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Anagnia was colonized by Drusus. (Front. de Col.) From Tacitus (Hist., 3, 62) we learn, that it was the birthplace of Valens, a general of Vitellius, and the chief supporter of his party. The Latin way was joined near this city by the Via Praenestina, which from that circumstance was called Compitum Anagninuin. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 79, seqq.) ANAitis, a goddess of Armenia, who appears to be the same with the Venus of the western nations. She is identical also with the goddess of Nature, worshipped among the Persians. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 27.) The temple of Anaitis, in Armenia, stood in the district of Acilisene, in the angle between the northern and southern branches of the Euphrates. She was worshipped also in Zela, a city of Pontus, and in Comana. (Creuzer, l. c.) As regards the origin of the name itself, much difference of opinion exists. Von Hammer (Fundgr. des Or... vol. 3, p. 275) derives it from the Persian Anahid, the name of the morning star, and of the female genius that directs with her lyre the harmony of the spheres. Ack. erblad, on the other hand (Lettre au Cheral. Italinski, &c., Rom., 1817), referring to Clemens Alexandrinus, (Protreptr., 5, p. 57) and Eustathius (ad Dionys. Pericg., v. 845), where mention is made of an 'Appo6. To Tavato, and a Tavalric, and also to the Phoenician Tavár, asserts, that the true name of the goddess in question was Tavairto (corrupted in most passages of the ancient writers into 'Avaírug), and that the root is Tanat, the appellation of an Asiatic goddess, who is at one time confounded with Diana, and at another with Minerva. (Compare also the Egyptian Neith with the article prefixed, A-meith, and 'Aveiro, another form of the name Anaitis, as appearing in Plutarch, Wit. Arturerr., c. 27) Silvestre de Sacy, however (Journal. d. Sap. Juillet, 1817, p. 439), in opposition to Ackerblad, remarks, that the Persians, most indubitably, call the planet Venus Anahid or Nahid, and that the name Anaitis is evidently derived from this source: he observes, moreover, that Tavattus is itself a false reading.—The temple of the goddess Anaitis had a large tract of land set apart for its use, and a great number of male and female slaves to cultivate it (ispáčovzot). It was famed for its riches, and it was from this sacred edifice that An'ony, in his Parthian expedition, carried off a statue of the goddess of solid gold. (Plin., 33, 4.) The commercial rela: tions which subsisted between the Armenians and other countries, caused the worship of Anaitis to be spread over other lands, and hence we read of its having been introduced into Persia, Media, Bactria, &c. (Compare Strabo, 535, and Heyne, de Sacerdoto Comanensi, in Nov. Comment. Soc. Scient. Gotting., 16, p. 117, seqq.) Artaxerxes Mnemon is said to have been the first that introduced the worship of Anaitis into Susa, Babylon, and Ecbatana. (Clemens Alerandr, Protreptr., p. 57, ed. Potter.—Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 26, seqq) ANAMAREs, a Gallic tribe, in Gallia Cispadana, to the south of the Po, and at the foot of the Apennines. They occupied what is now a part of the modern Duchy of Parma. (Polyb., 2, 32.) ANAphr, one of the Sporades, northeast of Thera. It was said to have been made to rise by thunder from the bottom of the sea, in order to receive the Argonauts during a storm, on their return from Colchis, The meaning of the fable evidently is, that the island was of volcanic origin. Apollonius Rhodius, however (4, 1717), gives a different account, o to which the island received its name from Apollo's having appeared there to the Argonauts in a storm. A temple was in consequence erected to him, under the name of AEgletes (Alyāīrno), in the island. (Strabo, 484.) The modern name of the island is Amphio. ANApus, I. a river of Epirus, near the town of Stratos, mentioned by Thucydides (2,82)-II. A river

