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Hermeas and Proclus, the commentators on Plato, the loss is not very great.— Pratinas was a native of Phlius, and a poet of higher talent. He too attempted the new style of dramatic composition, and once obtained a tragic victory. But the manifest pre-eminence of the youthful ACschylus probably deterred the Phliasian from continuing to cultivate the graver form of the art, and led him to contrive a novel and mixed kind of play. Borrowing from tragedy its external form and mythological materials, Pratinas added a chorus of Satyrs, with their lively songs, gestures, and movements. This new composition was called the Satyric Drama. The novelty was exceedingly welltimed. The innovations of Thespis and Phrynichus had banished the Satyric chorus, with its wild pranks and merriment, to the great displeasure of the commonalty, who retained a strong regret for their old amusement amid the new and more refined exhibitions. The Satyric drama gave them back, under an improved form, the favourite diversion of former times; and was received with such universal applause, that the tragic poets, in compliance with the humour of their auditors, deemed it advisable to combine this ludicrous exhibition with their graver pieces. One Satyric drama was added to each tragic trilogy, as long as the custom of contending with a series of plays, and not with single pieces, continued. AEschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were all distinguished Satyric composers; and in the Cyclops of the latter we possess the only extant specimen of this singular composition. As regards the changes produced by Æschylus in the drama, vid. Æschylus.

2. Dramatic Contests.

The precise time at which the contests of the drama commenced is uncertain. The Arundel Marble would make them coeval with the first inventions of Thespis. On the other hand, Plutarch assures us that no scenic contests were established until some years after the early Thespian exhibitions. (Wit. Sol., 29.) The true account appears to be this: The contests of the Dithyrambic and Satyric choruses were almost contemporaneous with their origin. Those of the Dithyramb continued without interruption to the latest period of theatric spectacle in ancient Greece : and although the great improvements of Thespis might, for the moment, excite admiration rather than competition, yet doubtless his distinguished success soon stimulated others to attempt this new and popular kind of entertainment, and rival the originator. Under Æschylus and his immediate successors the theatrical contests advanced to a high degree of importance. They were placed under the superintendence of the magistracy; the representations were given with every advantage of stage decoration, and the expenses defrayed as a public concern. These contests were maintained at Athens with more or less splendour and talent for several centuries, long surviving her independence and grandeur.—In accordance with the origin of the drama, its contests were confined to the Dionysia, or festivals of Bacchus, the patron deity of scenic entertainments. These festivals were sour in number, and occurred in the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th months respectively of the Attic year. (Donaldson, Theatre of the Greeks, p. 132, and the authorities quoted by him, in notis.)—1. The “ Country-Dionysia” (Tä kar' dypovo Atovtova) were held in all the country towns and villages throughout Attica, in Poseideon, the sixth Athenian month, corresponding to the latter part of December and the beginning of January. Aristophanes has left us a picture of this festival in the Acharnians (v. 235, &c.). About to offer a sacrifice to Bacchus, Dicaeapolis, appears on the stage, with his household marshalled in regular procession. His young daughter carries the sacred basket; a slave lears aloft the mystic symbol of the god; the honest

