Obrazy na stronie

duplication of the sixth day before the calends of March was called the intercalary day, and the year in which this took place was styled Bissextile. This was the Julian year, the reckoning by which commenced 45 B.C., and continued till it gave place to something more accurate, and a still farther reformation under Pope Gregory XIII. Sosigenes was the author of a commentary upon Aristotle's book de Carlo. Sosii, celebrated booksellers at Rome, in the age of Horace. (Ep., 1, 20, 2–Ep. ad Pis., 345.) Sostrorus, I. a grammarian in the age of Augustus. He was Strabo's preceptor.—II. An architect of Cnidus, B.C. 2S4, who built the tower of Pharos, in the Bay of Alexandrea. (Vid. Pharos.)—III. A poet, who wrote a poem on the expedition of Xerxes into Greece. (Jun., 10, 178.- Lemaire, ad loc.) otApes, I am Athenian pbet of the middle comedy. (Scholl., Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 115.)—II. A Greek poet, a native of Maronea, whose name has descended to posterity covered with infamy. He was the author of Cinaedologic strains, which exceeded in impurity anything that had gone before them. These poems, at first called Ionica, were subsequently denominated Sotadica. Having, before leaving Alexandrea, where he had been living some time, written a very gross epigram on Ptolemy Philadelphus, that prince caused him to be pursued. , Solades was seized in the island of Caunus, enclosed in a case of lead, and cast into the sea. (Athen, 14, p. 620, ed. Schweigh., vol. 5, p. 247.) Soter, a surname of the first Ptolemy. Ptolemaeus I.) Sothis, the Egyptian name of the star Sirius. (Vid. Sirius.) Sotixtes, a people of Gaul conquered by Caesar. Their country, which sormed part of Aquitania, extended along the Garumna or Garonne, and their chief town was Sotiatum, of which some traces still remain at the modern Sos. (Caes., B. G., 3, 20.) Sotion, a grammarian of Alexandrea, preceptor to Seneca, B.C. 204. (Senec., Ep., 49, 50.) SozóMEN, an ecclesiastical historian, born, according to some, at Salamis, in the island of Cyprus, but, according to others, at Gaza or Bethulia, in Palestine. He died 450 A.D. His history extends from the ear 324 to 439, and is dedicated to Theodosius the ounger, being written in a style of inelegance and mediocrity. He is chargeable with several notorious errors in the relation of facts, and has incurred censure for his commendations of Theodorus of Mopsuesta, with whom originated the heresy of two persons in Christ. His history is usually printed with that of Socrates and the other ecclesiastical historians. The best edition is that of Reading, Cantab, 1720, folio. A work of Sozomen, not now extant, containing, in two books, a summary account of the affairs of the Church from the ascension of our Saviour to the defeat of Licinius, was written before his history. Sparta, a celebrated city of Greece, the capital of Laconia. It was situated in a plain of some extent, bounded on one side by the chain of Taygetus, on the other by the less elevated ridge of Mount Thornax, and through which flowed the Eurotas. In the age of Thucydides it was an inconsiderable town, without fortifications, presenting rather the appearance of a collection of villages than of a regularly-planned and well-built city. The public buildings also were very few, and these conspicuous neither for their size nor ar. chitectural beauty : so that the appearance of Lacedæmon, as the historian observes, conveyed a very inadequate idea of the power and resources of the nation (1, 10). Before the Peloponnesian war, a great portion of the city had been destroyed by an earthquake, which also occasioned considerable damage in other parts of the country. Ælian states that only five


houses were left in Sparta after the shock had ceased. (War. Hist., 6, 7–Compare Plut., Wit. Cim.—Co., de Dirin., 1, 50.—Plin, 2, 79.) It continued without walls during the most flourishing period of Spartan history, Lycurgus having inspired his countrymen with the idea that the real defence of a town consisted solely in the valour of its citizens. When, however, Sparta became subject to despotic rulers, fortifications were erected, which rendered the town capable of sustaining a regular siege. By that time it had increased considerably, being forty-eight stadia in circumference, as we are informed by Polybius, who adds, that it was double the size of Megalopolis in regard to the number of its houses and inhabitants, though it did not occupy an equal extent of ground, since the circuit of the Arcadian city was fifty stadia. The remains of Sparta are about two miles distant from the modern town of Misitra. Sir W. Gell observes, that “the walls are of the lower ages, and consist of fragments and blocks taken from ancient edifices. The whole city appears to have been a mile long, in which were included five hills; some of these have ruins on their summits.” (Ilin. of the Morea, p. 221. — Compare Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 408.)