of Sicily, near Syracuse, now Alseo. It was a small stream, but is frequently mentioned by the poets. They fabled that the deity of the stream sell in love with the nymph Cyane, who was changed into a fountain. (Ovid, Pont., 2, 10, 26.-Met, 5, fab., 5, &c.) ANAs, a river of Spain, now the Guadiana. The modern name is a corruption from the Arabic, WadiAna, i. e., the river Ana. (Plin, 3, 1.) ANAubus, a small river of Thessaly, near the foot of Pelion, and running into the Onchestus. In this stream Jason, according to the poets, lost his sardal. (Apollon. Rhod., 1, 48.) ANAxagoras, I. a monarch of Argos, son of Argeius, and grandson of Megapenthes. He shared the sovereign power with Blas and Melampus, who had cured the women of Argos of madness. (Pausan., 2, 18.)—II. A Grecian philosopher, born at Clazon. enae, Olymp. 70, according to Apollodorus (Diog. Laert., 2, 7), a date, however, that is inconsistent with his reputed friendship with Pericles. The statement commonly received makes him a scholar of Anaximenes, which the widely fluctuating date assigned to the latter renders impossible to refute on chronological grounds: however, the philosophical directions they respectively followed were so opposite, that they cannot consistently be reserred to the same school. From Clazomena: he removed to Athens, and here we find him living in the strictest intimacy with Pericles, to the formation of whose eloquence his precepts are said to have greatly contributed. As scholars of Anaxagoras, several highly distinguished individuals have been mentioned, most of them on the sole authority of a very dubious tradition ; and only of Euripides the tragedian, and Archelaus the naturalist, is it certain that they stood with him in the closest relation of intimacy. His connexion with the most powerful Athenians, however, profited him but little; for not only does he seem to have passed his old age in poverty, but he was not even safe from the persecu. tion which assailed the friends of Pericles on the decline of his ascendency. He was accused of impiety towards the gods, thrown into prison, and eventually forced to fly to Lampsacus. Some foundation for the charge of impiety was probably found in his general views, which undoubtedly were far from according with the popular notions of religion, since he regarded the sun and moon as consisting of carth and stone, and miraculous indications at sacrifices as ordinary appearances of nature. He also gave a moral exposition of the myths of Homer, and an allegorical explanation of the names of the gods. Anaxagoras was an old man when he arrived at Lampsacus, and died there soon after his arrival, in the eighty-eighth Olympiad, or thereabout. His memory was honoured by the people of Lampsacus with a yearly festival. In addition to his philosophical labours, Anaxagoras is said to have been well acquainted with several other branches of knowledge. He occupied himself much with mathematics and the kindred sciences, especially astronomy, as the character of the discoveries attribu. ted to him sufficiently shows. He is represented as having conjectured the right explanation of the moon's light, and of the solar and lunar eclipscs. His work on nature, of which several fragments have been preserved, especially by Simplicius, was much known and celebrated in ancient times. A full analysis of his doctrines, as far as they have reached us, is given by Ritter, in his History of Ancient Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 281, seqq., Oxford transl. ANAxANder, son of Eurycrates, and king of Sparta. He was of the family of the Agidae. The second Messenian war began in his reign. (Herodot, 7, 204.—Pausan., 3, 3.) ANAxAN prides, J. son of Leon, was king of Sparta. Being directed by the Ephori to put away his wife on

account of her barrenness, he only so far o as to 131

take a second wife, retaining also the first.

By his the infancy of knowledge, to do what is at this day be

second spouse he became the father of Cleomenes, yond the reach of philosophy, is incredible. He lived while the first one, hitherto steril, bore to him, after 64 years. (Dog. Laert., 2, 1–0ic, Acad. Quast,

this, Dorieus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus. (Pausan.,

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3.3.)—II. A comic writer, born at Camirus in Rhodes. cerning nature and the origin of things, was, that infin

He was the author of sixty-five comedies.

Endowed ity, to direpov, is the first principle of all things: that

by nature with a handsome person and fine talents, the universe, though variable in its parts, as one whole Anaxandrides, though studiously elegant and effemi- is immutable; and that all things are produced from

nate in dress and manners, was yet the slave of pass on. infinity, and terminate in it.

What this philosopher

It is said (Athena as, 9, 16) that he used to tear his meant by “infinity” has been a subject of much cona successful dramas into pieces, or send them as waste troversy. If we follow the testimony of Aristotle and

paper to the perfumers' shops. He introduced upon the stage scenes of gross intrigue and debauchery : and not only ridiculed Plato and the Academy, but proceeded to lampoon the magistracy of Athens. For this attack he is reported by some to have been tried and condemned to die by starvation. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 183.)

