Obrazy na stronie

the Emperor Justinian. This work was known by the title m'epi IIo.sov, de Urbibus, but that of the original was Eovakū; hence it has been inferred that the author's intention was to write a geographical work. It seeins that Stephanus, who is usually quoted by the title of Stephanus Byzantinus, or Stephanus of Byzantium, not only gave in his original work a catalogue of countries, cities, nations, and colonies, but, as opportunity offered, he described the characters of dif: serent nations, mentioned the founders of cities, and related the mythological traditions connected with each place, mingled with grammatical and etymological remarks. All this appears not in the meager abridgment of Hermolaus. We have a fragment, however, remaining of the original work relative to Dodona. The best edition of Stephanus is that of Berkell, completed by Gronovius, L. Bat., 1688, sol. There is a very recent edition of the text by Westermann, Lips, 1839, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 36.) STEstchörus, a Greek lyric poet, born at Himera, in Sicily, and who flourished about 570 B.C. He lived in the time of Phalaris, and was contemporary with Sappho, Alcaeus, and Pittacus. (Clinton, Fast. Hellen, p. 5.) His special business was the training and directing of choruses, and he assumed the name of Slesichorus, or “leader of choruses,” his original name being Tisias. This occupation must have remained hereditary in his family in Himera ; a younger Stesichorus of Himera came, in Olympiad 73.1 (B.C 4S5), to Greece as a poet (Marm., Par., ep. 50); and a third Stesichorus of Himera was victor at Athens in Olympiad 102.3 (B.C. 370). The eldest of them, Stesichorus Tisias, made a great change in the artistical form of the chorus. He it was who first broke the monotonous alternation of the strophe and antistrophe through a whole poem, by the introduction of the epode, differing in measure, and by this means made the chorus stand still. The chorus of Stesichorus seems to have consisted of a combination of several rows or members of eight dancers: the number eight appears, indeed, from various traditions, to have been, as it were, consecrated by him. The musical accompaniment was the cithara. On his arrangement of the strophe, antistrophe, and epode, was founded the Greek proverb, “the three things of Stesichorus” (Tú Tpia XTmatrópov). His compositions, which consisted of hymns in honour of the gods, odes in praise of heroes, lyrico-epic poems, such as an 'Iztov Tépatc. (“Destruction of Troy”), an Orcs/lad, &c., were written in the Doric dialect, and are all now lost except a few fragments. Stesichorus possessed, according to Dionysius, all the excellences and graces of Pindar and Simonides, and surpassed them both in the grandeur of his subjects, in which he well preserved the characteristics of manners and persons; and Quintilian represents him as having displayed the sublimity of his genius by the selection of weighty topics, such as important wars and the actions of great commanders, in which he sustained with his lyre the dignity of epic poetry. Accordingly, Alexander the Great ranks him anong those who were the proper study of princes. He was the inventor of the fable of the horse and the stag, which Horace and some other poets have imitated, and this he wrote to pre

vent his countrymen from making an alliance with

Phalaris. The best collections of the fragments of Stesichorus are given by Blomfield, in the Museum Criticum, No. 6, p. 256; and by Kleine, Berol., 1828, 8vo. They are also found in Gaisford's Poeta Minores Graeci, ed. Lips, vol. 3, p. 336-348. (Muller, Hist. Lit. Gr, p. 198.) Sthe Nélus, I. a king of Mycenae, son of Perseus and Andromeda. He married Nicippe, the daughter of Pelops, by whom he had two daughters, and a son called Eurystheus. The name of this son is connect

ed with the legend of Hercules, he having been born before Hercules, and, therefore, exercising a control over him. (Wid. Hercules.)—II. A son of Capaneus. He was one of the Epigoni, and also one of the suiters of Helen. He went to the Trojan war, and was, according to Virgil, in the number of those who were shut

