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pitia. (Bähr, Gesch. Rüm. Lit., p. 181.) The Sulpitia here alluded to must not be confounded with another in the time of Tibullus. To the latter are ascribed by some critics a portion of the elegies in the fourth book of Tibullus, namely, from the 2d to the 12th inclusive. (Barthe, Advers., 59, 16.-Brouckhus, ad Tubull., p. 384.) Sulpitia LEx, I. Militaris, by P. Sulpitius, the tribune, A.U.C. 665. It ordained that the prosecution of the Mithradatic war should be taken from Sylla and vested in Marius.-II. Another, de Senatu, by Servius Sulpitius, the tribune, A.U.C. 665. It required that no senator should contract a debt over 2000 denarii ($300).-III. Another, de Civitate, by P. Sulpitius, the tribune, A.U.C. 665. That the Italian allies, who had obtained the rights of citizenship, and had heen formed into eight new tribes, should be distributed throughout the thirty-five old tribes ; and also that the manumitted slaves, who used formerly to vote only in the four city tribes, might vote in all the tribes. Sulpitia GENs, a distinguished patrician family at Rome, the two principal branches of which were the Camerini and Galbao. Sulpitius, I. Servius Sulpitius Rufus, a distinso patrician, brother-in-law of C. Licinius Stolo. e was highly esteemed for his talents and virtues, and filled many important offices in the state. Sulpitius was four times military tribune with consular power; the last of these times in 400 B.C.—II. Servius Sulpitius Paeticus, was consul B.C. 362, with Licinius Stolo. Scenic exhibitions are said to have been first given during this year, and it was during this same year that Sulpitius drove a nail’ into the side of the temple of Jupiter on account of the ceasing of a pestilence.—III. Publius Sulpitius Saverio, was consul B.C. 279, with P. Decius Mus, and defeated Pyrrhus at Asculum.—IV. Servius Sulpitius Galba. (Wid. Galba II, and III.)—W. Caius Sulpitius Gallus. (Vid. Gallus I.)—VI. Publius Sulpitius, a tribune of the commons in 122 B.C., and a person of most turbulent character. As a partisan of Marius, he brought forward a law to deprive Sylla of the charge of the war against Mithradates, and to vest it in Marius. He also proposed another law respecting the Italian allies. (Wid. Sulpitia Lex III.) While these matters were pending, he paraded the streets, surrounded by armed bands, and a set of ruffians whom he called his anti-senate : the Italians also streamed in extraordinary numbers to the city, to await the pas. sage of the law in which they were interested. On their first insertion into the register of citizens, eight new tribes had been created for them, whose suffrages were only then demanded when the old five-and-thirty gave no decision. Sulpitius now proposed by his law to distribute them throughout all the tribes. Rome became thereupon a scene of confusion and riot; both parties, the old citizens and the Italians, fought with sticks and clubs in the streets and sorum ; and the law was near being passed by force, when Sylla, who remained at Rome, came to the aid of the senatorial party. The senate was assembled in the temple of Castor, and regularly besieged by the people because it had caused to be announced the measure usual in extreme confusion of an interruption of all public business. In the tumult that arose, Sylla's son-in-law was slain ; his colleague escaped the hands of the mob with difficulty ; and Sylla himself, to save his life, was compelled to take off the restriction upon public business merely to be let out of the city. He betook himself to his army, while Sulpitius carried his law, and the appointment also of Marius in Sylla's stead, as commander-in-chief against Mithradates. Sylla now marched upon Rome, and the city was stormed like a hostile town. Sulpitius the tribune perished, a price having been set upon his head, and Marius himself narrowly escaped being taken.—

