« PoprzedniaDalej »
to have been a descendant of a distinguished augur family, his grandfather having been Antiphates, and his great-grandfather Melampus. From various scattered accounts respecting him in the ancient writers, the following particulars may be gleaned. He was, in his youth, at the famous hunt of the Calydonian boar; he afterward returned to Argos, his native city, and, with the aid of his brother, drove Adrastus from the thlone. A reconciliation, however, taking place, the monarch was restored to his kingdom, and gave Amphiaraus his sister Eriphyle in marriage. The offspring of this union were two sons, Alcmaeon and Amphilochus. When Adrastus, at the request of Polynices, resolved to march against Thebes, Amphiaraus was unwilling to accompany him, for he knew that the expedition would prove fatal to himself, and he endeavoured also to dissuade the other chieftains from going. Polynices thereupon presented Eriphyle with the famous necklace of Harmonia, to induce her to overcome her husband's scruples, and she not only, in consequence, made known his place of concealment, but prevailed upon him to accompany the army. Amphiaraus thereupon, previous to his departure, knowing what was about to befall him, charged his son Alcmaeon to kill his mother the moment he should hear of his father's death. The Theban war proved fatal to the Argives, and Amphiaraus, while engaged in dangerous conflict with Periclymenes, was swallowed up by the earth, Jupiter having caused the ground to open for the purpose of receiving his favourite prophet, and saving him from the dishonour of being overcome by his antagonist. The news of his death was brought to Alcmaeon, who immediately executed his father's command, and murdered Eriphyle. Amphiaraus received divine honours after death, and had a celebrated temple and oracle at Oropos in Attica. His statue was made of white marble, and near his temple was a fountain, whose waters were held sacred. They only who had consulted his oracle, or had been delivered from a disease, were permitted to bathe in it, after which they threw pieces of gold and silver into the stream. Those who consulted the oracle of Amphiaraus, sacrificed a ram to the prophet, and spread the skin upon the ground, upon which they slept, in expectation of receiving in a dream the answer of which they were in quest. (Apollod. 3, 6, 2–Hom., Od., 15, 243, &c.—AEsch, Sept. c. Theb.-Hygin., fab., 70, 73, &c.—Pausan., 1, 34.) AMPHickites, I. a biographer, who, according to Diogenes Laertius (Wit. Aristip.), was condemned to die by poison. (Compare Athenaeus, 13, 5.)—l I, An Athenian orator, who, being banished from his country, retired to Seleucia on the Tigris, and took up his residence there under the protection of Cleopatra, daughter of Mithradates. He starved himself to death, be-, cause suspected by this princess of treason. Jonsius (de Script. Hist. Phil., 2, 15) thinks that this is the same with the preceding.—III. An artist, mentioned by Pliny (34, 8), according to a new reading proposed by Sillig (Dict. Art, s. v.). AMphictyon, a mythic personage, son of Deucalion, who is said to have reigned in Attica after driving out Cranaus, his father-in-law, and to have been himself expelled by Erichthonius. (Apollod., 3, 14, 6.) The establishment of the Amphictyonic council is ascribed to him by some. (Compare Heyne, ad loc.) AMphictyūNes, the deputies of the cities and people of Greece, who represented their respective nations in a general assembly called the Amphictyonic Council. The most authentic list of the communities thus represented is as follows: Thessalians, Boeotians, Dorians, Ionians, Perrhaebians, Magnetes, Locrians, CEta-ans or AEmianians, Phthiotes or Achaeans of Phthia, Meli
ans or Malians, and Phocians. The orator Æschines,
who furnishes this list, shows, by mentioning the num
her twelve, that one name is wanting. The other lists,
supply two names to fill up the vacant place; the Dolopes and the Delphians. It seems not improbable, that the former were finally supplanted by the Delphi. ans, who appear to have been a distinct race from the Phocians. After the return of the Heraclidae, the number of the Amphictyonic tribes, then perhaps already hallowed by time, continued the same ; but the geographical compass of the league was increased by all that part of the Peloponnesus which was occupied by the new Doric states. It would be wrong to regard this council as a kind of national confederation. The causes which prevented it from acquiring this character will be evident, when we consider the mode in which the council was constituted, and the nature of its ordinary functions. The constitution of the Amphictyonic Council rested on the