up in the wooden horse. (Pausan., 2, 18. — Warg,

Alon., 2, 10.) Sthe Noboes, a daughter of Jobates, king of Lycia, who married Proetus, king of Argos. She became enamoured of Bellerophon, who had taken refuge at het husband's court after the murder of his brother; and when he refused, she falsely accused him before Praetus of attempts upon her virtue. (Wid. Bellerophon) Stilicho, a Vandalic general, in the service of the Emperor Theodosius the Great, whose niece Screna he married. Theodosius having bequeathed the empire of the East to his son Arcadius, and that of the West to his second son Honorius, the former was left under the care of Rufinus, and the latter under the guardianship of Stilicho. No sooner was Theodosius removed by death, than Rufinus stirred up an invasion of the Goths, in order to procure the sole douinion; but Stilicho put down this scheme, and efiected the destruction of his rival. After suppressing a revolt in Africa, he marched against Alaric, whom he signally defeated at Pollentia. After this, in A.D. 406, he repelled an invasion of barbarians, who penetrated into Italy under Rhadagasius, a Hun or Vandal leader, who formerly accompanied Alaric, and effected the entire destruction of the force and its leader. Either from motives of policy or from state necessity, he then entered into a treaty with Alaric, whose pretensions upon the Roman treasury for a subsidy he warmly supported. This conduct excited a suspicion of his treachery on the part of Honorius, who massacred all his friends during his absence. He received intelligence of this fact at the camp of Bononia (Bologna), whence he was obliged to flee to Ravenna. Here he took shelter in a church, from which he was inveigled by a solemn oath that no harm was intended him, and was conveyed to immediate execution, which he endured in a manner worthy his great military character. Stilicho was charged with the design of dethroning Honorius, in order to advance his son Eucherius in his place ; and the memory of this distinguished captain has been treated by the ecclesiastical writers with great severity. Zosimus, however, although otherwise unsavourable to him, acquits him of the treason which was laid to his charge ; and he will live in the poetry of Claudian as the most distinguished commander of his age. (Encyclop. Americ, vol. 12, p. 7–Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. 29, seq.) ST11. Po, a philosopher of Megara, who flourished about 336 B.C. He was not only celebrated for his eloquence and skill in dialectics, but for the success with which he applied the moral precepts of philos

ophy to the correction of his natural propensities.

Though in his youth he had been much addicted to intemperance and licentious pleasures, aster he had ranked himself among philosophers he was never known to violate the laws of sobriety or chastity. With respect to riches he exercised a virtuous noderation. When Ptolemy Soter, at the taking of Megara, presented him with a large sum of noney, and requested him to accompany him to Egypt, he returned the greater part of the present, and chose to retire, during Ptolemy's stay at Megara, to the island of Ægina. Afterward, when Megara was again taken by Demetrius, son of Antigonus, the conqueror ordered the soldiers to spare the house of Stilpo'; and, if anything should be taken from hin in the hurry of the plunder, to restore it. So great was the same of Stilpo, that, when he visited Athens, the people ran out of their shops to see him, and even the most eminent philosophers of Athens took pleasure in "...i upon his discourses. On moral topics Stilpo is said to have taught, that the highest felicity consists in a mind free from the dominion of passion, a doctrine similar to that of the Stoics. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 202.) Stob AEU's, Joannes, a native of Stobi, in Macedonia, whence his name Stobaeus. The particulars of his life are unknown, and we are even ignorant of the age in which he lived. All that can be said of his era is, that he was subsequent to Hierocles of Alexandrea, since he has lest us extracts srom his works; and as he cites no more recent writer, it is probable that he lived not long aster him. Stobaeus had read much; he had acquired the habit of reading with a pen in his hand, and of making extracts from whatever seemed to him remarkable. Having made a large collection of these extracts, he arranged them in systematic order sor the use of his son, whose education seems to have constituted the father's principal employment. This was the origin of a collection in four books, which he published under the title of 'Av6ozóytov šk. Aoyāv, dirog0e) uátov, Ütoônköv (“An Anthology of Extracts, Sentences, and Precepts”). This work has come down to us, but under a form somewhat different, and which has consequently embarrassed the commentators. We have three books of extracts made by Stobaeus, but they are given in the manuscripts as two distinct works: one composed of two books, the other of a single one. The former is entitled “Physical, Dialectic, and Moral Sclections,” the latter “Discourses.” There exists, however, some consusion in this respect in the manuscripts. Some, which contain merely the Eclogae or Extracts, call them the first and second books of Stobaeus, without any more particular designation. Others give both works the title of Anthology.—In the Eclogae and Discourses, Stobacus appears to have proposed to himself two different objects. The Eclogae form, so to speak, an historical work, because they make us acquainted with the opinions of ancient authors on questions of a physical, speculative, and moral nature, whereas the Discourses constitute merely a moral work. It is on account of this diversity that some critics have thought that the Eclogae never formed part of the Anthology, but originally made a separate work, and that the third and fourth books of the Anthology are lost. This hythesis, however, seems at variance with the account that Photius gives of the Anthology of Stobaeus. “The first book,” says he, “is entirely physical; the commencement of the second is strictly philosophical (Zoyukóc), but the greater part is moral. The third and fourth books are almost entirely devoted to moral and political subjects.” It would seem from this that it is wrong to divide the extracts of Stobaeus into two works, and that we possess actually, under two titles, his Anthology in four books, excepting that the copyists have united the third and fourth books into one.— It is from Photius also that we learn the object which Stobaeus had in view when he made these selections, for we have not the beginning of the first book, where no doubt it was stated. Stobaeus had devoted this part to a eulogium on philosophy, which was followed by an historical sketch of the ancient schools, and of their doctrines in relation to geometry, music, and arithmetic : of this chapter we have only the end, in which the subject of arithmetic is treated. The object of Stobaeus, according to Photius, was to erect a column which might serve as a landmark to his son Septimius during the latter's course through life. The first book is subdivided into sixty chapters; the second contained forty-six, but we have only the first nine. The third book, or the first of the Discourses, was, in the time of Photius, composed of forty-two chapters, and the second of fisty-eight. In the manuscripts these one hundred chapters form only one book: the copyists, however, have, by their subdivis