old countryman himself comes last, chanting the Phallic song, while the wife, stationed upon the house-top, looks on as spectatress. The number of actors is here, of course, limited to one family, as Dicaeapolis had purchased the truce for himself alone. In times of peace and quiet the whole population of the Čiuoc joined in the solemnities.—2. The “Festival of the wine-press” (ra Amvaia) was held in the month Gamelion, which corresponded to the Ionian month Lenaeon, and to part of January and February. It was, like the rural Dionysia, a vintage-festival, but differed from it in being confined to a particular spot in the city of Athens, called the Lenaeon, where the first wine-press (Amég) was erected.—3. The “Anthesteria” (rù 'Avteatmpta, or $v Aiuvato) were held on the 11th, 12th, and 13th days of the month Anthesterion. This was not a vintage-festival like the other two. The new wine was drawn from the cask on the first day of the feast, which was called IIitoryta, or “the Broachings.” It was tasted on the second day, which was called Xóes, or “the drinking-cups;” while the third day was called Xúrpot, on account of the banqueting which went on then. At the Chočs, each of the citizens had a separate cup, a custom which arose, according to tradition, from the presence of Orestes at the feast before he had been duly purified (Müller's Eumeniden, § 50): it has been thought, however, to refer to a difference of castes among the worshippers at the time of the adoption of the Dionysian rites in the city.—4. The “Great Dionysia” (rù êv daret, kar’ &arv, or āarticó) were celebrated between the 8th and 18th of Elaphebolion. (AEschin., Tepi Trapampear., p. 36.) This festival is always to be understood when the Dionysia are mentioned without any qualifying epithet.—At the first, second, and fourth of these festivals, it is known that theatrical exhibitions took place. The exhibitions at the country Dionysia were generally of old pieces. Indeed, there is no instance of a play being acted on those occasions for the first time, at least after the Greek drama had arrived at perfection. At the Lenaea and the great Dionysia, both tragedies and comedies were performed; at the latter, the tragedies at least were always new pieces.—At the time of the greater Dionysia there was always a great concourse of strangers in Athens: deputations bringing the tribute from the several dependant states, visitants from the cities in alliance, and foreigners from all parts of the civilized world: for these Atovčata were the dramatic Olympia of Greece. (Aristoph., Acharn., 474.)—We may estimate the importance attached to these scenic exhibitions from the care manifested in providing by public enactment for their due regulation and support. They were placed under the immediate superintendence of the first magistrates in the state: the representations at the great Dionysia under that of the chief archon, those at the Lenara under that of him called the king-archon. (Jul. Pollur, 8, 89, seqq.) To this presiding archon the candidates presented their pieces. He selected the most deserving compositions, and assigned to every poet thus deemed worthy of admission to the contest three actors by lot, together with a chorus. The equipment of these choruses was eonsidered a public concern, and, as such, like the fitting out of triremes and the other Aetrovpyial, or state duties, was imposed upon the wealthier members of the community. The émue?nraí of each tribe selected one of their body to bear the cost and superintend the training of a chorus. This individual was termed Xopmyós, his office Xopmyia. The Choragus was considered as the religious representative of the whole people. Hence his person and the ornaments which he procured for the occasion were sacred. (Demosth. in Mid., p. 519.) He was said to do tile state's work for it (Aetrovpyriv.–Consult Valckenaer ad Ammon., 2, 16.-Ruhnk., Epist. property exceeded three talents were liable.

Crit., 1, p. 54). The Choragia, the Gymnasiarchy, on which it was placed. (Lysias, ub, supr., p. 202. the Feasting of the Tribes, and the Architheoria, be- –Wordsworth's Athens and Attica, p. 153, seqq.; longed to the class of regularly-recurring state burdens Thus the beautiful choragic monument of Lysicrates, (#yxvKAuot Aetrovpytat), to which all persons whose which is still standing at Athens, was undoubtedly sur

It was mounted by a tripod.—The merits of the candidates

the business of the Choragus to provide the chorus in were decided by judges appointed by lot, and these all plays, whether tragic or comic, and also for the were generally, but not always, five in number. The lyric choruses of men and boys, Pyrrhichists, Cyclian archon administered an oath to them, and in the case

dancers, and others.