— We will now proceed to give a brief outline of Spartan history. According to fable, Lacedæmon, son of Jupiter, and of the nymph Taygeta, married Sparta, daughter of Eurotas, king of the Leleges, succeeded his father-in-law on the throne, and gave the country his own name, calling the city by that of his wife. He was probably a Hellenic prince, and one of the leaders of the Achaean colony, which Archander and Architeles led into Laconia, after their expulsion from Phthiotis. Here Lacedæmon, having persuaded the natives to receive a colony, gave his own name to the united people. Among the most celebrated of the early kings was Tyndarus, with whose sons Castot and Pollux the male line of Lacedæmon became extinct. Menelaus, between whom and Lacedæmon five kings had reigned, married Helen, the daughter of Tyndarus, and thus acquired the throne. Orestes, son of Agamemnon, who had married Hermione, the daughter of Menelaus, united Argos and Mycenae with Lacedæmon. In the reign of his son and successor Tisamenes, it was conquered by the Heraclidae, about 1080 B.C., who established a diarchy or double dynasty of two kings in Sparta. For, as neither the mother nor the Delphic oracle could decide which of the twin sons of Aristodemus, Eurysthenes and Procles, was first born, the province of Laconia was assigned to them in common; and it was determined that the descendants of both should succeed them. The Lacedæmonians, however, had little cause to rejoice at the arrival of the foreigners, whose fierce disputes, under seven rulers of both houses, distracted the country with civil feuds, while it was, at the same time, involved in constant wars with its neighbours, particularly the Argives. The royal authority was continually becoming feebler, and the popular power was increased by these divisions, until the government ended in an ochlocracy. At this time Lycurgus was born for the healing of the troubles. He was the only man in whom all parties confided; and, under the auspices of the gods, whose oracle he consulted, he established a new constitution of government in Sparta (about 880 B.C.), and thus became the savioul of his country. Lacedæmon now acquired new vigour, which was manifested in her wars against her neighbours, particularly in the two long Messenian wars, which resulted in the subjugation of the Messenians (B.C. 668). The battle of Thermopylae (B.C. 480), in which the Spartan king Leonidas successfully resisted the Persian forces at the head of a small body of his countrymen, gave Sparta so much distinction among the Grecian states, that even Athens consented to yield the command of the consederated forces, by land and sea, to the Spartans. Pausanias, guardian of the infant son of Leonidas, gained the celebrated victory of Platea over the Persians (B.C. 479), at the head of the allies. On the same day, the Grecian army and fleet, under the command of the Spartan king Leotychides, and the Athenian general Xanthippus, defeated the Persians, by land and sea, near Mycale. With the rise of the political importance of Sparta, the social organization of the nation was developed. The power of the kings was gradually imited, while that of the ephori was increased. After the Persians had been victoriously repelled, the Grecian states, having acquired warlike habits, carried on hostilities against each other. The jealousy of Sparta towards Athens rose to such a height, that the Lacedaemonians, under pretence that the Persians, in case of a renewal of the war, would find a tenable position in Athens, opposed the rebuilding of its walls and the fortification of the Piraeus. Theinistocles, discerning the real grounds of this proceeding, baffled the designs of Sparta by a stratagem, and thus contributed to increase the ill-will of that state towards Athens. The tyrannical conduct of Pausanias alienated the other allies from Sparta; and most of them submitted to the command of Athens. But, while Sparta was learning moderation, Athens became so arrogant towards the confederates, that they again attached themselves to the former power, which now began to make preparations in secret for a new struggle. The Athenians, however, formally renounced the friend. ship of Sparta, and began hostilities (B.C. 431). This war, the Peloponnesian, ended in the ascendancy of Sparta, and the entire humiliation of her rival (405). The rivalry of the Spartan general Lysander and the

king Pausanias soon after produced a revolution,