ion of some of the Discourses, made the number of chapters amount to one hundred and twenty-five, or, rather, one hundred and twenty-seven. Each chapter of the Eclogae, and each discourse, has a particulur title, under which the author has arranged his extracts, commencing with the poets, and passing from them, in order, to orators, philosophers, physicians, &c. The source whence each extract is obtained is indicated in the margin. These extracts are drawn from more than five hundred authors, both poets and prose writers, whose works have in a great measure perished. We find here, in particular, numerous passages from the ancient comic writers.-The best edition of the Ecloga is that of Heeren, Götting., 1792, 2 vols. (in 4) 8vo. It contains a very valuable dissertation by the editor, on the sources whence Stobaeus obtained his materials. (Commentatio de Fontibus Eclogarum Joannis Stobaci.)—The best edition of the Discourses is that of Gaisford, under the title, Joannis Stobaei Florilegium, Oron., 1822, 4 vols. 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 133, seqq.) Stobi, a city of Macedonia, in the district of Paeonia,. to the north of Edessa, and not far from the junction of the Erigonus and Axius. Livy informs us that Philip wished to sound a new city in its vicinity, to be called Perses, after his eldest son (39, 54). On the conquest of Macedonia by the Romans, Stobi was made the depôt of the salt with which the Dardani were supplied from that country (45, 29). At a later period it became not only a Roman colony, but a Roman municipium, a privilege rarely conferred beyond the limits of Italy. (Plin., 4, 10.—Ulp., Dig. de Cons. ler ult.) In the reign of Constantine, Stobi was considered as the chief town of Macedonia Secunda, or Salutaris, as it was then called. (Hierocl., Syn., p. 641.-Malch, Erc Legat., p. 61.) Stobi was the birthplace of Joannes Stobacus, the author of the Greek Florilegium which bears his name. The modern Istib is said to mark the site of the ancient city. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 271.—Bischoff und Möller, Wörterb. der Geogr., p. 931.) Stoech Kdes, islands in the Mediterranean, off the coast of Gaul, and in a southeast direction from Telo Martius or Toulon, now Isles d’Hieres. Strabo and Ptolemy make them five in number, but Pliny only three. They are called Prote (Parquerolles), Mese (Porto Cros), and Hypaea (du Lerant or Titan). They are said to have their name from their bein ranged on the same line (aroixos-Plin, 3, 5–Mela, 2, 7). Stoici, a celebrated sect of philosophers, sounded by Zeno of Citium. They received their name from the portico (arod) where the philosopher delivered his lectures. This was the “Poecile,” adorned with various paintings from the pencil of Polygnotus and other eminent masters, and hence was called, by way of eminence, the Porch. An account of the Stoic doctrine will be sound at the end of the article Zeno. Strabo, I. a Roman cognomen in the Fannian, Pompeian, and other families. It was first applied to those whose eyes were distorted, but afterward became a general name.—II. A celebrated geographer, born at Amasea in Pontus. The year of his birth is not exactly known, but it may be placed about fifty-four B.C. (Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, pt. 2, p. 277.) He studied at Nyssa under Aristodemus, at Amisus under Tyrannion, and at Seleucia under Xenarchus. He then proceeded to Alexandrea, and attached himself first to the peripatetic Baethus of Sidon; but Athenodorus of Tarsus eventually gained him over to the doctrines of the Porch. He then visited various parts of Asia Minor, Syria, Phoenicia, and Egypt as far as Syene and the Cataracts of the Nile. i. this latter country he formed an intimate acquaintance with Ælius Gallus, the Roman governor. In the year 24 B.C. this general undertook, by order of Augustus, an expedition into