Čáakazoo), who instructed them in the songs and dances which they had to perform; and it appears that Choragi drew lots for the first choice of teachers. The Choragus had also to pay the musicians and singers who composed the chorus, and was allowed to press children, if their parents did not give them up of their own accord. He was obliged to lodge and maintain the chorus till the time of performance, and to supply the singers with such aliments as conduce to strengthen the voice. In the laws of Solon, the age prescribed for the Choragus was forty years; but this law does not appear to have been long in force. The relative expense of the different choruses in the time of Lysias is given in a speech of that orator. ("AT02. čopo6., p. 698.) We learn from this that the tragic chorus cost nearly twice as much as the comic, though neither of the dramatic choruses was so expensive as the chorus of men or the chorus of flute-players. (Demosth. in Mid., p. 565.) No foreigner was allowed to dance in the choruses of the great Dionysia. (Petit, p. 353.) If any Choragus was convicted of employing one in his chorus, he was liable to a fine of a thousand drachmae. This law did not extend to the Lenaea (Petit, p. 353); there the Méroukou also might be Choragi. The rival Choragi were termed avttrópm70t; the contending dramatic poets, and the composers for the Cyclian or other choruses, āvrućačáakažot ; the performers, āvritervou. (Alciphron, 3, 48)—During one period in the history of the Athenian stage, the tragic candidates were each to produce three serious and one Satyric drama, together entitled a respaAoyia; otherwise, omitting the Satyric drama, the three tragedies, taken by themselves, were called a spuzoyia. The earliest respazoyia on record is that one of . Eschylus which contained the Persa, and was exhibited B.C. 472. From that date down to B.C. 415, a space of fifty-seven years, we have frequent notices of tetralogies. In B.C. 415, Euripides represented a tetralogy, one of the dramas in which was the Troades. Af. ter this time it does not appear from any ancient testimony whether the custom was continued or not. Indeed, it is matter of great doubt whether the practice was at any time regular and indispensable. Sometimes, as in the Oresteiad of AEschylus, and the Pandionid of Philocles, the three tragedies were on a common and connected subject; in general we find the case otherwise. (Aristoph., Ran., 1122. —Id, Ar., 280.)—The prize of tragedy was, as has already been noticed, originally a goat; of comedy, a jar of wine and a basket of figs : but of these we have no intimation after the first stage in the history of the drama. In later times the successful poet was simply rewarded with a wreath of ivy. (Athen, 5, p. 217.) His name was also proclaimed before the audience. His Choragus and performers were adorned in like manner. The poet used also, with his actors, to sacrifice the &rtvikta, and provide an entertainment, to which his friends were invited. The victorious Choragus in a tragic contest dedicated a tablet to Bacchus, inscribed with the names of himself, his poet, and the archon. In comedy the Choragus likewise consecrated to the same god the dress and ornaments of his actors. The Choragus who had exhibited the best musical or theatrical entertainment generally received a tripod as a reward or prize. This he was at the expense of consecrating; and in some cases he built the monument

His first duty, after collecting of the Cyclian choruses, any injustice or partiality was his chorus, was to provide and pay a teacher (topo64- punishable by fine.

No prize drama was allowed to be exhibited a second time; but an unsuccessful piece, after being altered and retouched, might be again presented. The plays of Æschylus were exempted by a special decree from this regulation. Afterward (Aul. Gell., 7, 5) the same privilege was extended to those of Sophocles and Euripides; but as the superiority of these great masters was so decided, few candidates could be found to enter the lists against their produced tragedies. A law was consequently passed, forbidding the future exhibition of these three dramatists, and directing that they should be read in public every year. —The whole time of representation was portioned out in equal spaces to the several competitors by means of a clepsydra, and seems to have been dependant upon the number of pieces represented. (Aristot., Poet., 7.) It was the poet's business, therefore, so to limit the length of his play as not to occupy in the acting more than the time allowed It is impossible now to ascertain the average number of pieces produced at one representation. Perhaps from ten to twelve dramas might be exhibited in the course of the day. (Donaldson, Theatre of the Greeks, p. 138.)