VII. Servius Sulpitius Rufus, a contemporary and friend of Cicero's, and one of the most eminent lawyers of his time. He had been a pupil, in judicial studies, of F. Balbus and C. Aquilius Gallus. According to the testimony of Cicero, Sulpitius was the first that gave a scientific form to Roman jurisprudence; in other words, he carried it back to first principles. He was consul 50 B.C., with M. Marcellus. Of his legal writings (Reprehensa M. Scarvolae capita ; De testandis sacris; De dote, &c.), and also of his speeches, nothing remains. (Consult Otto, “de Vita, studiis, scriptis, et honoribus Serv. S. Rufi,” Traj. ad Rhen., 1737)—VIII. C. Sulpitius Apollinaris, a native of Carthage, and grammarian, flourished in the time of the Antonines. We have nothing from him relative to the branch of knowledge which he professed to teach. The verses, however, that are found at the commencement of Terence's plays, as arguments to the respective pieces, are supposed to be his. We have also an epigram of his on the order which Virgil gave to burn the AEneid. (Burmann, Anthol. Lat., vol. 1, p. 352. — Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom, vol. 3, p. is ok. Sulpitius Severus, an ecclesiastical historian, born about 363 A.D., in Aquitania. We have from him a sacred history (Historia Sacra), from the creation of the world to A.D. 410; a Life of St. Martin of Tours, and some dialogues and letters. The latest edition of his united works is that of Prato, Verona, 1741–5, 2 vols. 4to. SuMMANUs, an Etrurian deity, whose worship was adopted, probably very early, at Rome. A temple was erected to him at the Circus Maximus in the time of the war with Pyrrhus (Ovid, Fast, 6, 731), and his earthen statue stood on the top of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. (Cic., Dip , 1, 10.) Nocturnal lightnings were ascribed to Summanus, as diurnal ones were to Jupiter (Plin., 2, 53.-August, Cov. D., 4, 23); and when trees had been struck with lightning, the Fratres Arrales sacrificed to him black wethers. (Gruter, Inscrip., p. 121.) He may, therefore, have been only a god of the night; but we are assured that he was Pluto and Dispiter. (Mart., Capell., 2, 40– Arnoh., adv. Gent., 37.) Varro joins him with Vulcanus, as one of the gods worshipped by the Sabine Tatius. (L. L., 4, p. 22.) As his Roman name was probably a translation, the usual derivation of it, Summus Manium, is perhaps founded on truth. His festival, the Summanalia, was on the 20th of June, when cakes shaped like a wheel were offered to him. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 530, seq.) SUNIUM, a celebrated promontory of Attica, forming the extreme point of that province towards the south. Near the promontory stood the town of the same name, with a harbour. (Pausan., 1, 1.) Sunium was held especially sacred to Minerva as early as the time of Homer (Od., 3, 278), and here the goddess had a beautiful temple, whence her appellation of Sunias. The promontory of Sunium is frequently mentioned in Grecian history. Herodotus, in one place (4, 99), calls it the Suniac angle (Tov yovyov Tov Sovvuaków), Thucydides reports that it was fortified by the Athenians after the Sicilian expedition, to protect their vessels which conveyed corn from Euboea, and were, consequently, obliged to double the promontory (8,4). —Travellers who have visited Sunium inform us that this edifice was originally decorated with six columns in front, and probably thirteen on each side. Spohn reports, that in his time nineteen columns were still standing. The whole edifice was of white marble, and of the most perfect architecture.—According to Hobhouse (vol. 1, p. 342, Am. ed.), nine columns, without their entablatures, front the sea, in a line from west-northwest to east-southeast; three are standing on the side towards the land, on the north; and two, with a pilaster, next to the corner one of the northern columns, towards the sea on §,” and