Arabia. At a subsequent period, Strabo travelled over Greece, Macedonia, and Italy with the exception of Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria. It is important to determine the extent of Strabo's travels, that we may know when he speaks as an eyewitness, and when he merely copies the accounts of his predecessors, or gives the narratives of other travellers. At an advanced period of life he compiled a work on Geography (Tewypasouká), in seventeen books, which has come down to us complete, with the exception of the seventh book, which is impersect.—It is remarkable that, during a space of near five hundred years, from the time of Herodotus to that of Strabo, so little should have been added to the science of geography. The conquests of the Romans westward did certainly bring them acquainted with parts of Europe hitherto little known; but in the East, neither the Macedonian nor the Roman expeditions seem to have brought much to light that was before unknown of the state of Asia; while in Africa, as Rennell justly observes, geography lost ground. In the course of this period, indeed, many writers on this subject appeared; but, whatever were their merits (and the merits even of the most eminent among them seem to be not highly rated by Strabo), it is certain that they are all lost. We may collect, indeed, from a curious circumstance little known or regarded, that no complete or systematic work on geography at that time existed : for it appears from two or three of Cicero's letters to Atticus, that he once entertained thoughts of writing a treatise himself on the subject. He was deterred, however, he says, whenever he considered it, by the magnitude of the undertaking, and by perceiving how severely even Eratosthenes had been censured by the writers who succeeded him. In fact, he was probably restrained by a consciousness of his own incompetency in point of science, of which he makes a pretty broad confession to

his friend; and whoever values the reputation of Cice-.

ro cannot regret that it was never risked on a system of geography, to be got up, as he himself hints it was intended to be, during a short summer tour among his country-houses in Italy.—It is not, however, merely to the respective character of the two individuals that we must attribute the inferiority of the geography of Herodotus, in all essential requisites, to that of Strabo. Much undoubtedly is owing to the manners and complexion of the times in which they respectively lived. The former came to the task with few materials supplied to his hands. Everything was to be collected by his own industry, without the aid of previous history, without political documents or political authority. The taste, moreover, and the habits of the people for whom he wrote, which must ever have a powerful influence over the composition of any writer, demanded other qualities than rigid authenticity, and a judicious selection of facts. It should be remembered that he was hardly yet emerged from the story-telling age; the pleasure of wondering had not yet been superseded by the pleasure of knowing ; and the nine deities who give name to his books might be allowed to impart some share of their privilege of fiction, whenever sober truth has been insufficient to complete or adorn his narrative. Before the age of Augustus, however, an entire revolution had been effected in the intellectual habits and literary pursuits of men. The world had become in a manner, what it now is, a reading world. Books of every kind were to be had in every place. Accordingly, it became the chief business of writers who projected any extensive work, to examine and compare what had been already written; to weigh probabilities; to adjust and reconcile apparent difficulties; and to decide between contending authorities, as well as to collect and methodise a multitude of independent facts, and to mould them into one reg. ular and consistent form. It was not without a just sense of the magnitude and difficulty of the underta