3. The Theatre.

In the first stage of the art no building was required or provided for its representations. In the country, the Dionysian performances were generally held at some central point, where several roads met; as a rendezvous most easy of access, and convenient in distance to all the neighbourhood. (Virg., Georg., 2, 382.) In the city the public place was the ordinary site of exhihition. But when, at Athens, tragedy began to assume her proper dignity, and dramatic contests were becoming matter of national pride and attention, the need of a suitable building was soon felt. A theatre of wood was erected. (Photius, s. v. "Ikpua.) Through the weakness of the material or some defect in the construction, this edifice fell beneath the weight of the crowds assembled to witness a representation, in which Æschylus and Pratinas were rivals. (Liban. Arg. in Olynth... l. — Suidas, s. v. IIparivac.) It was then that the noble theatre of stone was erected, within the Amvalov, or enclosure dedicated to Bacchus. The building was commenced in the year 500 B.C., but not finished till about 381 B.C., when Lycurgus was manager of the treasury. The student who wishes to form an adequate notion of the Greek theatre must not forget that it was only an improvement upon the mode of representation adopted by Thespis, which it resembled in its general features. The two necessary parts were the Úvuéâm, or altar of Bacchus, round which the Cyclian chorus danced, and the Aoyclov, or stage, from which the actor or exarchus spoke. It was the representative of the wooden table from which the earliest actor addressed his chorus, and was also called Ökpitac. (Jul. Pollur, 4, 123.)—To form an accurate conception of the Athenian theatre in all its minutiae, as it stood in the days of Pericles, is now impracticable. The only detailed accounts left us on this subject are two, that of Vitruvius, the architect of Augustus, and that of Julius Pollux, his junior by two centuries. From the descriptions of these writers, aided and explained by incidental hints in other ancient authors, and a reference to the several theatric remains in Greece, Asia Minor, Sicily, and Italy, Genelli, an able scholar ; architec

of Berlin, mas drawn up a statement, in the main satisfactory. (Genelli, Das Theater zu Athen, Berlin, 1818.) —The theatre of Bacchus at Athens stood on the southeastern side of the eminence crowned by the noble buildings of the Acropolis. From the level of the plain a semicircular excavation gradually ascended up the slope of a hill to a considerable height. Round the concavity, seats for an audience of thirty thousand persons arose range above range; and the whole was topped and enclosed by a lofty portico, adorned with statues and surmounted by a balustraded terrace. The tiers of benches were divided into two or three broad belts, by passages termed 6tasouara (called in the Roman theatres praccinctiones), and again transversely into wedge-like masses, called képktóec (in Latin cunei), by several flights of steps, radiating upward from the level below to the portico above. The lower seats, as being the better adapted for hearing and seeing, were considered the most honourable, and therefore appropriated to the high magistrates, the priests, and the senate. This space was named Bovāevrikóv. (Aristoph., Av., 294.—Eq., 669.) The body of the citizens were probably erranged according to their tribes. The young men sat apart in a division, entitled 'Eómöuków. The sojourners and strangers had also their places allotted them.—Twelve feet beneath the lowest range of seats lay a level space, partly enclosed by the sweep of the excavation, and partly extending outward right and left in a long parallelogram. This was the 'Opxmarpa. In the middle of this open flat stood a small platform, square and slightly elevated, called Ovue Aff, which served both as an altar for the sacrifices, that preceded the exhibition, and as the central point to which the choral movements were all referred. That part of the orchestra which lay without the concavity of the seats, and ran along on either hand to the boundary wall of the theatre, was called Apóuoc (the Roman Iter). The wings, as they might be termed, of this Apôuoc, were named IIapóðot, and the entrances which led into them through the boundary wall, were entitled Elgéðot (the Roman Aditus).-On the side of the orchestra opposite the amphitheatre of benches, and exactly on a level with the lowest range, stood the platform of the Xknvā or stage, in breadth nearly equal to the diameter of the semicircular part of the orchestra, and communicating with the Apóuoc by a double flight of steps. The stage was cut breadthwise into two divisions. The one in front, called Aoyelov (the Latin pulpitum), was a narrow parallelogram projecting into the orchestra. This was generally the station of the actors when speaking, and therefore was constructed of wood, the better to reverberate the voice. The front and sides of the Aoyeiov, twelve feet in height, adorned with columns and statues between them, were called *Tookfivta.-The part of the platform behind the Aoyelov was called the IIpoakāvov, and was built of stone, in order to support the heavy scenery and decorations, which there were placed. was backed and flanked by lofty buildings of stonework, representing externally a palace-like mansion, and containing within, withdrawing-rooms for the actors and receptacles for the stage machinery. In the central edifice were three entrances upon the proscenium, which, by established practice, were made to designate the rank of the characters as they came on ; the highly ornamented portal in the middle, with the altar of Apollo on the right, being assigned to royalty, the two side entrances to inserior personages. (Pollur, 4, 9.) In a similar way, all the personages who made their appearance by the Eiaodoc on the right of the stage, were understood to come from the country ; while such as came in from the left were supposed to approach from the town.—On each side of the proscenium and its erections ran the IIapaakāvta, high lines of building with architectural front, which contained