there is a solitary one on the southeastern side. This last has obtained for the promontory the name of Cape Colonni, or the Cape of the Column. The whiteness of the marble has been preserved probably by the seavapour, in the same manner as Trajan's triumphal arch at Ancona. The rock on which the columns stand is precipitous, but not inaccessible, nor very high. It bears, according to Hobhouse, a strong resemblance to the picture in Falconer's “Shipwreck;” but the view given in Anacharsis places the temple just in the wrong position. Sunium was considered by the Athenians an important post, and as much a town as the Piraeus, but could not have been very large, acoording to Hobhouse, who is of opinion that, when Euripides styles it the rich rock of Sunium in his Cyclops, he alludes to the wealth of the temple, not the fertility of the soil. The same writer justly considers the assertion of Pausanias to be unworthy of belief, when he states that the spear and the crest of the statue of Minerva in the Acropolis might be seen from Sunium, a straight line of nearly 30 miles. —Sir W. Gell observes that “nothing can exceed the beauty of this spot, commanding from a portico of white marble, erected in the happiest period of Grecian art, and elevated 300 feet above the sea, a prospect of the Gulf of AEgina on one side, and the AEgean on the other.” (Itun., p. 82.) Dodwell states that “the temple is supported on its northern side by a regularly constructed terrace wall, of which seventeen layers of stone still remain. The fallen columns are seattered about below the temple, to which they form the richest soreground. The walls of the tower, of which there are a few remains, may be traced nearly down to the port on the southern side; the greater part of the opposite side, upon the edge of the precipice, was undefended, except by the natural strength of the place and the steepness of the rock; the walls were sortified with square towers.” (Tour, vol. 1, p. 540.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 377.) SupéruM MARE, a name of the Adriatic Sea, as situate above Italy. The name of Mare Inferum was applied for the opposite reason to the sea below Italy. SURENA, a powerful officer under Orodes, king of Parthia, and who had aided in raising that monarch to the throne. He distinguished himself at the storming of Seleucia, and was afterward appointed commander of the Parthian forces against Crassus, whom he overthrew in the memorable victory at Charras, and afterward entrapped and put to death. Surena himself was not long after put to death by Orodes. (Plut., Wit. Crass.) Sur RENTUM, a city of Campania, on the lower shore of the Sinus Crater, and near the Promontorium Minerva. The place is reported to have been of very ancient date, and was said to have derived its name from the Sirens, who, as poets sung, in days of yore made this coast their favourite haunt, and had a temple consecrated to them here. (Strab., 247.) Surrentum appears to have become a Roman colony in the reign of Augustus. The wine of the Surrentine hills was held in great estimation by the ancients. (Orid, Met, 15, 709. — Martial, 13, 110. – Stat., Sylp., 3, 5.) Pliny, however, relates that Tiberius used to say of this wine, that physicians had agreed to give it a name, but that, in reality, it was only a better sort of vinegar. (Plin., 14, 16.) The modern name of Surrentum is Sorrento, and it is celebrated as the birthplace of Tasso, and admired for the exquisite beauty of its scenery and the salubrity of its climate. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 183.) Susa (-orum), a celebrated city of Susiana in Persis, on the east side of the Eulaeus or Choaspes. (Herod. 5, 52.) The sounder, according to Herodotus, was Darius; whereas Strabo gives, from Grecian traditions, the name of Tithonus, the father of Memnon; and Memnon himself is said to have built the

palace at Susa, afterward called Memnonium or Memnonia. Susa itself is sometimes called Memnonia. (Wid. Memnon I.) Susa was 120 stadia in circumference; according to Polyclitus 200 stadia; and the account of the last-mentioned writer, which Strabo quotes, that the city had no walls, deserves sull credit, since, in all the movements of Alexander and his successors in this quarter, it is constantly represented as an unfortified city. (Strabo, 727.) When, therefore, mention is made in other writers of walls, we must refer what is said to the citadel merely. This citadel was termed Memnonium, and is represented as a place of great strength. Alexander sound great treasures here. (Strabo, 731.) We are informed by Strabo that Susa or Susan meant in Persian “a lily,” and that the city was so called from the abundance of these flowers that grew in the vicinity. Perhaps the appellation may have had somewhat more of an Oriental meaning, and have denoted the lily (i.e., the fairest) among cities. —Great difficulty exists in relation to the site of this ancient place. Mannert declares for Toster or Schoschter, and not for the more northwestern Sus; but consult the remarks of Williams (Geography of Ancient Asia, p. 12, seqq.). It was customary with the kings of Persia to spend the summer in the cool, mountainous country of Ecbatana, and the winter at Susa, the climate being warmer there than elsewhere. Susarion, a Greek poet of Megara, who is supposed by some to have been the inventor of comedy, on the authority of the Arundel marble. If the marble, however, be correct, by the term Kouodia, as applied to him, we can understand nothing beyond a kind of rough, extemporal farce, performed by the chorus, into which Susarion might have improved the Phallic song. His date may be inferred to be about 562 B.C. (Theatre of the Greeks, 3d ed., p. 70, in notis.-Compare the remarks of Bentley, Dissertation on Phalaris, vol. 1, p. 249, seqq., ed. Dyce.) Susi RNA or Susis, a province of Persia, to the east of Babylonia proper. It was a large level tract, shut in by lofty mountains on all sides but the south, and was hence exposed to the hot winds from this quarter, while the cool winds from the north were kept off by the mountains. Hence Susiana was selected as the winter residence of the Persian king, but suffered much from heat in summer. The chief rivers were the Ulaeus and Tigris, and, on the confines of Persis, the Oroatis. The modern name of Susiana is Chusistan. The ancient capital was Susa, whence the appellation of Susiana was derived. (Wid. Susa.) Susio.A: Pyl. A., narrow passes over mountains from Susiana into Persia. (Curt., 5, 3, 17. —Consult Schmieder, ad loc., and Diod Sic., 17, 68.) Suthul, a town of Numidia, of which mention is made only in Sallust (Bell. Jug., 37) and Priscian (5, 2; vol. 1, p. 173, ed. Krehl). Barbie du Bocage suspects that this town is the same with that called Sufetala (now Shaitla) in the Itin. Ant. The name Suthul is said by some to signify “the town of eagles,” but with what authority it is hard to say. Gesenius more correctly deduces its meaning from the Hebrew, and makes it equivalent to “plantatio,” i. e., settlement or colony. (Gesen, Phaen. Mon., p. 427.) Sutrium, a city of Etruria, about eight miles to the west of Nepete, and in a northeastern direction from Caere. It was a city of some note, and was considered by the Romans as an important acquisition in furtherance of their designs against Etruria. Having been surprised by the latter power, it fell into their hands, but was almost immediately recovered by Camillus. (Lit., 6, 3.) Sutrium was colonized by the Romans, as Welleius Paterculus reports, seven years aster Rome had been taken by the Gauls (1, 14). It is now Sutri. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 234.) Syāq Rus, an early Greek poet, who, according to AElian (W. H., 14, 21), lived aster Orpheus and Mu