king that Strabo engaged in this task, as is sufficiently proved by his own elaborate introduction. How many years were employed upon it is not certain; but we are sure, from the incidental mention made in different passages of historical events widely distant from each other, that it occupied a considerable portion of his life. It is impossible, indeed, to read any of his larger descriptions without feeling the advantages possessed by an eyewitness over a mere compiler. The strong and expressive outlines which he draws convey a lively idea, not merely of the figure and dimensions, but of the surface and general character, of extensive districts. These outlines are carefully filled up by a methodical and often minute survey of the whole region, marking distinctly its coasts, its towns, rivers, and mountains; the produce of the soil, the condition and manners of the inhabitants, their origin, language, and traffic ; and in the more civilized parts of the world, in the states of Greece especially, we meet with continual information respecting persons and events, the memory of which is sacred to every one at all conversant with the writers of that extraordinary people. But it is not merely from the number and authenticity of the facts which it communicates that this work derives its value. Every page bears evidence of a philosophical and reflecting mind; a mind disciplined by science, and accustomed to trace the causes and connexion of things, as well in the province of physical phenomenon, as in the more intricate and varying system of human affairs. In this respect Strabo bears a strong resemblance to Polybius. But with the fondness of that historian for reflections and his steady love of truth, he has not copied the formality of his digressions, which so often interrupt the flow of the history, and which would be yet more unsuited in a geographical work. The reasonings and reflections of Strabo are just those which would naturally be excited in a mind previously well informed by the scenes over which he was travelling; but they never tempt him to lose sight of his main purpose, the collection and arrangement of facts. There is a gravity, a plainness, a sobriety, and good sense in all his remarks, which constantly remind us that they are subordinate and incidental, suggested immediately by the occasion; and they are delivered with a tincture of literature, such as a well-educated man cannot fail of imparting to any subject. On these accounts Strabo would be entitled to the perusal of every scholar, even if the geographical information were less abundant and authentic than it really is.-Strabo lived prior to any arrangement of the distances on the globe by measures taken from degrees of longitude and latitude. But this writer and his predecessor in the same branch of science were not unacquainted with the practice of measuring the distance from the equator as from a fixed line, by which the comparatively northerly or southerly situations of places might be determined; nor were they ignorant of some methods by which the longitude or distance of places to the east or west of each other might be estimated. But it was reserved for Ptolemy to reduce these observations into a regular system and to a tabular form, by which the situation of any one place, if correctly ascertained, might be compared with that of any other, and also with its distance from the equator and from the first meridian, drawn through Ferro, in the Canary or Fortunate Islands, as being the most westerly point of the earth known at that time.—The ancient astronomers and geographers could not but be conscious how defective were their instruments for observing the heavenly bodies; and how much greater dependance might be placed on their mechanical measurement of distances, to the accuracy of which we have reason to think they paid great attention, than on their celestial observations, to ascertain the truth of which they had so little artificial assistance. The proportion of the length of the gnomon to that of its meridian shadow at the solstice and the equinoxes, afforded the principal method of determining the distance of places from the equator, and these were, indeed, under a clear sky, a bright sun, and continued opportunities of repeating observations, laid down, in many instances, inore nearly to the truth than could be expected from so simple and so rude an instrument. Still, however, they were liable to great uncertainty. The penumbra at the extremity of the shadow made the proportions doubtful. The semi-di. ameter of the sun (although Cleomedes seemed to be aware that this should be taken into the account) does not appear to be added to the altitude, and the circumstances, less important, indeed, though not to be neglected, of parallax and refraction, were altogether unknown. Instances of the incorrectness of gnomonic or sciothenic observations may be given, too gross to be ascribed to any of these defects, and eviJently owing to inaccuracy in the observers. Strabo mentions, in no less than four places, that the same proportion of the length of the gnomon to its solstitial shadow was found at Byzantium and at Marseilles, though the former was situated in 41° 11", and the other in 43° 17' of latitude, a difference of no less than 136 on the equator, equal to 158 English miles; and this fact is reported on the authority of Hipparchus and Eratosthenes, in a case, too, which was obvious to the senses, and depended neither on hypothesis nor calculation. It is more extraordinary that this mistake, after being adopted by Ptolemy, should be continued down to ages not very remote from our own. A still greater error is to be found in Straho respecting the situation of Carthage. He says that the propor. tion of the length of the gnomon to that of the equinoctial shadow is as cleven to seven. This gives by plane trigonometry a latitude of 32° 20', which is very near to the one adopted by Ptolemy. The true latitude of Carthage, according to the best observations, is 36° 5'. The error, therefore, is 272", or 313 English miles. These, and other remarks which night be here made, tend fully to show, that the ancient geographers are more deserving of praise when they express distances by measurements, in the correctness of which they excelled, than when they give them by calculations or observations, the principles of which they understood, but had not the means of reducing to ractice (Quarterly Rericit, vol. 5, p. 274, seq; )— }. to return more immediately to Strabo. A circumstance which cannot fail to surprise us is the little success with which Strabo's work appears to have met among the ancients, as far, at least, as we may inser from the silence which their writers for the most art preserve in relation to his labours. Marcianus of }. Athenæus, and Harpocration are the only ancient authors that cite him. Pliny and Pausanias do not even appear to have been acquainted with him by name. Josephus and Plutarch make mention of Strabo, but it is only to speak of his Historical Memoirs. The celebrity of Strabo dates from the middle ages: it was then so universal, that the custom arose of designating him by the simple title of “the Geographer.”—The Geography of Strabo consists of two parts: the first, cosmographical, giving a description of the world, and comprising the first and second books; the second, chorographical, furnishing a de. tailed account of particular countries. This latter part commences with the third and ends with the seventeenth book; and thus consists of fisteen books, of which cight are devoted to Europe, six to Asia, and one to Africa—The first book of the Geography of Strabo contains the general introduction to the work. In it the author shows the importance and, utility of geographical studies. On this occasion he treats of the extent of Homer's geographical knowledge, and desends him against his detractors, even to such a degree