The proscenium

spacious passages into the theatre from without, communicating on the one hand with the stage and its contiguous apartments; on the other, through two halls, with the IIapóðot of the orchestra, and with the portico which ran round the topmost range of the seats.-Behind the whole mass of stage buildings was an open space, covered with turf and planted with trees. Around this ran a portico, called the eumenic, which was the place of rehearsal for the chorus, and, with the upper portico, afforded a ready shelter to the audience during a sudden storm. There, too, the servants of the wealthier spectators awaited the departure of their masters.—Such was the construction and arrangement of the great Athenian theatre. Its dimensions must have been immense. If, as we are assured, 30,000 persons could be seated on its benches, the length of the Apómoc could not have been less than 400 feet, and a spectator in the central point of the topmost range must have been 300 feet from the actor in the Aoyelov. (Genelli, p. 52.)—The scenery of the Athenian stage was doubtless corresponding to the magnificence of the theatre. The catalogue which Julius Pollux has left us bespeaks great variety of devices and much ingenuity of contrivance, although we may not altogether be able to comprehend his obscure descriptions. We may, however, safely conclude that the age and city which witnessed the dramas of a Sophocles, the statues of a Phidias, and the paintings of a Zeuxis, possessed too much taste and too much talent to allow of aught mean and clumsy in the scenery of an exhibition, which national pride, individual wealth, and the sanctity of religion conspired to exalt into the most splendid of solemnities.—The massive buildings of the proscenium were well adapted for the generality of tragic dramas, where the chief characters were usually princes, and the front of their palace the place of action. But not unfrequently the locality of the play was very different. Out of the seven extant pieces of Sophocles, there are but four which could be performed without a change of proscenium. The GEdipus Coloneus requires a grove, the Ajax a camp, and the Philoctetes an island solitude. In comedy, which was exhibited on the same stage, the necessity of alteration was still more common. To produce the requisite transformations various means were employed. Decorations were introduced before the proscenic buildings, which masked them from the view, and substituted a prospect suitable to the play. These decorations were formed of woodwork below; above were paintings on canvass, resembling our scenes, and, like them, so arranged on perspective principles as to produce the proper illusion. (Pollur, 4, 19.) No expense or skill seems to have been spared in the preparation of these scenic representations; nay, it is not improbable that even living trees were occasionally introduced, to produce the better effect. The stage-machinery appears to have comprehended all that modern ingenuity has devised. As the intercourse between earth and heaven is very frequent in the mythologic dramas of the Greeks, the number of aerial contrivances was proportionably great. Were the deities to be shown in converse aloft there was the 6eožoyeivo, a platform surrounded and concealed by clouds. Were gods or heroes to be seen passing through the void of the sky, there were the Atopat, a set of ropes, which, suspended from the upper part of the proscenic building, served to support and convey the celestial being along—The Mmravà, again, was a sort of crane turning on a pivot, with a suspender at