saus, and was the first that sang of the Trojan war. Diogenes Laertius writes the name Sagaris, and makes him to have been the contemporary and rival of Homer. (Diog. Laert, 2, 46.) Syhäris, I. a river of Lucania, running by the city of the same name, and falling into the Sinus Tarentinus. It is now the Cochule. Its waters were said to render horses shy. (Strab., 263. —Elian, H. N., 2, 36.)—II. A celebrated city of Lucania, on the Sinus Tarentinus, and near the confines of Bruttium. It was situate between the rivers Sybaris and Crathis, and is said to have been founded by the people of Troezene, not long after the siege of Troy. (Aristot, Polit., 5, 3–Solin., 8.) But these were subsequently joined by a more numerous colony of Achaeans, under the conduct of Iseliceus (Strab., 263), about 720 B.C. (Euseb., Chron, 2.) The rise and progress of this celebrated republic must have been wonderfully rapid. We are told that it held dominion over four different people and twenty-five towns; and that the city extended fifty stadia, or upward of six miles, along the Crathis. But the number of its inhabitants capable of bearing arms, which are computed at 300,000 by several ancient writers, and which are said to have been actually brought into the field, is so prodigious as to raise considerable doubts as to the accuracy of these statements. The accounts which we have of their luxury and opulence are not less extraordinary : to such a degree, indeed, did they indulge their taste for pleasure, that a Sybarite and a voluptuary became synonymous terms. Athenaeus, in particular, dwells on their inordinate sensuality and excessive refinement. His details are chiefly drawn from Timaeus, Phylarchus, and Aristotle. Among other particulars which he gives, upon the authority of these Greek writers, are the following. It was forbidden by law to exercise in the city any trade or craft, the practice of which was attended with noise, lest the sleep of its inhabitants might be disturbed ; and, for the same reason, an edict was enforced against the breeding of cocks. On the other hand, great encouragement was held out to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury, the profits arising from which were secured to the inventor by patent for the space of a year. Fishermen and dyers of purple were specially exempted from the payment of taxes and duties. A crown of gold was awarded to those who distinguished themselves by the sumptuousness of their entertainments, and their names were proclaimed by heralds, at the solemn festivals, as public benefactors. To these banquets their women were also invited, and invitations were sent them a year in advance, that they might have susficient time to provide themselves with dresses suitable to the occasion. These were of the most costly description, generally purple or saffron-coloured, and of the finest Milesian wool. Dionysius of Syracuse, having become possessed of one of these robes, which was esteemed a singular rarity from its peculiar magnificence, sold it to the Carthaginians for 120 talents, upward of 20,000l. When they retired to their villas, the roads were covered with an awning, and the journey, which might easily have been accomplished in one day, was the work of three. Their cellars were generally constructed near the seaside, whither the wine was conveyed from the country by means of pipes. The Sybarites were also said to have invented vapour baths.-History has recorded the name of one individual, famed beyond all his countrymen for his effeminacy and sensuality. Smindrydes, the son of Hippocrates, is stated by Herodotus to have been by far the most luxurious man that ever lived (6, 127). It is reported, that when he went to Sicyon as suiter to the daughter of Clisthenes, tyrant of that city, he was accompanied by a train of a thousand cooks and fowlers, and that he far surpassed that prince and all his court in magnificence and splendour. (Athen., 12,