which delivered the Athenians from the Spartan yoke. The Spartans next became involved in a war with Persia, by joining Cyrus the Younger in his rebellion against his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon. The Persian throne was shaken by the victories of Agesilaus ; but Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and some of the Peloponnesian states were instigated by Persian gold to declare war against the Lacedæmonians, who sound it necessary to recall Agesilaus. The latter defeated the Thebans at Corona’a ; but, on the other hand, the Athenian commander, Conon, gained a victory over the Spartan fleet at Cnidus, and took fifty galleys. This war, known as the Boeotian or Corinthian war, lasted eight years, and increased the reputation and power of Athens by the successes of her admiral, Conon, and her fortunate expeditions against the Spartan coasts and the islands of the AEgean. The arrogance of Athens again involved her in hostilities with Persia; and Antalcidas (B.C. 388) concluded the peace which bears his name, and which, though highly advantageous to Persia, delivered Sparta from her enemies. The ambitious designs of Sparta in concluding this peace soon became apparent : she continued to oppress her allies, and to sow dissension in every quarter, that she might have an opportunity of acting as umpire. Besides other outrages, she occupied, without provocation, the city of Thebes, and introduced an aristocratical constitution there. Pelopidas delivered Thebes, and the celebrated Theban war followed, in which Athens took part, at first against Sparta, but afterward in her favour. The latter was so much enfeebled by the war that she thenceforward ceased to act a distinguished part in Greece. No state was strong enough to take the lead, and the Macedonian king Philip at last made himself master of all Greece. Agis, king of Sparta, one of the bravest and noblest of its princes, ventured to maintain a struggle for the liberties of Greece; but he lost his life in the battle of Megalopolis, against Antipater. Archidamus IV. was attacked by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and Sparta was saved with difficulty. New troubles soon 7 U.

arose: Cleonymus, nephew of the king Areus, invited Pyrrhus into the country in aid of his ambitious projects, which were frustrated, partly by the negligence of Pyrrhus, and partly by the courage of the Spartans. Luxury and licentiousness were continually growing more and more prevalent, and, though several succeeding kings attempted to restore the constitution of Lycurgus, and restrain the power of the ephori, it was without success. Cleomenes, indeed, accomplished a reform, but it was not permanent. After an obstinate war against the Achaeans and Antigonus, king of Macedonia, Cleomenes fled to Egypt, where he died. The state remained three years without a head, and was then ruled by the tyrants Machanidas and Nabis, by the latter of whom the most atrocious cruelties were committed. The Romans and the Achaean league effected the final fall of the state, which had been upheld for a short time by Nabis. Sparta was obliged to join the Achaean league, with which it afterward passed under the dominion of the Romans. (Encyclop. Americ., vol. 11, p. 529, seqq.)—This appears the proper place to make a few remarks relative to the legislation of Lycurgus. The first important change introduced by this lawgiver into the Spartan constitution was the creation of a senate, consisting of twentyeight members, who, being, in all matters of deliberation, possessed of equal authority with the kings, proved an effectual check against any infringement of the laws on their part, and preserved a just balance in the state by supporting the crown against the encroachments of the people, and protecting the latter against any undue influence of the regal power. It was also enacted that the people should be occasionally summoned, and have the power of deciding any question proposed to them. No measure, however, could originate with them; they had only the right of approving or rejecting what was submitted to them by the senato and two kings. But, as danger was to be apprehended from various attempts subsequently made by the people to extend their rights in these meetings, it was at length ordained that, if the latter endeavoured to alter any law, the kings and senate should dissolve the assembly and annul the amendment. With a view of counterbalancing the great power thus committed to the legislative assembly, and which might degenerate into oligarchy, five annual magistrates were appointed, named ephori, whose office it was, like that of the tribunes at Rome, to watch over the interests of the people, and protect them against the influence of the aristocracy. (Vid. Ephori.)