AN ax archus, a philosopher of Abdera, from the school of Democritus, who flourished about the 110th Olympiad. He is chiefly celebrated for having lived with Alexander and enjoyed his confidence. (AElian, War. Hist., 9,3—Arrian, Erp. Alex., 4, p. 84.—Plut., ad Princ. indoct.) It reflects no credit, however, upon his philosophy, that, when the mind of the monarch was torn with regret for having killed his faithful Clitus, he administered the balm of flattery, saying, “ that kings, like the gods, could do no wrong.” This philosopher addicted himself to pleasure; and it was on this account, and not, as some supposed, on account of the apathy and tranquillity of his life, that he obtained the surname of Eiðatuovukóc, “the Fortunate.” A marvellous story is related of his having been pounded in an iron mortar by Nicocreon, king of Cyprus, in revenge for the advice which he had given to Alexander, to serve up the head of that prince at an entertainment; and of his enduring the torture with invincible hardiness. But the tale, for which there is no authority prior to the time of Cicero, is wholiy inconsistent with the character of a man who had through his life been softened by effeminate pleasures. The same story is also related of Zeno the Eleatic. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 435.

**** a young female of Salamis, beloved by Iphis, a youth of humble birth. . She slighted his addresses, and he hung himself in despair. Gazing on the funeral procession as it passed near her dwelling, and evincing little emotion at the sight, she was changed into a stone. (Orid, Met., 14, 698, seqq.)

ANAxibia, a daughter of Bias, brother to the physician Melampus. She married Pelias, king of Iolchos, by whom she had Acastus, and four daughters, Pisidice, Pelopea, Hippothoe, and Alcestis. (Apollod, i, 9.

** succeeded his father Zeuxidamus on the throne of Sparta. (Pausan, 3, 7.)

ANAxil Aus, a Messenian, tyrant of Rhegium. He was so mild and popular during his reign, that when he died, 476 B.C., he left his infant sons to the care of one of his slaves, named Micy thus, of tried integrity, and the citizens chose rather to obey a slave than revolt from their benevolent sovereign's children. Micythus, after completing his guardianship, retired to Tegea in Arcadia, loaded with presents and encomiums from the inhabitants of Rhegium. (Justin, 4, 2–Diod. Sic., 11, 66.—Herod., 7, 170–Justin, 3, 2–Pausan, 4, 23–Thucyd., 6, 5–Hered., 5, 23.)

ANAxim ANDER, a native of Miletus, who first taught philosophy in a public school, and is therefore often spoken of as the founder of the Ionic sect. He was born in the third year of the 42d Olympiad (B.C. 610), and was the first who laid aside the defective method of oral tradition, and committed the principles of natural science to writing. It is related of him that he predictcd an earthquake; but that he should have been able, in

Theophrastus, it will appear that he understood by the term in question a mixture of multifarious clementary parts, out of which individual things issued by separation. Mathematics and astronomy were greatly indebted to him. He framed gonnected series of geometrical truths, and wrote a summary of his doctrine. He was the first who undertook to delineate the surface of the earth, and mark the divisions of land and water upon an artificial globe. The invention of the sundial is also ascribed to him. This, however, has been controverted ; but even if the invention has been wrongfully ascribed to him, he nevertheless seems to have been the first among the Greeks who pointed out the use of the dial. He is said also to have been the first that made calculations upon the size and distance of the heavenly bodies. He believed that the stars are globular collections of air and fire, borne about in their respective spheres, and animated by portions of the divinity ; that the earth is a globe in the midst of the universe, and stationary, and that the sun is 28 times larger than the earth. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 154, seqq.—Ritter, Hist. Anc. Phil., vol. 1, p. 265, seqq., Oxford trans.) ANAxisti, Nks, I. a native of Miletus, born about the 56th Olympiad (B.C. 556). He is usually regarded as the pupil of Anaximander, but this is controverted by Ritter, who sees a striking resemblance between his doctrines and those of Thales. This same writer rejects the birth-date commonly assigned to Anaximenes, and receives that given by Apollodorus, namely, Olymp. 63. Anaximenes taught that the first principle of all things is air, which he held to be infinite or immense. “Anaximenes,” says Simplicius (ad Physic., 1, 2), “taught the unity and immensity of matter, but under a more definite term than Anaximander, calling it air. He held air to be God, because it is disused through all nature, and is perpetually active.” The air of Anaximenes is, then, a subtile ether, animated with a divine principle, whence it becomes the origin of all beings. In this sense Lactantius (1, 5) understood his doctrine; for, speaking of Cleanthes as adopting the doctrine of Anaximenes, he adds, “the poet assents to it when he sings, Tum pater omnipotens forcundis imbrilus ather,’” &c. (Virg, Georg., 2,325.) Anaximenes is said to have taught, that all minds are air; that fire, water, and earth, proceed from it, by raresaction or condensation; that the sun and moon are fiery bodies, whose form is that of a circular plate; that the stars, which also are fiery substances, are fixed in the heavens, as nails in a crystalline plane; and that the earth is a plane tablet resting upon the air. (Plut., Plac. Phil., 1, 17, and 2, 11.-Cic., N. D., 1, 10 — Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 156 – Rotter, Hist. Anc. Phil., vol. 1, p. 203, seqq., Oxford trans.)—II. A native of Lampsacus, and son of Aristocles. He was celebrated for his skill in rhetoric, and was the disciple both of Zoilus, notorious for his hypercriticisms on Homer, and of Diogenes the Cynic. Anaximenes was one of the preceptors of Alexander the Great. He accompanied his illustrious pupil through most of his campaigns, and afterward wrote the history of his reign and that of his father Philip. It is recorded that, during the Persian war, his native city having espoused the cause of Darius, Alexander expressed his determination of punishing the inhabitants