3.) But this prosperity and excess of luxury were not of long duration; and the fall of Sybaris was hastened with a rapidity only equalled by that of its sudden elevation. The events which led to this catastrophe are thus related by Diodorus Siculus. A democratical party, at the head of which was Telys, having gained the ascendancy, expelled five hundred of the principal citizens, who sought refuge at Crotona. This city, upon receiving a summons to give up the fugitives or prepare for war, by the advice of Pythagoras made choice of the latter alternative; and the hostile armies met near the river Traens, in the Crotoniat territory. The forces of Crotona, headed by the celebrated Milo, amounted to 100,000 men, while those of Sybaris were triple that number; the former, however, gained a complete victory, and but few of the Sybarites escaped from the sword of the enemy in the route which ensued. The victorious Crotoniats, following up their success, advanced against Sybaris, and, finding it in a defenceless state, totally destroyed the town by turning the waters of the Crathis, and thus overwhelming it with the inundation. This event is supposed to have happened nearly 510 years B.C. (Diod. Suc., 12, 9.-Herod., 5, 44. — Strabo, 263.) The greater part of the Sybarites who escaped from the general destruction retired to their colonies, on the Tyrrhenian Sea; but a small remnant still adhered to their native soil, and endeavoured, but in vain, to restore their fallen city. The city of Thurii was afterward erected in the immediate vicinity. (Wid. Thurii.)—As Sybaris was utterly destroyed, no ruins remain to guide us in our search of its position. Swinburne imagined, however, that he had discovered some vestiges of this city about three miles from the coast. (Cramer's Anc.” Italy, vol. 2, p. 354, seqq.) SybARITA, an inhabitant of Sybaris. (Vid. Sybaris.) SyśNE, now Assuan, a town of Thebais, on the extremities of Egypt. Juvenal, the poet, was banished there on pretence of commanding a legion stationed in the neighbourhood. —It is famous for being the place where the first attempt was made to ascertain the measure of the circumference of the earth by Eratosthenes. In this town, according to Strabo, a well was sunk, which marked the summer solstice, and the day was known when the style of the sundial cast no shade at noon ; at that instant the vertical sun darted his rays to the bottom of the well. The observations of the French astronomers place Assuan in 24° 5' 23” of north latitude. If this was formerly situated under the tropic, the position of the earth must be a little altered, and the obliquity of the ecliptic diminished. But we should be aware of the vagueness of observations made by the ancients, which have conferred so much celebrity on these places. The phenomenon of the extinction of the shadow, whether within a deep pit or round a perpendicular gnomon, is not confined to one exact mathematical position of the sun, but is common to a certain extent of altitude, corresponding to the visible diameter of that luminary, which is more than half a degree. It would be sufficient, therefore, that the northern margin of the sun's disk should reach the zenith of Syene on the day of the summer solstice, to abolish all lateral shadow of a perpendicular object. Now, in the second century, the obliquity of the ecliptic, reckoned from the observations of Hipparchus, was 23° 49' 25". If we add the semidiameter of the sun, which is 15'57", we find for the northern margin 24° 5' 22”, which is within a second of the actual latitude of Syene. At present, when the obliquity of the ecliptic is 23°28', the northern limb of the sun comes no nearer the latitude of Syene than 21' 3", yet the shadow is scarcely perceptible. We have, therefore, no imperious reason for admitting a greater diminution in the obliquity of the ecliptic than that which is shown by real astronomical observation of the most authentic and exact kind. That of the well of Syene is not among the number of these last, and can give us no assistance in ascertaining the position of the tropic thirty centuries ago, as some respectable men of science seem to have believed.—Nature presents a peculiar spectacle around Syene. Here are the terraces of reddish granite of a particular character, hence called Syenite; a term applied to those rocks which differ from granite in containing particles of hornblende. These mighty terraces, shaped into peaks, cross the bed of the Nile, and over them the river rolls majestically its impetuous and foaming waves. Here are the quarries from which the obelisks and colossal statues of the Egyptian temples were dug. An obelisk, partially formed and still remaining attached to the native rock, bears testimony to the laborious and patient efforts of human art. (Malte-Brun, vol. 4, p. 89, seqq., Am. ed.) Sven NEsis, a satrap, or, rather, tributary monarch of Cilicia, when Cyrus the Younger made war upon his brother Artaxerxes. The name Syennesis appears, in fact, to have been a common appellation for the native princes of this country. (Consult Bähr, ad Herod., 1, 64.—Kruger, ad Xen., Anab., 1, 2, 12. — Stanl., ad AEsch, Pers., 326.) Sylla, Lucius Cor Nelius, was born at Rome A.U.C. 616, B.C. 138, in the consulship of M. Aemilius Lepidus and C. Hostilius Mancinus, four years before the death of Tiberius Gracchus. Sylla was a patrician by birth; his father, however, did nothing to promote either the honour or the wealth of his family, and his son was born with no very flattering prospects either of rank or fortune. We know not by whom his education was superintended ; but he acquired, either from his instructers, or by his own exertions in after life, an unusual portion of knowledge; and he had the character of being very profoundly versed in the liter. ature of both his own country and Greece. (Sallust, Bell. Jug., 95.) But intellectual superiority affords no security for the moral principles of its possessor; and Sylla, srom his earliest youth, was notorious for gross sensuality, and for his keen enjoyment of low and profligate society. He is said to have merely occupied lodgings at Rome, and to have lived in a way which seems to have been reckoned disgraceful to a man of patrician family, and to have incurred great indigence. For his first advancement in life he was indebted to the fondness of a prostitute, who had acquired a large sum of money, and left it all to him by her will ; and he also inherited the property of his mother-in-law, who regarded him as her own son. Sylla was chosen one of the quaestors A.U.C. 646, and joined the army of Marius, who was then in his first consulship, and carrying on the war against Jugurtha in Africa. Here his services were of great importance, since it was to him that Jugurtha was at last sur. rendered by Bocchus, king of Mauritania. This latter circumstance excited, as is said, the jealousy of Marius; but Sylla nevertheless served under him as one of his lieutenants in the war with the Cimbri, where he again greatly distinguished himself. Finding, however, the ill will of his general daily increasing, he left him, and served in the army of Lutatius Catulus, the colleague of Marius: and in this situation, being charged with the duty of supplying the soldiers with provisions, he performed it so well, that the army of Catulus was in the midst of abundance, while that of Marius was labouring under severe privations. This still farther inflamed the animosity with which Marius already regarded him. For some years after this pe. riod Sylla seems to have lived in the mere enjoyment of his favourite pleasures of intellectual and sensual excitement. At length, A.U.C. 657, he became a candidate for the office of praetor, but without success. In the following year, however, he was more fortunate, having been elected to this same magistracy without the previous step of going through the office of

