, a beautiful statue of Cupid, she caused it to be erected in her native city, which added greatly to its prosperity, from the influx of strangers who came to view this masterpiece of art. (Strabo, 410–Athen., 13, 59.) Pausanias asfirms, that this celebrated statue was sent to Rome by Caligula, but was afterward restored to Thespiae by Claudius. Nero again removed it to Rome, where it was destroyed by fire. (Pausan., 9, 26.) Pliny, however, asserts that it still existed in his day in the schools of Octavia. (Plin., 36, 5.)—It is now pretty well ascertained, by the researches of recent travellers, that the ruins of Thespiae are occupied by the modern Eremo Castro. Sir W. Gell remarks, that “the plan of the city is distinctly visible. It seems a regular hexagon, and the mound occasioned by the fall of the wall is perfect.” (Itin., p. 119. — Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 208, seqq.)

Thespi KDAE, the o of Hercules by the fifty daughters of Thespius. n attaining to manhood, some of them were sent, by their father's directions, to Thebes in Boeotia, but the greater part as a colony to Sardinia. (Apollod, 2, 7, 6–Heyne ad Apollod., l. c.—Diod. Suc., 4, 29.-Pausan. 10, 17.)

Thespi Koes, I. the fifty daughters of Thespius, mothers of the Thespiadae by Hercules. (Apollod., 2, 4, 10.)—II. An appellation given to the Muses from Thespiae, near which was Helicon, one of the mount. ains sacred to them. (Vid. Musæ.)

THEspis, an early Greek dramatic poet, generally regarded as the inventor of tragedy. He was born at Icaria, a Diacrian demus or borough, at the beginning of the sixth century B.C. His birthplace derived its name, according to tradition, from the father of Erigone (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Ikapia.-Hygin., fab., 130), and had always been a seat of the religion of Bacchus; and the origin of the Athenian tragedy and comedy has been confidently referred to the drunken festivals of the place (Athenaeus, 2, p. 40): indeed, it is not improbable that the name itself may point to the old mimetic exhibitions which were common there. (Welcker, Nachtrag, Y). 222.) An account of the improvements introduced by Thespis will be found under another o (Vid. Theatrum.)


Thespius, king of Thespiae, and father of the Thespiades. (Apollod., 2, 4, 10.) The name is sometimes erroneously written Thestius. (Consult the remarks of Heyne, not crit., ad. Apollod, 2, 7, 8.)

Thesprotia, a district of Epirus, along the coast opposite to Corcyra, and extending also some distance inland. Of all the Epirotic nations, the Thesproti may be considered as the most ancient. This is evident from the circumstance of their being alone noticed by Homer, while he omits all mention of the Molossians and Chaonians. (Od., 14, 315) Herodotus also affirms (7, 176) that they were the parent stock whence descended the Thessalians, who expelled the AEolians from the country afterward known by the name of Thessaly. Thesprotia, indeed, appears to have been in remote times the great seat of the Pelasgic nation, whence they disseminated themselves over several parts of Greece, and sent colonies to Italy. (Herod., 2, 56.-Strabo, 327.) Even after the Pelasgic name had become extinct in these two countries, the oracle and temple of Dodona, which they had established in Thesprotia, still remained to attest their former existence in that district.—We must infer from the passage of Homer which has been referred to, that the government of Thessaly was at first monarchical. How long this continued is not apparent. Some change must have taken place prior to the time of Thucydides, who assures us that neither the Thesproti nor Chaones were subject to kings. (Thucyd., 2,80.) Subsequently we may, however, suppose them to have been included under the dominion of the Molossian princes. It were as needless to attempt to define the limits of ancient Thessaly as those of Chaonia: we must therefore be content with ascertaining that it was mainly situated between the rivers Thyamis (Calama) and Acheron (Souli), while it extended beyond the source of the former to the banks of the Aotis. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 107.)