—Lycurgus, in order to banish wealth and luxury from the state, made a new division of lands, by which the income and possessions of all were rendered equal. He divided the territory of Sparta into 9000 portions, and the remainder of Laconia into 30,000, of which one lot was assigned to each citizen and inhabitant. These parcels of land were supposed to produce seventy medimni of grain for a man and twelve for a woman, besides a sufficient quantity of wine and oil. The more effectually to banish the love of riches, the Spartan lawgiver prohibited the use of gold and silver, and allowed only iron’ money, affixing even to this the lowest value. He also instituted public repasts termed Phidilia, where all the citizens partook in common of such frugal fare as the law directed. The kings even were not exempted from this regulation, but ate with the other citizens; the only distinction observed with respect to them being that of having a double portion of food. The Spartan custom of eating in public appears to have been borrowed from the Cretans, who called these repasts Andria. (Plut., Wit. Lycurg-Aristot., Polit., 2, 8.)—At the age of seven, all the Spartan children, by the laws of Lycurgus, were enrolled in companies, and educated agreeably to his rules of discipline and exercise, which were strictly enforced. These varied according to the ages of o, boys, but were not entirely remitted even after they had attained to manhood. For it was a maxim with Lycurgus, that no man should live for himself, but for his country. Every Spartan, therefore, was regarded as a soldier, and the city itself resembled a great camp, where every one had a fixed allowance, and was required to persorin regular service. In order that they might have more leisure to devote themselves to martial pursuits, they were forbidden to exercise any mechanical arts or trades, which, together with the labours of agriculture, devolved upon the Helots.Till the seventh year the child was kept in the gynaeceum, under the care of the women; from that age to the eighteenth year they were called boys ("spotigec), and thence to the age of thirty youths ($97,60t). In the thirtieth year the Spartan entered the period of manhood, and enjoyed the full rights of a citizen. At the age of seven the boy was withdrawn from the paternal care, and educated under the public eye, in company with others of the same age, without distinction of rank or fortune. If any person withheld his son from the care of the state, he forfeited his civil rights. The principal object of attention, during the periods of boyhood and youth, was the physical education, which consisted in the practice of various gymnastic exercises—running, leaping, throwing the discus, wrestling, boxing, the chase, and the pancratium. These exercises were performed naked, in certain buildings called gymnasia. Besides gymnastics, dancing and the military exercises were practised. A singular custom was the flogging of boys (diamastigosis) on the annual festival : Diana Orthia, for the purpose of inuring them to bear pain with firmness. (Wid. Bomonica.) To teach the youth cunning, vigilance, and activity, they were encouraged to practise theft in certain cases; but if detected, they were flogged, or obliged to go without food, or compelled to dance round the altar, singing songs in ridicule of themselves. The dread of the shaine consequent on being discovered sometimes led to the most extraordinary acts. Thus it is related that a boy who had stolen a young fox, and concealed it under his clothes, suffered it to gnaw out his bowels rather than reveal the theft by suffer. ing the sox to escape. Modesty of deportment was also particularly attended to ; and conciseness of language was so much studied, that the term laconic is still employed to signify a short and pithy manner of speaking. The Spartans were the only people of Greece who avowedly despised learning, and excluded it from the education of youth. Their whole instruction consisted in learning obedience to their superiors, the endurance of all hardships, and to conquer or die in war. The youth were, however, carefully instructed in a knowledge of the laws, which, not being reduced to writing, were taught orally. The education of the females was entirely different from that c the Athenians. Instead of remaining at home, as in Athens, spinning, &c., they danced in public, wrestled with each other, ran on the course, threw the discus, &c. The object of this training of the women was to give a vigorous constitution to their children. (Encyclop. Americ, vol. 11, p. 529, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 158, seqq.)