supposition, once, perhaps, not very inconsistent with the fact, of a perfect equality among the tribes represented by it. Each tribe, however feeble, had two votes in the deliberation of the congress: none, however powerful, had more. The order in which the right of sending representatives to the council was exercised by the various states included in one Amphictyonic tribe was, perhaps, regulated by private agreement; but, unless one state usurped the whole right of its tribe, it is manifest that a petty tribe, which formed but one community, had greatly the advantage over Sparta or Argos, which could only be represented in their turn, the more rarely in proportion to the magnitude of the tribe to which they belonged.—With regard to other details less affecting the general character of the institution, it will be sufficient here to observe, that the council was composed of two classes of representatives, called Pylagora and Hieromnemones, whose functions are not accurately distinguished. It seems, however, that the former were intrusted with the power of voting ; while the office of the latter consisted in preparing and directin
their deliberations, and carrying their decrees into esfect. At Athens, three Pylagora were annually elected, while one Hieromnemon was appointed by lot; we do not know the practice in other states. One peculiar feature of the Amphictyonic Council was, that its meetings were held at two different places. There were two regularly convened every year; one in the spring, at Delphi, the other in the autumn, near the little town of Anthela, within the pass of Thermopylae, at a temple of Ceres. It has been supposed, in attempting to account for this, that there were originally two distinct confederations; one formed of inland, the other of maritime tribes; and that when these were united by the growing influence of Delphi, the ancient places of meeting were retained, as a necessary concession to the dignity of each sanctuary. A constitution such as the Amphictyonic Council appears to have possessed, could not have been suffered to last if any important political interests had depended on the decision of this assembly. The truth is, the ordinary functions of the Amphictyonic Congress were chiefly, if not altogether, connected with religion, and it was only by accident that it was ever made subservient to political ends. The original objects, or, at least, the essential character, of the institution, seem to be faithfully expressed in the terms of the oath, preserved by AEschines, which bound the members of the league to refrain from utterly destroying any Amphictyonic city, and from cutting off its supply of water, even in war, and to defend the sanctuary and the treasures of the Delphic god from sacrilege. In this ancient and half. symbolical form we perceive two main functions assigned to the council; to guard the temple, and to restrain the violence of hostility among Amphictyonic states. There is no intimation of any confederacy against foreign enemies, except for the protection of the temple: nor of any right of interposing between members of the league, unless where one threatens the existence of another. A review, then, of the history
of this council shows that it was almost powerless for good, except, perhaps, as a passive instrument, and that it was only active for purposes that were either unimportant or pernicious. Its most legitimate sphere of action lay in cases where the honour and safety of the Delphic sanctuary were concerned, and in these it might safely reckon on general co-operation from all the Greeks. A remarkable instance is afforded by the Sacred or Crissaean war. (Vid. Crissa and Phocis.) The origin of the Amphictyonic Council is altogether uncertain. Acrisius is said to have founded the one at Delphi, Amphictyon the other at Thermopylae, a tradition in favour of the opinion above advanced, that the great council was a union of two. Independently, however, of these two, it is probable that many Amphictyonics (so to call them) once existed in Greece, all trace of which has been lost. (Thirlwall's History of Greece, vol. 1, p. 374, seqq.)