by laying it in ashes. Anaximenes was deputed by his countrymen as a mediator; but the conqueror, guessing his intention, when he saw him ...; the royal tent as a suppliant, cut short his anticipated pe. tution by declaring that he was determined to refuse his request, whatever it might be. Of this hasty expression the philosopher availed himself, and immediately implored that Lampsacus might be utterly destroyed, and a pardon refused to its citizens. The stratagem was successful; Alexander was unwilling to break his promise; and the presence of mind exhibited by its advocate saved the town. Anaximenes was also the author of a history of Greece. (Pausan., 6, 18.-Val. Mar. 7, 3, 4.) AN Azarbus, a city of Cilicia Campestris, situate on the river Pyramus, at some distance from the sea, and taking its name apparently from a mountain called Anazarbus, at the foot of which it was situate. The adjacent territory was famed for its fertility. It afterward took the appellation of Caesarea ad Anazarbum, but from what Itoman emperor is not known, though prior to the time of Pliny (5,27). The original appellation, however, finally prevailed, as we find it so designated in Hierocles and the imperial Notitiae, at which period it had become the chief town of Cilicia Secunda. It was nearly destroyed by a terrible earthquake under Justinian. Anazarbus was the birthplace of Dioscorides and Oppian. The Turks call it, at the present day, Aun-Zerbch. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 354.) ANc4:Us, I. the son of Lycurgus and Cleophile, or, according to others, Astypalaea, was in the expedition of the Argonauts. He was also at the chase of the Calydonian boar, in which he perished. (Apollod, 3, 9–Id., 1, 8.-Hygin., fab., 173 et 248.)—II. King of Samos, and son of Neptune and Astypalaea. He went with the Argonauts, and succeeded Tiphys as pilot of the ship Argo. He reigned in Ionia, where he married Samia, daughter of the Maeander, by whom he had four sons, Perilas, Enudus, Samus, Alithersus, and one daughter called Parthenope. He paid particular attention to the culture of the vine, and on one occasion was told by a slave, whom he was pressing with hard labour in his vineyard, that he would never taste of its produce. After the vintage had been gathered in and the wine made, Ancaeus, in order to falsify the rediction, was about to raise a cup of the liquor to his ips, deriding, at the same time, the pretended prophet (who, however, merely told him, in reply, that there were many things between the cup and the lip), when tidings came that a hoar had broken into his vineyard. Throwing down the cup, with the untasted liquor, Ancaeus rushed forth to meet the animal, and lost his life in the encounter. Hence arose the Greek proverb.

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The Latin translation is by Erasmus, who, as Dacier thinks, read Téret for Těžet, a supposition not at all probable, since “cadunt” gives the spirit, though not the literal meaning, of Tézet–The story just given is related somewhat differently by other writers, but the point in all is the same. (Eustath., ad II., p. 77, ed. Rom.—Festus, s. r. Manum —Aul. Gell., 13, 17.Dacier, ad Fest., l.c.) A Ncalites, a people of Britain, near the Atrebatii, and probably a clan of that nation. Baxter supposes them to have been the herdsmen and shepherds of the Atrebatii, and to have possessed those parts of Orfordshire and Buckinghamshire most proper for pasturage. Horsley, on the other hand, makes their country correspond to the modern Berkshire. But it is all uncer. tainty. (Cars, Bell. G., 5, 21.) ANche Mölus, son of Rhaetus, king of the Marrubii in Italy, was expelled by his father for criminal conduct towards his stepmother. He fled to Turnus, and