tached, placed on the right, or country side of the stage, and employed suddenly to dart out a god or hero before the eyes of the spectators, and there keep him hovering in air till his part was performed, and then as suddenly withdraw him. The TÉpavog (Pollur, 4, 19) was something of the same sort, with a grapple hanging from it, used to catch up persons fron the earth, and rapidly whirl them within the circle of scenic clouds; Aurora was thus made to carry off the dead body of her son Memnon.—There was, moreover, the Bpovtsiov, a contrivance in the "Titoaxiwuov, or room beneath the Aoyeiov, where bladders full of pebbles were rolled over sheets of copper, to produce a noise like the rumbling of thunder. The Képavvoaxosteiov was a place on the top of the stage buildings, whence the artificial lightning was made to play through the clouds, which concealed the operator.—When the action was simply on earth, there were certain pieces of framework, the Xxoto, Teixof, IIupyog, and opwktaptov, representing, as their names import, a lookout, a fortress-wall, a tower, and a beacon. These were either set apart from the stationary erections of the proscenium, or connected so as to give them, with the assistance of the canvass scene, the proper aspect. Here a sentinel was introduced, or a spectator, supposed to be viewing some distant object. The HuiKukatov was a semicircular machine, placed, when wanted, on the country side of the stage, which enclosed a representation of the sea or a city in the dis. tance, towards which the eye looked through a passage between cliffs or an opening among trees. What the Xrpopetov and "Hutarpooelov were, it is difficult to make out. It would seem that they were constructed something like the 'Hukükotov, but moved on a pivot, so that, by a sudden whirl, the object they resented might be shown or withdrawn in an instant. hey were employed to exhibit heroes transported to the company of deities, and men perishing in the waves of the sea or the tumult of battle.—In some cases one or more stories of the front wall in a temporary house were made to turn upon hinges, so that when this front was drawn back, the interior of a room could be wheeled out and exposed to view, as in the Acharnians, where Euripides is so brought forward. This contrivance was called 'Ekkūkāmua. (Pollur, 4, 19.) —Such were some of the devices for the scenes of heaven and earth; but as the ancient dramatists fetched their personages not unfrequently from Tartarus, other provisions were required for their due appearance.—Beneath the lowest range of seats, under the stairs, which led up to them from the orchestra, was fixed a door, which opened into the orchestra from a vault beneath it by a flight of steps called Xapovuot kžiuakec. Through this passage entered and disappeared the shades of the departed. Somewhat in front of this door and steps was another communication by a trap-door with the vault below, called 'AvaTiegue; by means of which, any sudden appearance, like that of the Furies, was effected. A second 'AvaTiegua was contained in the floor of the Aoyelov on the right or country side, whence particularly marine or river gods ascended, when occasion required.—In tragedy the scene was rarely changed. In comedy, however, this was frequently done. stage during this operation, a curtain, called aizawa, wound round a roller beneath the floor, was drawn up through a slit between the Aoyelov and proscenium.

4. Audience.

Originally no admission money was demanded. (Heysch, Suid et Harpocr., s. v. 6ewpixa-Liban., Arg, in Olynth., 1.) The theatre was built at the public expense, and, therefore, was open to every individual. The consequent crowding and quarrelling for places among so vast a multitude was the cause of a law being passed, which fixed the entrance price at one drachma each person. This regulation, debarring, as it did, the poorer classes from their favourite entertainment, was too unpopular to continue long unre. pealed. Pericles, anxious to ingratiate himself with the commonalty, brought in a decree which enacted that the price should be reduced to two oboli; and, farther, that one of* magistrates should furnish out

To conceal the

of the public funds these two oboli to any ore who might choose to apply for it, provided his name was registered in the book of the citizens (Am;tapraków Ypaptuatelow). The entrance-money was paid to the lessee of the theatre (bearpovno, beatport/.ms, or dpxtréktov), who paid the rent, and made the necessary repairs out of the proceeds. The sum obtained for this purpose from the public funds was drawn from the contributions originally paid by the allies towards carrying on war against the Persians. By degrees, the expenses of the festivals engrossed the whole of this fund ; and that money, which ought to have been employed in supporting a military force for the common defence of Greece, was scandalously lavished away upon the idle pleasure of the Athenian people. This measure proved most ruinous to the republic ; yet so jealous were the multitude of any infringement upon their theoric expenses, that, when an orator had ventured to propose the restoration of the sums then squandered upon spectacles foreign to their original purpose, a decree was instantly framed, making it death to offer any such scheme to the general assembly. Demosthenes twice cautiously endeavoured to convince the people of their folly and injustice; but, finding his exhortations were ill-received, he was constrained reluctantly to acquiesce in the common resolution. — The lessee sometimes gave a gratuitous exhibition, in which case tickets of admission were distributed. (Theophrast, Charact., 11.) Any citizen might buy tickets for a stranger residing at Athens. (Theophrast, Charact., 9.) We have no doubt that women were admitted to the dramatic exhibitions. Julius Pollux uses the term bearpia (2, 55; 4, 121), which is alone some evidence of the fact. It is stated, however, expressly by Plato (Gorgias, p. 502, D.—Leg., 2, p.658, D.—Ib., 7, p. 817, C.) and by Aristophanes (Eccles., 21, seqq.).-The spectators hastened to the theatre at the dawn of day to secure the best places, as the performances commenced very early. After the first exhibition was over, the audience retired for a while, until the second was about to commence. There were three or four such representations in the course of the day, thus separated by short intervals. During the performance the people regaled themselves with wine and sweetmeats. The number of spectators in the Athenian theatre amounted occasionally to thirty thousand. (Plato, Symp., p. 13.) This immense assembly were wont to express in no gentle terms their opinion of the piece and actors. Murmurs, jeers, hootings, and angry cries were directed in turn against the offending performer. They not unfrequently proceeded still farther; sometimes compelling the unfortunate object of their dissatisfaction to pull off his mask and expose his face, that they might enjoy his disgrace; sometimes, assailing him with every species of missile at hand, they drove him from the stage, and ordered the herald to summon another actor to supply his place, who, if not in readiness, was liable to a fine. In the time of Machon it was even customary to pelt a bad performer with stones. . (Athenaeus, 6, p. 245.) On the other hand, where the impetuous spectators happened to be gratified, the clapping of hands and shouts of applause were as loud as the expression of their displeasure. In much the sane manner the dramatic candidates themselves were treated.