as to support the authority of the sables related by the hard. After Homer, Strabo passes in review the works of Anaximander, Hecataeus, Deinocritus, and Eudoxus of Cnidus: he commends the latter for his mathematical acquirements and for everything he relates concerning Greece, while he censures him for being fabulous in his account of the Scythians. He names Dicaearchus among the writers that have treated of general geography, whereas we merely know that he wrote the Broc 'Ezzādoc, Strabo ends his list of ancient geographers with Ephorus of Cumae : Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Polybius, and Posidonius forming the class of inodern ones. His criticism on the first two books of Eratosthenes furnishes him with an opportunity of indulging in some researches relative to the adventures of Ulysses as given by Homer, the degree of acquaintance which the poet had with Egypt, and also the revolutions which the surface of the earth has undergone.— In the second book Strabo continues his criticism on the work of Eratosthenes, and takes up the third book of that production. He makes inany corrections on Hipparchus, and defends Eratosthenes against many unjust criticisms. He then proceeds to an examination of the works of Posidonius and Polybius. The remainder of the book treats of the knowledge requisite for a geographer, and particularly that of a mathematical nature: he then treats of the figure of the earth, its general divisions and climates. He states that the earth has the form of a globe, or, rather, seems to have such a form. The habitable portion of the earth resembles, according to him, a chlamys or military cloak ; it is contained between two parallels, one of which passes through Jerne or Ireland, and the other through what is now the island of Ceylon. The earth is immoveable and in the centre of the universe. The length of the earth from the equator to the north is 38, 100 stadia, that of the habitable world 29,000. The breadth is about 70,000 stadia. The Caspian Sea is a gulf. The Sacrum Promontorium (Cape St. Vincent) is the most westerly point of Europe.—With the third book commences the chorographical part. Spain is the first country that occupies Strabo's attention; he first describes Baetica, then Lusitania and the northern coast as far as the Pyrenees, then the southern coast from the Columns of Hercules to the same range, and, finally, the islands in the neighbourhood of Spain, the Baleares, Gades, and the Cassiterides. In giving the description of this country Strabo follows three writers who had travelled in it. The first of these is Artemidorus, who boasted of having pushed his way as far as Gades, although the account which he gives of the phenomena that there attended the setting of the sun does not seem to indicate one who had obscrved them himself: this traveller was very exact in his determination of distances. The second source whence Strabo derived his information concerning Spain, and his principal guide in this book, is Posidonius The third is Polybius. Strabo, however, notes the changes which had taken place since the period of the lastmentioned writer. Independen'ly of these three authorities, our geographer cites Ephorus, Eratosthenes, Timosthenes, Asclepiades of Myrlea, and Athenodorus —The fourth book is taken up with the description of Gaul, Britain, Ireland. Thule, and the Alps. Aster having treated of the four grand divisions of Gaul, Narbonensis, Aquitania, Lugdunensis, and Belgica, Strabo gives some general details on this country and its inhabitants. The Alps afford him an opportunity of treating of the Ligurians, Salyes, Rhati, Vindelicii, Taurisci, and other inhabitants of these mountains. For his description of Gaul Strabo could easily obtain information from persons who had filled public offices in that country (for in his day this country was completly subject to the Romans), as well as from those who had traded thither. In other respects