Ş. a celebrated gladiator, a Thracian by birth, who escaped from the gladiatorial training-school at Capua along with some of his companions, and was soon followed by great numbers of other gladiators. Bands of desperate men, slaves, murderers, robbers, and pirates, flocked to him from all quarters; and he soon found himself at the head of a force able to bid defiance to Rome. Four consular armies were successively defeated by this daring adventurer, and Rome itself was considered in imminent danger. But subordination could not be maintained in an army composed of such materials. Spartacus proposed to march into Gaul, mononu. to join him, and then together

march on Rome. Had this plan been carried into efsect, Rome, in all probability, must have fallen into the hands of the combined forces; but the tumultuous sollowers of Spartacus, longing for the pillage of the capital, compelled their leader to abandon his intention, and bend his course towards Rome. He was met and completely routed by the praetor Crassus, who thus acquired some renown in war, in addition to the influence which he possessed from his unequalled wealth. Spartacus behaved with great valour; when wounded in the leg, he fought on his knees, covering himself with his buckler in one hand, and using his sword with the other; and when at last he sell, it was upon a heap of Romans whom he had sacrificed to his fury (B.C. 71). In this battle no less than 40,000 of the followers of Spartacus were slain, and the war was thus brought to an end. (Plut, Vit. Crass. Liv., Epit., 97.-Eutrop., 6, 2.—Paterc., 2, 30.) Sparti (Xtraprot), a name given to the men who sprang from the dragon's teeth which Cadmus sowed. They all destroyed one another except five, who survived, and assisted Cadmus in building Thebes. The names of the five, as given by the scholiast on Euripides (Phaniss., 498), are Chthonius, Udaeus, Pelorus, Hyperenor, and Echion. (Wid. Cadmus.) Spartini or Spartiàtze, the inhabitants of Sparta. SPART1ANUs AElius, a Roman historian in the reign of Dioclesian. In his life of Ælius Verus, he informs us of his intention to give the biographies of all the emperors and Caesars from the time of Julius. Whether he ever executed this project is uncertain : we have only from his pen the lives of Hadrian, AElius Werus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracalla, and Geta, among which the first part of the life of Hadrian, drawn from good sources, is the best. The first part of these biographies is addressed to Dioclesian; that of Caracalla to no one; the life of Geta is dedicated to Constantine. Heyne, therefore, is led to conclude that the last mentioned biography is not by Spartianus. Casaubon had started this opinion before him.—Spartianus is not remarkable for historical arrangement and method: his style also bears evident marks of the decline of the language. His works form part of the collection known by the name of “Scriptores. Historia Augusta,” the best edition of which is that from the Leyden press (Lugd. Bat, 1671, 2 vols. 8vo.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 153.-Bähr, Gesch. Rom. Lit., p. 337). Sperchius (Xreprev6c), a river of Thessaly, flowing from Mount Tymphrestus, a lofty range forming part of the chain of Pindus, in the country of the AEnianes. (Strabo, 433.) Homer frequently mentions this river as belonging to the territory of Achilles, around the Malian Gulf. (Il., 16, 174.—Ib., 23, 142.) The tragic poets likewise allude to it. (AEsch, Pers., 492. Soph., Philoct., 722.) The ancient name appears to have reference to its rapid course (arépxeabat, “to more rapidly”). The modern appellation is the Hellada. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 438.) Speusippus, an Athenian philosopher, nephew to Plato, who occupied the chair of instruction during the term of eight years from the death of his master. Through the interest of Plato, he enjoyed an intimate friend . with Dion while he was resident at Athens; and it was at his instigation that Dion, encouraged by the promise of support from the malcontents of Syracuse, undertook his expedition against Dionysius the Tyrant, by whom he had been banished. Contrary to the practice of Plato, Speusippus required from his pupils a stated gratuity. He placed statues of the graces in the school which Plato had built. On account of his infirm state of health, he was commonly carried to and from the academy in a vehicle. On his way thither he one day met Diogenes and saluted him; the surly philosopher refused to return the salute, and told him that such a feeble wretch ought to be ashamed to live; to which Speusippus replied, that he lived, not in his limbs, but in his mind. At length, being wholly incapacitated by a paralytic stroke for the duties of the chair, he resigned it to Xenocrates. He is said to have been of a violent temper, fond of pleasure, and exceedingly avaricious. Speusippus wrote many philosophical works which are now lost, but which Aristotle thought sufficiently valuable to purchase at the expense of three talents. From the few fragments which remain of his philosophy, it appears that he adhered very strictly to the doctrines of his master. (Enfield, History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 243, seqq.) Spit acteria, an island off the coast of Mycenae, and at the entrance of the harbour of Pylos Messeniacus, which it nearly closed. It was also known by the name of Sphagia, which it still retains. Sphacteria is celebrated in Grecian history for the defeat and capture of a Lacedæmonian detachment in the seventh year of the Peloponnesian war. (Strabo, 359.) Sphi Nx, a fabulous inonster, an account of which will be sound under the article CEdipus.