aedile; and he is said to have exhibited on the occasion no fewer than a hundred lions; the first time, it is said, that the male lion was ever brought forward in the sports of the circus. (Plin., 8, 16.) On the expiration of the praetorship he obtained the province of Cilicia, and was commissioned to replace on the throne Ariobarzanes, king of Cappadocia, who had been lately expelled by Mithradates. (Plut., Wit. Syll., c. 5. —Liv., Epit., 70.) This he easily effected; for Muthradates was not yet prepared to encounter the power of Rome; and it is farther mentioned as a memorable circumstance in the life of Sylla, that while he was yet in Cappadocia, he received the first communication ever made to any Roman officer by the sovereign of Parthia. Arsaces, king of that country, perceiving that the Romans extended their influence into his neighbourhood, sent an embassy to Sylla to solicit their alliance. In the interview between the Roman praetor and the Parthian ambassador, Sylla claimed the precedence in rank with the usual arrogance of his countrymen; and by this behaviour, in all probability, left no very friendly feeling in the mind of Arsaces; and rather encouraged than lessened that jealousy of the Roman power, which the Parthians in the sequel were often enabled to manifest with more success than any other nation since the time of Hannibal. On Sylla's return to Rome, he was threatened with a prosecution on account of corrupt proceedings in his province; but the matter was never brought to a trial. Soon aster this the Social War broke out, in which Sylla served as lieutenant under the consul Lucids Jnlius Caesar; and during this same contest the name of Marius is hardly mentioned, whereas the services of Sylla were of the most eminent kind. Towards the close of this war, B. C. 88, Sylla went to Rome to stand candidate for the consulship ; and the prospect of his attaining to that dignity was most galling to the jealousy of Marius, especially as a war with Mithradates now appeared certain; and, if a general of Sylla's reputation filled the office of consul, his claims to the command of the army employed in the contest would prevail over all others. Sylla's application for the consulship was a successful one, and Q. Pompeius was chosen as his colleague. Information soon after was received that Mithradates had attacked and overrun the Roman dominions in Asia Minor, and war was therefore declared against him at Rome; whereupon Asia and Italy being named as the province of the consuls, the latter fell to the lot of Q. Pompeius, and the former to that of Sylla. But the turbulent tribune Publius Sulpitius, the devoted partisan of Marius, was determined that this arrangement should not be carried into effect. The army which Sylla was to command was at this time employed near Nola. as that city, which had revolted in the Social War, still refused to submit to the Romans; but he himself remained in the city with his colleague, endeavouring to baffle the project of Sulpitius by proclaiming frequent holydays, and ordering, consequently, a suspension of public business. A violent tumult in consequence ensued; Sylla, finding himself in the power of his enemies, was compelled to yield, and immediately thereafter left Rome for his army, and Sulpitius soon caused a law to be passed depriving Sylla of the command against Mithradates, and vesting it in Marius. Two military tribunes were sent to announce this change to Sylla