‘his conquests into the western part of Asia.

was killed by Pallas, son of Evander, in the wars of AEneas against the Latins. (Virg., AEn, 10, 389.) ANches Mus, a mountain of Attica, where Jupiter Anchesmius had a statue. It is now Agios Georgics, taking its modern name from a church of St. George, which has displaced the statue. (Leake's Topogr. of Athens, p. 69.) ANchi Kle, a city of Cilicia, west of the mouth of the Cydnus, and a short distance from the coast. It was a place of great antiquity, and the Greck writers assign its origin to Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. The authority, however, from which they derive their information, is Aristobulus, who is entitled to but little credit in general. The founder was said by them to have been buried here, and they speak of his tomb's still existing in the time of Alexander the Great. On the tomb was the statue of a man in the act of clapping his hands, with an Assyrian inscription to this effect, “Sardanapalus, the son of Anacyndaraxes, built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day; but do thou, oh stranger, eat, drink, and sport, since the rest of human things are not worth this,” i.e., a clap of the hands. (Arrian, Erp. Aler, 2, 5.) It is more than probable, supposing that a Sardanapalus did found the place, that we are to regard him, not as the last king of that name, but some earlier monarch of Assyria, who had pushed The situation of Anchiale was bad ; it had no harbour, no river, no great road, in its immedatie vicinity. It disappeared, therefore, at last from history, while Tarsus, more favourably placed, continued to flourish. Pliny calls the name Anchiales; and Arrian, Anchialos. (Mannert, 6, pt. 2, p. 66.) ANculklus, a term occurring in one of Martial's epigrams (11, 94), about which the learned are greatly divided in opinion. Scaliger thinks that it comes from the Hebrew Chai and Alah, and is equivalent to Wicens Deus. ANchis. E Portus, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ant. Rom., 1, 32), the real name of Onchesmus in Epirus. ANchises, son of Capys, by Themis, daughter of Ilus, and the father of AEneas. Venus was so struck with his beauty, that she introduced herself to his notice in the form of a nymph, on Mount Ida, and urged him to a union. Anchises no sooner discovered that he had been in the company of a celestial being, than he dreaded the vengeance of the gods. Venus quieted his apprehensions; but, for his imprudence subsequently in boasting of the partiality of the goddess, Jupiter struck him with blindness, or, according to some, enfeebled and maimed him by a stroke of thunder. The offspring of his union with Venus was the celebrated AEneas. When Troy was in flames, he was saved from the victorious Greeks by his son, who bore him away on his shoulders from the burning city. He afterward accompanied Æneas in his voyage to Italy, but died before that land was reached, in the island of Sicily, at the harbour of Drepanum, and was buried on Mount Eryx. (Virg, Æn, 2,647—Id, b, 3,707. —Heyne, Ercurs, 17, ad Virg., En, 2, &c.) ANChisi A, a mountain of Arcadia, on which, according to Pausanias, was the tomb of Anchises. This, of course, is different from the common account, followed by Virgil, which makes Anchises to have been buried on Mount Eryx in Sicily. At the foot of Mount Anchisia there was a road leading to Orchomenus, which city lay to the northwest. (Pausan., 8, 12.) ANchisi Koes, a patronymic of Æneas, as being son of Anchises. (Virg, Æn, 6, 348, &c.) ANchöß, a place in Boeotia, where the Cephissus, or rather the Lake Copais, issued from under ground. It was near Larymná, and on the coast. (Strabo, 404.) ANchör A. Wid. Nicara, II. Anchú Rus, a son of Midas, king o who sacrificed himself for the good of his country, when the earth had opened and swallowed