5. Actors.

In the origin of the drama the members of the cho. rus were the only performers. Thespis first introduced an actor distinct from that body. AEschylus added a second, and Sophocles a third actor; and this continued ever after to be the legitimate number. Hence, when three characters happened to be already on the stage, and a fourth was to come on, one cf the three was obliged to retire, change his §" and so


eturn as the fourth personage. The poet, however, might introduce any number of mutes, as guards, attendants, &c. The actors were called ūtrokpurai or ūyovuotat. "YTokplveoffat was originally to answer {Herodot., 1,78, et passim); hence, when a locutor was introduced who answered the chorus, he was called 6 Tokputfic, or the answerer; a name which descended to the more numerous and refined actors in after days. Subsequently irokpurific, from its being the name of a performer assuming a feigned character on the stage, came to signify a man who assumes a feigned character in his intercourse with others, a hypocrite.—The three actors were termed Tporayovto Tic, čevrepayovuaràc, Tputayovuatic, respectively, according as each performed the principal or one of the two inferior characters. They took every pains to attain perfection in their art: to acquire muscular energy and pliancy they frequented the palaestra, and to give strength and clearness to their voice they observed a rigid diet. An eminent performer was eagerly sought after and liberally rewarded. The celebrated Polus would sometimes gain a talent (or nearly $1060) in the course of two days. The other states of Greece were always anxious to secure the best Attic performers for their own festivals. They engaged them long beforehand, and the agreement was generally accompanied by a stipulation, that the actor, in case he sailed to sulfil the contract, should pay a certain sum. The Athenian government, on the other hand, punished their performers with a heavy fine if they absented themselves during the city's festivals. Eminence in the histrionic profession seems to have been held in considerable estimation in Athens at least. Players were not unfrequently sent, as the representatives of the republic, on embassies and deputations. Hence they became in old, as not unfrequently in modern times, self-conceited and domineering, utilov divavrat, says Aristotle, röv troumrøv ol #Kospitat. (Rhet., 3, 1.) They were, however, as a body, men of loose and dissipated character, and, as such, were regarded with an unfavourable eye by the moralists and philosophers of that age.