Caesar was his principal guide, especially in the description of the Silva Arduenna, and the account of the manners and customs of the Germans in general He makes use, also, of the same geographers that had aided him in the third book. For example, his description of the Rhone and Isere, of their embouchures, and of the countries lying between these rivers, appears to be taken from Artemidorus. In the description of Gallia Narbonensis, of which Caesar does not treat, Polybius is his authority. In what relates to the ancient constitution of Massilia (Marseille) he has followed Polybius, or perhaps Aristotle's work on Governments. Strabo, it is true, does not cite the latter writer on this occasion, but we see from another passage that he had consulted his work. (Strabo, 321.) The other accounts that he gives respecting Massilia are obtained from travellers with whom Strabo was personally acquainted. He gives the narrative of Timagenes, according to whom the treasure which Caepio found at Tolosa made part of the plunder which the Tectosages had carried off from Delphi. With respect to Britain, the description of which sollows that of Gaul, as this country was not yet subjected to the Romans, Strabo had no other sources of information than the fifth book of Caesar's Commentaries, and the verbal accounts of travellers. He confesses, also, that he has but scanty materials for Ireland. In speaking of Thule, he makes mention of Pytheas, whom he unjustly considers as a writer dealing altogether in fable. For the description of the Alps, and of their inhabitants, which terminates the fourth book, his authority was Polybius.-The fifth and sixth books are devoted to Italy. The sixth ends with a survey of the Roman power. With the exception of Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria, Strabo knew Italy from personal observation. Polybius is his principal guide among the writers whom he cites, particularly for Cisalpine Gaul : in his description of Liguria he quotes also from Posidonius. What he says respecting the origin of the Etrurians is found in Herodotus: his account of the early kings of Rome is robably abridged from Dionysius of Halicarnassus. n treating of the Etrurians, he makes a digression concerning the Pelasgi, and cites Ephorus, Anticlides, and others. For the description of Etruria he has consulted Polybius, Eratosthenes, and Artemidorus. In giving the dimensions of Corsica and Sardinia, he resers, for the first time, to an author whom he merely cites under the title of a “Chorographer,” but whom he distinguishes from Eratosthenes, Polybius, and Artemidorus. This is a Roman writer, for his measurements are not in stadia, but in miles; and perhaps he is the same with the Agrippa who prepared a description of the Roman empire, which Augustus caused to be placed in the portico commenced by his sister. (Plin, 3, 2.) Fabius Pictor and Caecilius are his authorities for what he says respecting the origin of the Romans; and for the rest of Central Italy and Magna Græcia, he follows Polybius, Artemidorus, Ephorus, Timaeus, Apollodorus, but, above all, Antiochus of Syracuse. For Sicily he cites Posidonius, Artemidorus, Ephorus, and Timaeus. –The seventh book commences with a description of the countries situate along the Ister or Danube, and inhabited by the Germans, Cimbri, Getae, and Tauri : it then proceeds to notice the regions between this river, the Euxine, the Adriatic, Illyricum, and Epirus. The chapters on Thrace and Macedonia are lost. Here Strabo was unable to procure as good authorities as in the preceding books, and he himself confesses that he was wandering in the dark. Strabo seems to have had under his eyes an historian who treated of the wars between the Romans and Germans, and who was subsequent to Caesar. The name of this writer appears to have been Asinius. All that Strabo relates concerning the Cimbri is taken from Posidonius; for Ephorus the grammarian, Apollodo7 X