Thess ALIA, a country of Greece, bounded on the north by the Cambunian Mountains, extending from Pindus to Olympus, and separating it from Macedonia ; on the west by the chain of Pindus, dividing it from Epirus; on the south by Mount CEta, and on the east by the AEgean Sea. It seems to have been the general opinion of antiquity, founded on very early traditions, that the great basin of Thessaly formed by the mountains just specified was at some remote period covered by the waters of the Peneus and its tributary rivers, until some great revolution of nature had rent asunder the gorge of Tempe, and thus afforded a passage to the pent-up streams. This opinion, which was first reported by Herodotus, in his account of the celebrated march of Xerxes (7, 129), is again repeated by Strabo, who observes, in confirmation of it, that the Peneus is still exposed to frequent inundations, and also that the land in Thessaly is higher towards the sea than towards the more central parts. (Strabo, 430.)—According to the same geographer, this province was divided into four districts, distinguished by the name of Phthiotis, Estiaotis, Thessaliotis, and Pelasgiotis. In his description, however, of these, he appears to have no room for Thessaliotis, which is, in fact, rarely acknowledged by the writers of antiquity ; though we cannot doubt the propriety of Strabo's division into tetrarchies, as it derives confirmation from Harpocration (s. v. Terpapria) and the scholiast to Apollonius Rhodius. (Argon., 3, 1089.)—There is hardly any district in Greece for which nature seems to have done so much as for Thessaly. It may with justice be called the land of the Peneus, which, descending from Pindus, flowed through it from west to east. A multitude of tributary streams poured from the north and the south into this river. No other district had so extensive an internal navigation; which, with a little assistance from art, might have been carvied to all its parts. Its fruitful soil * alike


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some association connected with the primitive history and heroic age of the nation.—Early traditions, preserved by the Greek poets and other writers, ascribe to Thessaly the more ancient names of Pyrrha, AEmonia, and AEolis. (Rhian, ap. Schol. in Apoll. Rhod, 3, 1089.-Steph. Byz., s. v. Aluovía —Herod., 7, 176.) Passing over the two former appellations, which belong rather to the age of mythology, the latter may afford us matter for historical reflections, as referring to that remote period when the plains of Thessaly were occupied by the AEolian Pelasgi, to whom Greece was probably indebted for the first dawnings of civilization, and the earliest cultivation of her language. (Strabo, 220.) This people originally came, as Herodotus informs us, from Thesprotia (Herod., 7, 176. —Strab., 444); but how long they remained in possession of the country, and at what precise period it assumed the name of Thessaly, cannot, perhaps, now be determined. In the poems of Homer it never occurs, although the several principalities and kingdoms of which it is composed are there distinctly enumerated and described, together with the different chiefs to whom they were subject: thus Hellas and Phthia are assigned to Achilles; the Melian and Pagasean territories to Protesilaus and Eumelus; Magnesia to Philoctetes and Eurypylus; Estiasotis and Pelasgia to Medon and the sons of AEsculapius, with other petty leaders. It is from Homer, therefore, that we derive the earliest information relative to the history of this sairest portion of Greece. This state of things, however, was not of long continuance; and a new constitution, dating probably from the period of the Trojan expedition, seems to have been adopted by the common consent of the Thessalian states. They agreed to unite themselves into one confederate body, under the direction of one supreme magistrate or chief, distinguished by the title of Tagus (Tayóc), and elected by the consent of the whole republic. The details of this federal system are little known ; but Strabo assures us that the Thessalian confederacy was the most considerable, as well as the earliest, society of the kind established in Greece. (Strab., 429.) How far its constitution was connected with the celebrated Amphictyonic council, it seems impossible to determine, since we are so little acquainted with the origin and history of that ancient assembly. There can be little doubt, however, that this singular coalition, which embraced matters of a political as well as a religious nature, first rose among the states of Thessaly, as we find that the majority of the nation who had votes in the council were either actually Thessalians, or connected in some way with that part of Greece. This mode of government, however, seems to have succeeded as little in Thessaly as in the other Hellenic republics where it was adopted; and that province, which, from its local advantages, ought to have ranked among the most powerful and leading states of Greece, we find, if we exceptaperiod of brilliant but momentary splendour, to have been one of the most weak and insignificant. We learn from Herodotus, that when Xerxes meditated the invasion of Greece, he was encouraged in the design by the Aleuada, whom the historian terms kings of Thessaly, but who, probably, like the Pisistratidae, had only usurped the regal power, and, upon being deprived of their authority, sought the aid of the Persian monarch to recover their lost dominion. (Herod., 7, 6.) It is evident that the Thessalian nation did not concur in their projects, as we find they applied for assistance in this