The army of the latter, however, were as indignani

as himself at this new arrangement. The two mil

itary tribunes were murdered, and the whole force.

consisting of six legions, broke up from its quarters,

and began to march upon Rome. The city was assaulted and taken ; Sulpitius, being betrayed by one of his slaves, was put to death by Sylla's orders, and his head exposed on the rostra; while Marius, after

a series of romantic adventures, escaped to Afri

ca. Sylla having thus crushed the opposite faction

proscribed Marius, his son, and his chief adherents, re-established the power of the senate, and appointed his friend Octavius and his enemy Cinna to the consulship, set out against Mithradates. The relies of Greece was the first object of Sylla; and this he accomplished after taking Athens by storm, and defeating the armies of Mithradates in two great battles. Weakened and dispirited by these reverses, the King of Pontus readily concluded a treaty with the Roman general, who, on his part, was equally desirous of a peace, that he might return to Rome, where the Marian faction had regained the ascendancy. Sylla had probably expected to produce a comparative equilibrium at Rome by the appointment to the consulship of one from each of the contending factions. Here, however, his policy failed, probably from being too refined, or from his not taking into consideration the new element which had been introduced by the admission of the Italian states to the citizenship. He had, in a great measure, exterminated the democratic party in Rome itself, and restored the power of the senate; but Cinna perceived the means of raising a powerful body of new adherents, by proposing to throw open all the tribes to the Italian states, which would have given them a preponderance in every popular assembly. This the other consul, Octavius, opposed; and Cinna was compelled to withdraw to the country, where he soon mustered a powerful army of the disaffected allies. Marius, who had fled to Africa, being informed of the turn which affairs had taken at Rome, conceived hopes of recovering his power, and immediately returned to Italy, joined Cinna, and, at the head of an immense horde of robbers and semibarbarians, the very dregs of the populace of all Italy, who flocked to his standard from all quarters, advanced against the city. At his approach Rome was thrown into consternation; and there not being any forces sufficient to oppose him, the senate offered to capitulate, on condition that the lives of the opposite party should be spared. During the progress of these negotiations, Marius entered the city at the head of his armed and barbarous adherents, secured the gates that none might escape, and gave the signal for slaughter. On rushed his barbarians like wolves, sparing neither age nor sex, while Marius gazed on the horrid scene with grim and savage delight. During five days and five nights the hideous massacre was continued with relentless ferocity, while the streets were deluged with blood, and the heads of the murdered victims were exhibited in the forum, or laid before the monster himself for his peculiar gratification. At length Cinna grew sick of the protracted butchery; but the barbarians of Marius could not be restrained till they were themselves surrounded and cut to pieces by Cinna's soldiers. Having gratified his revenge by this bloody butchery, Marius nominated himself consul for the seventh time, and chose Cinna to be his colleague. This he did without the formalities of a public assembly, as if to consummate his triumph over the liberties of his country, thus trampled upon by an act at once of violation and of insult. But a short time did he enjoy his triumph and revenge. In the seventeenth day of his seventh consulate, and in the seventieth year of his age, he expired, leaving behind him the character of having been one of the most successful generals and most pernicious citizens of Rome. Sylla, having concluded a treaty with Mithradates, returned at the head of his victorious army, prepared and determined to inflict the most signal and ample vengeance upon the Marian faction, whom he deemed equally foes to himself and to the republic. Before his arrival in Italy, Cinna had been killed in a mutiny of his own troops; and none of the other leaders possessed talent and influence enough to make, head against him. . After a short but severe struggle, Sylla prevailed, and immediately commenced his dreadful,