rus, and Hypsicrates of Amisa are only cited for isolated facts. The two latter appear to have left histories of the war with Mithradates. Illyricum is one of the countries which Strabo himself traversed. — Froin what he says on the subject, we see that in Aristotle's work on Governments, the constitutions of Acarnania, Megaris, AEtolia, and Opuntia were, among others, considered. Polybius and Posidonius have supplied Strabo with his materials for these regions; Theopompus and Ephorus were his guides in Epirus, and Philochorus in what relates to Dodona. He cites, also, a certain Cineas; but whatever he drew from this otherwise unknown author has perished with the end of the book.-The eighth book, and the two immediately following, contain Greece in general, and the Peloponnesus in particular. In the description of Greece, Strabo takes the Homeric poems for a basis. In the chorographical part he consults also Ephorus and Polybius ; in the physical part, Posidonius and Hipparchus; in the description of bays and harbours, Artemidorus and Timosthenes; and, in addition to all this, draws largely on his own information as a traveller in this country. Passing on to the description of Elis, he cites, for the fabulous ages, Homer and his commentators, Apollodorus, and Demetrius of Scepsis, as well as the other early poets; he relies principally, however, upon Ephorus. The other writers consulted by him for his account of the Peloponnesus are Philochorus, Callisthenes, Hellanicus, Demetrius of Scepsis, Theo-, pompus, Thucydides, and Aristotle. What he says of the Achaean league is taken from Polybius. The distances between places are obtained from Artemidorus and Eratosthenes.— In the ninth book he describes Megaris, Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, and Thessaly, as well as Hellas, properly so called. The dimensions of Attica are taken from Eudoxus, the mathematician; its history from the Atthidographi, among whom he cites Philochorus and Andron. He has consulted, also, the memoirs of Demetrius Phalereus, for the purpose of learning the condition of Attica during the time of that individual. For Boeotia, Locris, and Phocis, Ephorus and others have been his authorities. What he gives respecting Thessaly is a kind of commentary on those passages in Homer where mention is made of the Thessalians.—The tenth book is occupied with the rest of Greece; Euboea, Arcarnania, Aotolia, Crete, the Cyclades, Sporades, &c. For the antiquities of Euboea, Homer and his commentators have been consulted; for its history, Theopompus and Aristotle. When he treats of Acarnania and Etolia, he follows Homer and another epic poet, probably a Cyclic bard, who had composed an Alcmaeonid, which Ephorus had under his eyes. His other sources of information were Apollodorus, Demetrius of Scepsis, and Artemidorus. Before passing to Crete, Strabo makes a long digression respecting the Curetes. Among the crowd of writers who had treated of the subject, he distinguishes Demetrius of Scepsis, from whom he appears to have derived the account that be gives respecting the religious ceremonies of the Cretans; he refers, also, to Archemachus of Euboea, an historian of an unknown epoch, cited frequently by Athenaeus, to Pherecydes of Scyros, Acusilas of Argos, who gave a prose translation of the poetry of Hesiod, and to Stesimbrotus of Thasos. For the description of Crete his principal authority was Sosicrates. He names also Eudoxus, Artemidorus, Hieronymus of Cardia, and Staphylus of Naucratis. What relates to the government of Crete is taken from Ephorus. The account of the islands of the AEgean is the result of Strabo's own observations. —The eleventh book begins the description of Asia. Strabo bounds this part of the world by the Tanais, the Ocean, and what is now the Isthmus of Suez; but he believed it to be much less extensive than it is in reality. He was unacquainted with the vast regions of Asiatic Russia, and with those of Central Asia occu1265

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