up many buildings. The oracle had been consulted, and gave for answer, that the gulf would never close is Midas did not throw into it whatever he had most precious. Though the king cast in much gold and silver, yet the gulf continued open, till Anchurus, thinking nothing more precious than life, and regarding himself, therefore, as the most valuable of his father's possessions, took a tender leave of his wife and family, and leaped into the earth, which closed immediately over his head. Midas erected there an altar of stone to Jupiter, and that altar was the first object which he turned into gold when he had received his fatal gift from the gods. Every year, when the day came round on which the chasm had been first formed, the altar became one of stone again; but, when this day had passed by, it once more changed to gold. (Plut., Parall., p. 306.) ANcile, a sacred shield, which fell from heaven in the reign of Numa, when the Roman people laboured under a pestilence. Upon the preservation of this shield depended the fate of the Roman empire, according to the admonition given to Numa by the nymph Egeria, and the monarch therefore ordered eleven of the same size and form to be made, that if ever any attempt was made to carry them away, the plunderer might find it difficult to distinguish the true one. They were made with such exactness, that the king promised Weturius Mamurius, the artist, whatever reward he desired. (Wid. Mamurius.) They were kept in the temple of Vesta, and an order of priests was chosen to watch over their safety. These priests were called Salii, and were twelve in number; they carried every year, on the first of March, the shields in a solemn procession through the streets of Rome, dancing and singing praises to the god Mars. (Vid Salii.) This sacred festival continued three days, during which every important business was stopped. It was deemed unfortunate to be married on those days, or to undertake any expedition. Hence Suetonius (0th., 8) states, that Otho marched from Rome, on his unsuccessful expedition against Vitellius, during the festival of the Ancilia, “nulla religionum cura,” without any regard for sacred ceremonies, and Tacitus (Hist, 1,89) remarks, that many ascribed to this cir. cumstance the unfortunate issue of the campaign. The form of the ancile occurs in ancient coins. Representations of it are also given by modern writers on Roman Antiquities. (Consult Lipsius, Mil. Rom. ; Anal., lib. 3, dial. 1.) Plutarch, in explaining their shape, remarks, “they are neither circular, nor yet, like the pelta, semicircular, but fashioned in two crooked indented lines, the extremities of which, meeting close, form a curve (dyközov).” According to this etymology, the name should be written in Latin Ancyle. Ovid says the shield was called ancile, “quod ab omni parte recisum est,” a derivation much worse than Plutarch's. The name is very probably of Etrurian origin, and the whole legend would appear to be a myth, turning on the division of the Roman year into twelve months by the fabulous Numa. (Plut., Wit. Num, c. 13 – Ovid, Fast., 3, 377.) ANcöNA, a city of Italy, on the coast of Picenum, which still retains its name. The appellation is supposed to be of Greek origin, and to express the angular form of the promontory on which the city is placed. (Mela, 2, 4–Procop., Rer. Got., 2.) This bold headland was called Cumerium Promontorium ; its modern name is Monte Comero, and sometimes Monte Guasco. The foundation of Ancona is ascribed by Strabo (241) to some Syracusans, who were fleeing from the tyranny of Dionysius. These Syracusans of Strabo are by many critics supposed to be same with the Siculi of Pliny, to whom that writer attributes the origin of this city. (Plin., 3, 13.—Compare Solin., 8.) But, on the other hand, it is contended, that the foundation of