emergency to the rest of Greece; but, as it was not deemed expedient to join forces against the common enemy, from the impossibility of making any effectual resistance to the north of Thermopylae, the Thessalians were left to their own resources, and consequently submitted to the Persian arms (Herod., 7, 172, seqq.), which Herodotus insinuates they did the more readily, that they might thus profit by foreign aid in avenging themselves on the Phocians, with whom they had been engaged in frequent but unsuccessful hostilities. (Herod., 8, 27.)—Little notice is taken by the Greek historians of the affairs of Thessaly, from the Persian invasion to the battle of Leuctra, except the fact mentioned by Thucydides of an expedition having been undertaken by the Athenians, under the command of Myronides, with a view of reinstating Orestes, son of Echecratidas, prince of Thessaly, who had been banished from his country. The Athenian general, on that occasion, advanced as far as Pharsalus; but his progress being checked by the superiority of the Thessalian cavalry, he was forced to retire without having accomplished any of the objects of the expedition. (Thucyd., 1, 11.1.)—The Thessalians appear to have taken no part in the Peloponnesian war, though they might naturally be inclined to favour the Athenian cause, from their early alliance with that state. Hence it was that Brasidas felt it necessary to use such secrecy and despatch in traversing their territory on his march towards Thrace. (Thucyd., 4, 78.) Some troops, which were afterward sent by the Lacedaemonians in order to re-enforce their army in that quarter, met with a more determined opposition, and were compelled to retrace their steps. (Thucyd., 5, 13.) On another occasion we find the Thessalians in league with the Boeotians, endeavouring to harass and intercept the march of Agesilaus through their country, on his return from Asia Minor. This attempt, however, was rendered abortive by the skilful manoeuvres of the Spartan prince; and the cavalry of Thessaly, notwithstanding its boasted superiority, met with a decided repulse from the Lacedaemonian horse. (Xen., Hist. Gr, 4, 3, 2.)—While Sparta, however, was struggling to make head against the formidable coalition, of which Boeotia had taken the lead, Thessaly was acquiring a degree of importance and weight among the states of Greece which it had never possessed in any former period of its history. This was effected, apparently, solely by the energy and ability of Jason, who, from being chief or tyrant of Pherap, had risen to the rank of Tagus, or commander of the Thessalian states. By his influence and talents, the confederacy received the accession of several important cities; and an imposing military force, amounting to 8000 cavalry, more than 20,000 heavy-armed infantry, and light troops sufficient to oppose the world, had been raised and fitted by him for the service of the commonwealth. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 1,6.) His other resources being equally effective, Thessaly seemed destined, under his direction, to become the leading power in Greece. We may estimate the influence that he had already acquired, from the circumstance of his having been called upon to act as mediator between the Boeotians and Spartans after the battle of Leuctra. (Xen. Hist. Gr., 6, 4, 22.)—This brilliant period of political influence and power was, however, of short duration, as Jason not long after lost his life by the hand of an assassin, during the celebration of some games which he had instituted; and Thessaly, on his death, relapsed into that state of weakness and insignificance from which it had so lately emerged. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 4, 32.) The Thessalians, finding themselves unable to defend their liberties, continually threatened by the tyrants of Pherae, successors of Jason, first sought the protection of the Boeotians, who sent to their aid a body of troops commanded by the brave Pelopidas. They next applied for assistance to Philip of Macedon,

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