—The name of this confederation, if we give credit to Androtion, as cited by Pausanias (10, 8), was originally Amphictiones ('Auouxttovec), and referred to its being composed of | tribes that dwelt round about. An alteration took place when Amphictyon, the son of Deucalion, founded a temple of Ceres at Thermopylae, one of the places of assembling. From this time, we are informed, the confederation took the name of Amphictyones (Au9tarisovec). AmphidroMi A, a festival observed by private families at Athens, the fifth day after the birth of every child. It was customary to run round the fire with a child in their arms; thereby, as it were, making it a member of the family, and putting it under the protection of the household deities, to whom the hearth served as an altar. Hence the name of the festival, from dugopautiv, “to run around.” (Potter, Gr. -Ant., 4, 14.) AMphuge NiA, a town of Messenia, near the river Hypsocis. According to Homer (Il., 2, 593), it belonged to Nestor. Some critics assigned it to Triphylia. (Straho, 349) AM philochus, I. son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. After the Trojan war he left Argos, his native country, retired to Acarnania, and built there Argos Amphilochium. This is the account of Thucydides (2,68); but rid. Argos, IV—II. An Athenian philosopher who wrote upon agriculture. (Varro, de R. R., 1). AMphixóMUs and ANApus, two brothers, who, when Catana and the neighbouring cities were in flames by an eruption from Mount Vesuvius, saved their parents upon their shoulders. The fire, as it is said, spared them while it consumed others by their side; and Pluto, to reward their uncommon piety, placed them after death in the island of Leuce. They received divine honours in Sicily. (Val. Mar., 5, 4.—Sil. Ital, 14, 197.-Claud., Idyll, 7, 41.) Amphion, I. a Theban prince, son of Antiope and Jupiter, or, rather, of Epopeus, king of Sicyon. Antiope, the niece of Lycus, king of Thebes, having become the mother of twins, Amphion and Zethus, exposed them on Mount Cithaeron, where they were found and brought up by shepherds. Having learned, on reaching manhood, the cruelties inflicted upon their mother by Lycus and Dirce (rid. Antiope), the twin brothers avenged her wrongs by the death of both the offending parties (rid. Lycus and Dirce), and made themselves masters of Thebes, where they reigned conjointly. Under their rule the kingdom of Thebes acquired new splendour, and the arts of peace flourished. Amphion cultivated music with the greatest success, having received lessons in this art from Mercury himself, who gave him a lyre of gold, with which, it is said, he built the walls of Thebes, causing the stones to take their respective places in obedience to the tones of his instrument. to be, that Amphion, by his mild and persuasive manners, prevailed upon his rude subjects to build walls around Thebes. Muller, however, secs in it an allu
The meaning of this legend is supposed bears the name of Jenkeri.
sion to the old Dorian and Æolian custom of erecting the walls of cities to the sound of musical instruments. —Amphion, after this, married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, and became by her the father of seven sons and seven daughters, who were all slain by Apollo and Diana. (Vid. Niobe.) According to one account, he destroyed himself after this cruel loss, while another version of the story makes him to have fallen in a sedition. (Hom., Od., 11, 262, seqq.—Apollod., 3, 5, 4, seqq.—Muller, Gesch. Hellen. Stämme, &c., vol. 1, p.267.)—II. A painter, contemporary with Apelles, by whom he was highly respected as an artist, and who yielded to him in the grouping of his pictures. (Plin., 35, 10.)—III. A statuary of Cnossus, and pupil of Ptolichus. (Pausan, 10, 15.) He flourished about Olymp. 88.
Amphipólis, a city of Thrace, near the mouth of the Strymon. It was founded by the Athenians in the immediate vicinity of what was termed 'Evvéa ‘Odot, or “the Nine Ways,” a spot so called from the number of roads which met here from different parts of Thrace and Macedon. The occupation of the Nine Ways seems to have excited the jealousy of the Thracians, which led to frequent rencounters between them and the Athenian colonists, in one of which the latter sustained a severe defeat. (Thucyd., 1, 100.) After a lapse of twenty-nine years, a fresh colony was sent out under the command of Agnon, son of Nicias, which succeeded in subduing the Edoni. Agnon gave the name of Amphipolis to the new city, from its being surrounded by the waters of the Strymon. (Thucyd, 4, 102.-Scylar, p. 27.) Amphipolis soon became one of the most flourishing cities of Thrace; and at the time of the expedition of Brasidas into that country, it was already a large and populous place. Its surrender to that general was a severe blow to the prosperity and good fortune of the Athenians; and we may estimate the importance they attached to its possession, from their displeasure against Thucydides, who arrived too late to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy (Thucyd., 4, 106); and also from the exertions they afterward made, under Cleon, to repair the loss. The attempt proved unsuccessful, through the ignorance and rashness of the Athenian general, who was slain in an engagement. Brasidas