-The Sphinx is not mentioned by Homer; but the legend is noticed in the Theogony (v. 326), where she is called *i;. Though this legend is probably older than the time of the first intercourse with Egypt, the Theban monster bears a great resemblance to the symbolical statues placed before the temples of that land of mystery. In the pragmatizing days it was said (Pausan., 9, 26) that the Sphinx was a female pirate, who used to land at Anthedon, and advance to the Phicean Hill, whence she spread her ravages over the country. CEdipus, according to these expounders of mythology, came from Corinth with a numerous army, and defeated and slew her. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 341, not.)—The Sphinx was a favourite emblem among the ancient Egyptians, and served, according to some, as a type of the enigmatic nature of the Egyptian theology. M. Maillet is of opinion that the union of the head of a virgin with the body of a lion is a symbol of what happens in Egypt when the Sun is in the signs of Leo and Virgo, and the Nile overflows. According to Herodotus, however, the Egyptians had also their Androsphinges, with the body of a lion and the face of a man. At the present day there still remains, about 300 paces east of the second pyramid, a celebrated statue of a sphinx, cut in the solid rock. Formerly, nothing but the head, neck, and top of the back were visible, the rest being sunk in the sand. It was, at an expense of 800l. or 900l. (contributed by some European gentlemen), cleared from the accumulated sand in front of it under the superintendence of Captain Caviglia. This monstrous production consists of a virgin's head joined to the body of a quadruped. The body is principally formed out of the solid rock; the paws are of masonry, extending forward 50 feet from the body; between the paws are several sculptured tablets, so arranged as to form a small temple ; and farther forward a square altar with horns. The length of the statue, from the foreart of the neck to the tail, is 125 feet. The face . been disfigured by the arrows and lances of the Arabs, who are taught by their religion to hold all images of men or animals in detestation. SPINA, a city of Gallia Cisalpina, near the entrance of the most southern branch of the Padus, called from it Ostium Spineticum. If we are to believe Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who derives his information apparently from Hellanicus of Lesbos (Ant. Rom., 1, 18), Spina was sounded by a numerous band of Pelasgi, who arrived on this coast from Epirus long before the Trojan war. The same writer goes on to state that, in process of time, this colony became very flourishing, and held for many years the dominion of the sea,

from the fruits of which it was enabled to present to the temple of Delphi tithe offerings more costly than those of any other city. Afterward, however, being attacked by an overwhelming force of the surrounding barbarians, the Pelasgi were forced to quit their settlement, and finally to abandon Italy. It appears that no doubt can be entertained of the existence of a Greek city of this name, near one of the mouths of the Po, since it is noticed in the Periplus of Scylax (p. 13), and by the geographers Eudoxus and Artemidorus, as cited by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Xtriva). Strabo also speaks of it as having been once a celebrated city. The same geographer adds, that Spina was still in existence when he wrote, though reduced to the condition of a mere village. (Strab.,214.—Id.,421–Plin., 3, 6.) But the extreme antiquity which is assigned to the soundation of this city by Dionysius of Halicarnassus has been thought by some modern critics to be liable to dispute. (Consult, in particular, the dissertation of Freret, Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., vol. 18, p. 90.)—Spina would seem to have stood on the left bank of the Po di Primaro, not far from the later town or village of Argenta. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 97, seqq.) Spinthārus, a Corinthian architect. By the order of the Amphictyonic council he erected a new temple at Delphi after the burning of the old one (Olymp. 58. 1.-B.C. 544). Respecting the latter event, consult Philochor. fragm., p. 45. – Clinton, Fast. Hell., p. 4. The age of Spintharus may be very probably fixed about Olymp. 60. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Spoletium, a city of Umbria, northeast of Interamna, in the southwestern section of the country. It was colonized A.U.C. 512 (Well. Paterc., 1, 14), and is famous in history for having withstood an attack from Hannibal after the battle of Thrasymene. (Liv., 22, 9.) This resistance had the effect of checking the advance of the Carthaginian general towards Rome, and compelled him to draw off his forces to Picenum. It should be observed, however, that Polybius makes no mention of this attack upon Spoletium; but expressly states that it was not Hannibal's intention to approach Rome at that time, but to lead his army to i. seacoast (3, 86). This city suffered severely in the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, from proscription. (Flor., 3, 21. – Appian, Bell. Civ., 5, 33.) The modern name is Spoleto. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 271.) Sporides, a name given by the Greeks to the numerous islands scattered (like so many sced, atteipo, spargo) around the Cyclades, with which, in fact, several of them are intermixed, and those also which lay towards Crete and the coast of Asia Minor. (Strabo, 484–Scyl., Peripl., p. 18.-Plin., 4, 12.) SpuriNNA, an astrologer, who told Caesar to beware of the ides of March. As he went to the senate-house on the morning of the ides, Caesar said to Spurinna, “The ides are at last come.” “Yes,” replied Spurinna, “but not yet past.” Caesar was assassinated a short time after. (Sueton., Wit. Jul., 81.—Dio Cass., 44, 18.-Val. Maz., 8, 11, 2.) StabiAE, a town of Campania, on the coast, about two miles below the river Sarnus, now Castelamare di Stabia. It was once a place of some note, but, having been destroyed by Sylla during the civil wars, its site was chiefly occupied by villas and pleasuregrounds. (Plin., 3, 5.) It was at Stabia, after having just left the villa of his friend Pomponianus, that the elder Pliny sell a victim to his ardent curiosity and thirst for knowledge. (Plin., Ep., 6, 16.) . According to Columella (R. R., 10), this spot was celebrated for its fountains; and such was the excellence of the pastures in its vicinity, that the milk of this district was reputed to be more wholesome and nutritious than that of any other country. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol.

2, p. 18.1.) 1259

StaginA, a city of Macedonia, on the upper shore of the peninsula of Mount Athos, near its junction with the mainland, and on the coast of the Sinus Strymonicus. It was a colony of Andros, as we learn from Thucydides (4, 188), and celebrated as the birthplace of Aristotle. (Diog. Laert., 5, 14, seq.) Some trace of the ancient name is apparent in that of Stauros. STA seas, a peripatetic philosopher, who resided many years at Rome with M. Piso. (Cic, de Orat., l, 22.-Id., Fun., 5, 3, et 25.) St Asixus, an early poet of Cyprus, the author, actording to some, of the Cyprian Epics, which others ascribe to Hegesias. This poem, entitled in Greek Kömpta £77, was in eleven books, and comprehended for its subject the whole period from the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis to the time when Jupiter resolved to excite the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon. It would appear from a passage in Herodotus (2,117), that this poem was ascribed by some to Homer. The Hymn to Venus is thought to have formed part of the Cyprian Epics. We have only a few verses otherwise remaining of the poem. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 166, seq.) St Atif A, I. the sister and wife of Darius, taken captive by Alexander, who treated her with the utmost respect. She died in childhed, and was buried by the conqueror with great magnificence. (Plut., Wit. Aler. —Consult, however, the remarks of Bougainville, as to the accuracy of Plutarch's statement respecting the cause of her death, Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., vol. 25, p. 34, seqq.)— II. The eldest daughter of Darius, taken in marriage by Alexander. The nuptials were celebrated at Susa with great magnificence. She appears to have changed her name to Arsinoë after this union. This is Droysen's conjecture, which seems happily to explain the variations in the name which we find in Arrian (7,4), compared with Pho. tius (p. 686, seq.) and other authors. (Thirlwall’s Greece, vol. 7, p. 77.) She was murdered by Roxana, who was aided in this by Perdiccas. (Plut., Wit. Aler., sub fin.)—III. A wife of Artaxerxes Mnemon, poisoned by her mother-in-law, Queen Parysatis. (Plut., Wit. Artar.)—IV. A sister of Mithradates the Great, celebrated for the fortitude with which she met her end, when Mithradates, after his defeat by Lucullus, sent Bacchides, the eunuch, with orders to put his wives and sisters to death. (Plut., Wit. Lucull.) Statius, PUBLIUs Papi Nius, a Latin epic poet, born at Neapolis A.D. 61, and descended from a family that came originally from Epirus. His father, who was distinguished by his talent for poetry, taught at Neapolis the Greek and Latin languages and literature. Statius received his education at Rome, his father having gone with him to this city, where he became one of the preceptors of the young Domitian. This prince fixed his attention on the son of his instructer, who had been recommended to him by Paris, a celebrated comedian, and a favourite of Domitian. Statius, who was very poor, had sold to this actor his tragedy of Agave, which Paris published as his own composition. Out of gratitude, he invited the poet to a grand imperial banquet.—Statius gained the prize three times in the Alban games, but was defeated in the Capitoline. At the age of nineteen years he married the widow of a musician; her name was Claudia; and he extols, in many of his productions, her abilities and virtues. Disgusted at last, as he himself informs us, at the luxury of the Romans, he retired, a year before his death, to a small estate in the vicinity of Naples, which the emperor, perhaps, had given him, and there died, still quite young, A.D. 96.—Statius gained many admirers at Rome by the great facility with which Nature had endowed him for composing verses, on the spur of the moment, upon all kinds of subjects. He collected these productions together in a work which he entitled Sylva, or, as we would call it, Mé.