6. Chorus.

The chorus, once the sole matter of exhibition, though successively diminished by Thespis and Æschylus, was yet a very essential part of the drama during the best days of the Greek theatre. The splendour of the dresses, the music, the dancing, combined with the loftiest poetry, formed a spectacle peculiarly gratifying to the eye, ear, and intellect of an Attic audience. The number of the tragic chorus for the whole trilogy appears to have been 50; the comic chorus consisted of 24. The chorus of the tetralogy was broken into four sub-choruses, two of 15, one of 12, and a Satyric chorus of 8. When the chorus of 15 entered in ranks three abreast, it was said to be divided kata ovyá; when it was distributed into three files of five, it was said to be karū croixovc. The situation assigned to the chorus was the orchestra, whence it always took a part in the action of the dra. ma, joining in the dialogue through the medium of its kopwoodios, or leader. The choristers entered the orchestra preceded by a player on the flute, who regulated their steps, sometimes in single file, more frequently three in front and five in depth (Karā a rot. xorg), or vice versa (kata čvyā), in tragedy; and four in front by six in depth, or inversely, in comedy. Its first entrance was called Tápodoc ; its occasional departure, uttavágradus : its return, 8truträpodoc ; its final exit, doodoc. , (Jul. Pol. 4, 15.) According to the rules of the drama, the chorus was to be considered as one of the actors : Kai rôw Yopov & Eva dei útrožaffeiv táv troxptröv kai uáptov that roi; 57 ov, kal avvayovíčeatlal. (Aristotle, Poética, 18, 21.) Holi,” down the same law in describing

the duties of the chorus (Ep. ad Pis., 193.) Sometimes, again, the chorus was divided into two groups, each with a coryphaeus stationed in the centre, who narrated some event, or communicated their plan, their fears, or their hopes; and sometimes, on critical occasions, several members, in short sentences, gave vent to their feelings. Between the acts, the chorus poured forth hymns of supplication or thanksgiving to the gods, didactic odes upon the misfortunes of life, the instability of human affairs, and the excellence “. virtue, or dirges upon the unhappy sate of some unfortunate personage; the whole more or less interwoven with the course of action. While engaged in singing these choral strains to the accompaniment of flutes, the performers were also moving through dances in accordance with the measure of the music; passing, during the strophe, across the orchestra, from right to left; during the antistrophe, back, from left to right; and stopping, at the epode, in front of the spectators. Each department of the drama had a peculiar style of dance suited to its character. That of tragedy was called usuéAeta; that of comedy, Répôa;; that of the Satyric drama, aikwww.c.—The music of the chorus was of a varied kind, according to the nature of the occasion or the taste of the poet. The Doric mood seems to have been originally preferred for tragedy (Athenaus, 14, p. 624); it was sometimes combined with the Mixo-Lydian (Plut., de Mus., p. 1136), a pathetic mood, and therefore adapted to mournful subjects. The Ionic mood, also, was, from its austere and elevated character, well suited to tragedy. (Athen., 14, p. 625.) Sophocles was the first who set choral odes to the Phrygian mood. Euripides introduced the innovations of Timotheus, for which he is severely attacked by Aristophanes in the Ranae.—The choruses were all trained with the greatest care during a length of time before the day of contest arrived. Each tribe felt intensely interested in the success of the one furnished by its Choragus; and the Choragi themselves, animated with all the energies of rivalry, spared no expense in the instruction and equipment of their respective choruses. They engaged the most celebrated choral performers, employed the ablest xopoćtóáakažot to |. the choristers in their music and dancing, and provided sumptuous dresses and ornaments for their decoration. The first tragic poets were their own topodućackazou AEschylus taught his chorus figure-dances.

7. Scenic Dresses and Ornaments

In the first age of the drama, the rude performers disguised their faces with wine-lees, or a species of pigment called Batpareiou. (Schol. ad Aristoph, Eq., 320.) AEschylus, among his many improvements, introduced the mask, first termed orpáczorov, and subsequently trporatelov. The mask was made of bronze or copper, and was so constructed as to give greater power to the voice, and enable the actor to make himself heard by the most distant spectators. This was effected by connecting it with a tire or periwig (Tnvíkm, ovákm), which covered the head, and left only one passage for the voice, which was generally circular, converging inward, and fiom its shape, and its being lined with brass, resembled the opening of a speaking trumpet. The voice, therefore, might be said to sound through this opening, and hence the Latin name for a mask, persona, a personando. (Aul. Gell., 5, 7.) These masks were of various kinds, to express every age, sex, country, condition, and complexion; to which they were assimilated with the greatest skill and nicety. (Jul. Poll., 4, 133.) With equal care, the dresses of the actors were adapted to the characters represented. Gods, heroes, satyrs, kings, soothsayers, soldiers, hunters, peasants, slaves, pimps, and parasites, young and old, the prosperous and the unfortunate, were all amoyed in their appropri

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