Ancona must be anterior to the reign of Dionysius, since it is noticed in the Periplus of Scylax (p. i2) as belonging to the Umbri; and, therefore, that the Siculi of Pliny must be that ancient race who scutled in Italy at a very remote period, and afterward passed over into Sicily. (Bardetti, pt. 2, c 10–Olivier, della fond, di Pesaro dissert., p. 13–Grus. Colucci, Delle Antichità Picene, vol. 1, diss. 1.) Ancona is spoken of by Livy (41, 1) as a naval station of great importance in the wars of Rome with the Illyrians. (Compare Tacit., Ann., 3, 9.) It was occupied by Caesar soon after his passage of the Rubicon. (Bell. Cir., 1, 11.-Cie., Ep. ad Fam., 16, 12.) It continued to be a port of consequence in Trajan's time, if we may judge from the works erected by that emperor, which are still extant there. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol 1, p. 280, seqq.) ANcus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome, was grandson to Numa by his daughter. His name Ancus was said to be derived from the Greek dykøy, because he had a crooked arm, which he could not stretch out to its full length; an etymology of no value whatever, the term in question being very probably Etrurian. Like his ancestors, he first turned his attention to the re-establishment of religion, and had the ritual law transcribed on tables, that all might read it. He then directed his arms against the Latins with success, and carried away several thousand of this nation to Rome, whom he settled on the Aventine. He extended his conquests into Etruria, and along both banks of the Tiber to the seacoast, where he founded Ostia, the oldest of the Roman colonies, as the harbour of Rome. He built the first bridge over the Tiber, and annexed additional defences to the city. The oldest remaining monument in Rome, the prison formed out of a stone quarry in the Capitoline Hill, is called the work of Ancus. It was on the side of the hill above the forum (the place of meeting for the plebeians); and until an equality of laws was introduced, it served only to keep the plebeians and those who were below them in custody. The original common law of the plebs was regarded as the fruit of his legislation, in the same manner as the rights of the three ancient tribes were looked upon to be the laws of the first three kings. And because all landed property, by the principles of the Roman law, proceeded from the state, and, on the incorporation of new communities, was surrendered by them, and conferred back on them by the state, the assignment of public lands is attributed to Ancus. This act, being viewed as a parcelling out of public territories, was probably the cause which led the plebeians to bestow the epithet of “good” upon him in the old poems. The new subjects could not be admitted into a new tribe, as the Luceres had been, since the number of tribes was completed. They constituted a community, which stood side by side with the people formed by the members of the thirty curia, as the body of the Latin towns had stood in relation to Alba. This was the beginning of the plebs, which was the strength and the life of Rome, the people of Ancus as distinguished from that of Romulus; and this is a fresh reason for Ancus being placed in the middle of the Roman kings. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist, p. 86, Twiss's abridgment.) Ancus reigned, according to the fabulous Roman chronology, twenty-four years. (Liv., 1, 32, seqq —Florus, 1,4-Dion Hall, 3, 9, &c.) ANcy RA. I. a city of Galatia, west of the Halys. According to Pausanias (2,4), it was founded by Midas, and the name was derived from an anchor (dysvpa) which was found here and preserved in the temple of Jupiter. This city was greatly enlarged by Augustus, whence the grammarian Tzetzes is led to style him the founder of the city, and under Nero it was styled the metropolis of Galatia. Its situation was extremely well adapted for inland trade, and Ancyra became a kind of stapleplace for the commodities of the East. It is famous also as having been the spot where the Monumentum Ancyranum was found in modern times, a spurious inscription on a temple erected in honour of Augustus, which gives a history of the several actions and public merits of Augustus, and which shows also that he had been a great patron of the Ancyrani. Ancyra is now called by the Turks Angouri, and by the Europeans Angora, and is the place whence the celebrated shawls and hosiery made of goats' hair were originally brought. Near this place, Bajazet was conquered and made prisoner by Timur, or, as the name is commonly, though incorrectly, written, Tamerlane. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 46, seqq.)—II. A town of Phrygia, on the confines of Mysia. Strabo (576) places it in the district of Abasitis, near the sources of the river Makestus, which flows into the Rhyndacus. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 111.) ANdAbit/E, gladiators who fought blindfolded, whence the proverb Andabatarum more pugnare, to denote rash and inconsiderate measures. The name comes from the Greek ávabárat, because they fought in chariots or on horseback. (Consult Erasmus, Chil., p. 461.) ANDANIA, a city of Messenia, situate. according to Pausanias (4, 33), at the distance of eight stadia from Carnasium. It had been the capital of Messenia before the domination of the Heraclidae. (Pausan., 4, 3.) Strabo (360) places it on the road from Messene to Megalopolis. It is also mentioned by Livy (36, 31) as situated betwen these two cites. Sir W. Gell (Itin., p. 69) observed its ruins between Sakona and Krano, on a hill formed by the foot of Mount Tetrage. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 147.) ANdeclvi or ANdes, a people of Gaul, east of the Namnetes, and lying along the northern bank of the Liger or Loire. Their capital was Juliomagus, now Angers, and their territory corresponded in part to what is now the department de la Mayenne. (Caes., B. G., 2, 35) Andrs, I. a people of Gaul. Wid. Andecavi-II. A village near Mantua, where Virgil was born., (Compare Hieron., Chron. Euseb., 2, and Sil. Ital, 8, 594.) Tradition has long assigned to a small place, now named Pietola, the honour of representing this birthplace of Virgil; but as this opinion appears to derive no support from the passages in which the poet is supposed to speak of his own farm, the prevailing notion among the learned seems to contradict the popular report which identifies Andes with Pietola. (Maffei, Verona Illustr., vol. 2, p. 1–Viso, Memorie Istoriche, vol. 1, p. 31.-Bonelli, Mem. Mantor, vol. 1, p. 120) It may be observed, however, that Virgil's birthplace and his farm may not necessarily have been one and the same : in this case it would seem that no argument could be objected to a local but very ancient and wellestablished tradition. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 69, seqq ) ANnocides, an Athenian orator, son of Leogoras, and born in the first year of the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 468. He commanded the Athenian fleet in the war between the Corinthians and Corcyreans, and was af. terward accused of having been concerned in mutilating the Herma, or statues of Mercury, a crime of which Alcibiades was regarded as one of the authors. Andocides, having been arrested for this sacrilege, escaped punishment by denouncing his real or pretended accomplices. Photius informs us, that among these was Leogoras, but that Andocides found the means of obtaining his father's pardon. (Phot, Bibl., vol. 2, p. 488, ed. Bekker.) The same author mentions various other incidents in the life of this orator, which compelled him at last to quit Athens. He returned during the government of the four hundred, and was cast into rison, whence, however, he succeeded in escaping. e returned a second time to his native country after the fall of the thirty tyrants. Having failed in an embassy to Sparta, which had been confided to him, he