deliberate, and systematic course of retribution. All who had either taken part directly with Marius, or who were suspected of attachment to the democratic party, were put to death without mercy, and, what was almost more terrible, apparently without wrath. Sylla even produced publicly a list of those he had doomed to death, and offered a reward for the heads of each. He thus set the example of proscription, which was afterward so fatally imitated in the various convulsions of the state. His next step was to depopulate entirely several of those Italian states which had joined the Marian faction, and to parcel out the lands among his own veteran troops, whom he thus at once rewarded and disbanded in the only manner like!y to reconcile them to peaceful habits. Having thus satisfied his revenge, his next care was to reform and reconstruct the constitution and government of the state, shattered to pieces by long and fierce intestine convulsions. He caused himself to be appointed dictator for an unlimited time. He restrained the influence of the tribunes by abolishing their legislative privileges, reformed and regulated the magistracy, limited the authority of governors of provinces, enacted police regulations for the maintenance of public tranquillity, deprived several of the Italian states of their right of citizenship, and, having supplied the due number of the senate by additions from the equestrian order, he restored to it the possession of the judicative order. Having at length completed his career as a political reformer, Sylla voluntarily resigned his dictatorship, which he had held for nearly three years, declared himself ready to answer any accusation that could be made against him during his administration, walked unmolested in the streets as a private person, and then withdrew to his villa near Cumae, where he amused himself with hunting and other rural recreations. Whether his retirement might have remained long undisturbed by the relatives of his numerous victims cannot be known, as he died in the year after his abdication of power, leaving, by his own direction, the following characteristic inscription to be engraved on his tomb : “Here lies Sylla, who was never outdone in good offices by his friend, nor in acts of hostility by his enemy.” The civil wars between Marius and Sylla may be considered even more worthy the careful study of the historian than those of Caesar and Pompey, for a right understanding of the circumstances which led to the destruction of Roman liberty, as the latter but concluded what the former had begun. Indeed, the strife between Marius and Sylla was itself the natural sequel of that contest between the aristocratic and democratic factions, if they ought not rather to be termed the factions of wealth and poverty, which gave rise to the sedition of the Gracchi, and which, being conducted on both sides with no spirit of mutual concession, none of mutual regard for public welfare, deepened into the most bitter and rancorous animosity, such as could end in nothing but mutual destruction. Of the worst spirit of democracy, we see in Marius what may be called a personification; fierce, turbulent, sanguinary, relentless ; brave to excess, but savagely ferocious ; full of wily stratagems in order to gain his object, then dashing from him every hard-won advantage by his reckless brutality. On the other hand, the aristocratic spirit had its representative in Sylla ; haughty, cautious, and determined, forming his schemes with deep forethought, prosecuting them with deliberate perseverance, and abandoning them with cold contempt when his object was accomplished. He held his dictatorial sway till he had satiated his revenge, and re-established, as he thought, the government on an aristocratical basis; then scornfully laid aside his power, and yielded himself up to voluptuous indulgence. • By these means it was made clearly evident that Rome no longer possessed sufficient public or private virtue to *;gopuru

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