langes. It is divided into five books, and comprehends thirty-two small poems, mostly written in hexameters. Each book has a preface in prose, and is dedicated to one of the friends of the poet. In the preface to the first book Statius informs us that these poems have been composed in haste; that no one of them occupied more than two days, and that some are the work of merely a single day. These pieces treat of various subjects: we find among them a complimentary effusion addressed to Domitian, on the occasion of an equestrian statue being erected to him ; an epithalamium ; an ode for Lucan's birthday, &c.— Statius has also left an epic poem in twelve books, entitled Thebais (“The Thebaid”), and the commencement of another, called Achilleis, which his death prevented him from completing. The Thebaid, addressed to Domitian, is, like the Punica of Silius Italicus, the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus, and the Pharsalia of Lucan, rather a historic than an epic poem. The principal source whence Statius borrowed was the poet Antimachus, whose Thebaid has not come down to us: his model was Virgil.—The subject of the Thebaid was well chosen ; the war between the sons of CEdipus offered a fable truly epic, and rich in fearful scenes. Statius, however, has spoiled it, by giving it an historical form, adorned merely with episodes and machinery. He is not wanting in imagination, and in bold and daring ideas and sentiments; in this respect, indeed, he is preferable to Valerius Flaccus; but he is ignorant of the sublime art in which Homer surpasses all poets, that of giving each hero an individual character. His diction is deficient in simplicity and native ease; he mistakes exaggeration for grandeur, and subtle refinements for proofs of talent. These defects are the characteristics of his age, as well as that of making a great display of erudition, a fault which shows itself in all the epic poets of this period. Scaliger passes rather a favourable opinion on Statius. According to this critic, he ranks next to Virgil. (Poet., 6, p. 841.)—Of the Achilleis, Statius finished only the first book; the second remains imperfect. It is probable that this poem, had the author lived to finish it, would have presented the same beauties and the same defects as the Thebaid. The pian was defective; the poet had not attended to unity of action, but proposed to himself to give the entire life of his hero. —The best editions of Statius are, that of Gronovius, Amst., 1653, 12mo; that of Barth, Cygna, 1664, 2 vols. 4to ; that of Markland (the Sylva merely), Lond, 1728, 4to; and that of Amar and Lemaire, Paris, 1825, 4 vols. 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom, vol. 2, p. 303, seqq.) Stator, a surname of Jupiter, given him by Romulus, because he stopped the flight of the Romans in their battle with the Sabines, after the carrying off by the Romans of the Sabine virgins. Romulus erected a temple on the spot where he had stood when he invoked Jupiter, in prayer, to stay the flight of his forces. The name is derived a sistendo. (Liv., 1, 12.) Stellio, a youth turned into a kind of lizard by Ceres, because he derided the goddess. (Ovid, Met, 5, 461.) STENtor, a Grecian warrior in the army against .Troy. His voice was louder than the combined voices of fifty men. He is erroneously regarded by some commentators as a mere herald. (Hom., Il., 5, 785, seq.—Heyne, ad loc.) SteNTóris Lacus, an estuary which the Hebrus forms at its mouth. (Herod., 7, 58.) Steph KNUs, a grammarian, who flourished, as is conjectured, about the close of the fifth century. He was professor in the imperial college at Constantinople, and composed a dictionary containing words denoting the names of places, and designating the inhabitants of those places. Of this work there exists only

an abridgment made by Hermclaus, and dedicated to

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