no longer dared to show himself in Athens, but died in exile. Andocides employed his abilities as an orator merely in his own affairs. The four discourses of his which have come down to us are important for the history of Greece. The first has reference to the Mysteries of Eleusis, which he had been accused of violating (IIept Mvarmpitou). The second (IIepi Kathóðov), treats of his (second) return to Athens. The third (IIepi Eipfivno), “Concerning Peace,” was pronounced in the fourth year of the 95th Olympiad, on occasion of the peace with Sparta; the fourth is directed against Alcibiades (Karā'A2k16táčov). Taylor, led into an error by a passage of Plutarch (Wit. Alcib., 13–Ed. Reiske, vol. 2, p. 21), thinks that this discourse was delivered by Phaeax, one of the antagonists of Alcibiades; but Ruhnken has shown this opinion to be incorrect. (Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr.—p. 54, of the edition of Rutilius Lupus.-Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 205, seqq.) The discourses of Andocides are given in Reiske's edition of the Greek orators; in that of Bekker, and in the edition of Dobson, Lond, 1828, 16 vols. 8vo. ANDomitis, a river of India, falling into the Ganges. According to D'Anville, the modern Sonn-sou. (Wid. Sonus.) ANdriclus, a mountain of Cilicia Trachea, north of the promontory Anemurium. (Strab., 670.) ANDriscus, an obscure individual, a native of Adramyttium in Asia Minor, who, from his strong resemblance to Philip, son of Perseus, the last king of Macedonia, was induced to pass himself off for that prince, and hence received the name of Pseudophilippus, or “the false Philip.” Having deceived the Macedonians, he induced them to revolt against the Roman power, and gained at first some advantages, but was at length defeated by Caecilius Metellus, and led in triumph B.C. 148. (Flor, 2, 14.—Well. Paterc., 1, 11.) ANdrocydes, I. a painter of Cyzicus, contemporary with Pelopidas and Zeuxis, the latter of whom he attempted to rival. Two of his productions are mentioned by the ancient writers, a painting of a battle and a portrait of Scylla, the latter being celebrated for the accuracy with which the fish accompanying the monster were represented. (Plut., Wit. Pelop., 25–Plin., 35, 10–Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.)—II. A physician in the time of Alexander the Great, who, in writing to the king, in condemnation of the use of wine, observed, to quote the Latin version of Pliny, “Vinum poturus rer, memento te bibere sanguinem terra: cucuta hominum venenum est, cicutao runum.” (Plin. 14, 5.) ANdrog Eus, son of Minos and Pasiphaë. He was famous for his skill in wrestling, and overcame every antagonist at Athens during the contest at the Panathenaic festival, and AEgeus, through envy, sent him against the Marathonian bull, by which animal he was destroyed. According to another account, he was waylaid and assassinated while proceeding to Thebes to attend the games of Laius, and his murderers were the combatants whom he had conquered at Athens, and who were led by envy to perpetrate the deed. Minos declared war against Athens to revenge the death of his son, and peace was at last re. established on condition that Ægeus sent yearly seven boys and seven girls from Athens to Crete, to be devoured by the Minotaur. (Vid. Minotaurus) The Athenians established festivals, by order of Minos, in honour of his son, and called them Androgeia. (Apollod, 3, 15.—Hygin, fab., 41.—Virg., AEn., 6, 20.) The whole story of Androgeus is an allegorical one, and has an agricultural reference. Androgeus is the man of the earth, the cultivator ('AvôpóYewc). The Marathonian bull, by whose fire, according to one account (Serp., ad Virg., AEm., 6, 20), he was injured in the conflict, recalls to mind the fire-breathing bulls of Colchis, the land of Æétes, the first man of the earth. A new field of exertion now opens on the son of

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