fell in the same battle, and the Amphipolitans paid the highest honours to his memory, resolving thenceforth to revere him as the true founder of their city; and with this view they threw down the statues of Agnon, and erected those of Brasidas in their stead. Athens never regained possession of this important city; for though it was agreed, by the terms of the peace soon after concluded with Sparta, that this colony should be restored, that stipulation was never fulfilled, the Amphipolitans themselves refusing to accede to it, and the Spartans expressing their inability to compel them. The Athenians, in the twelfth year of the war, sent an expedition under Euetion to at. tempt the reconquest of the place, but without success. (Thucyd., 7, 9.) Mitford, in his history of Greece, affirms, that Amphipolis was restored to the Athenians; but there is no proof of this fact. Amphipolis, at a later period, fell into the hands of Philip of Macedon, after a siege of some duration. It became from that time a Macedonian town, and, on the subjugation of this country by the Romans, it was constituted the chief town of the first region of the conquered territory. (Deripp., ap. Syncell., Chron., p. 268.—Lir, 45, 29.) During the continuance of the Byzantine empire, it seems to have exchanged its name for that of Chrysopolis, if we may believe an anonymous geographer, in Hudson's Grogr. Min., vol. 4, p. 42. The spot on which the ruins of Amphipolis are still to be traced, The position of Amphipolis, observes Col. Leake (Walpole's Collection, n. 510), is one of the most important in Greece. It stands in a pass which traverses the *..." bordering the Strymonic Gulf; and it commands the only
easy communication from the coast of that gulf into the great Macedonian plains, which extend for sixty miles from beyond Melenko to Philippi. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 292, seqq.) Amphis, a Greek comic poet of Athens, contemporary with Plato. His works are lost, though some of the titles of his pieces have reached us. (Consult Schureto h., ad Athen , vol. 9, Inder Auct, s. r.) AMehtssa, I. a daughter of Macareus, fabled to have given her name to the city of Amphissa,—II. The chief city of the Locri Ozolae. We find, from Strabo, that it stood at the head of the Crissaean Gulf, and Eschines (in Ctes., p. 71) informs us, that its distance from Delphi was sixty stadia: Pausanias reckons one "... and twenty. Amphissa was said to have derived its name from the circumstance of its being surrounded on every side by mountains. (Aristot, ap. Harpocrat. Ler.—Steph. Byz., s. v. Auðtaga.) Amphissa was destroyed by order of the Amphictyons, for having dared to restore the walls of Crissa, and to cultivate the ground, which was held to be sacred; and lastly, on account of the manner in which they molested travellers who had occasion to pass through their territory. (Strabo, 419.—AEschin. in Ctes., p. 71, seqq.) At a later period, however, it appears to have somewhat recovered from this ruined state when under the dominion of the AEtolians. In the war carried on by the Romans against this people, they besieged Amphissa, when the inhabitants abandoned the town and retired into the citadel, which was deemed impregnable. (Lic., 37, 5.) It is generally agreed, that the modern town of Salona represents the ancient Amphissa. Sir William Gell (Itinerary, p. 196) observes, that the real distance between Delphi and Amphissa is seven miles. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 111.) AM phith Extrum, an edifice of an elliptical form, used for exhibiting combats of gladiators, wild beasts, and other spectacles. The word is derived from dupi and weatpov, from the spectators being so ranged as to see equally well from every side. The first durable amphitheatre of stone was built by Statilius Taurus, at the desire of Augustus. The largest one was begun by Vespasian, and completed by Titus, now called Colisæum, from the Colossus, or large statue of Nero, which Vespasian transported to the square in front of it. It is said to have contained 87,000 spectators, to have been 5 years in building, and to have cost a sum equal to 10 millions of crowns. 12,000 Jews were employed upon it, who were made slaves at the conquest of Jerusalem. Its magnificent ruins still remain. —There are amphitheatres still standing, in various deees of perfection, at several other places besides me. At Pola in Istria, at Nusmes, at Arles, Bourdeaur, and particularly at Verona.-The place where the gladiators fought was called the arena, because it was covered with sand or sawdust, to prevent the gladiators from sliding, and to absorb the blood. Amphitrite, a daughter of Nereus and Doris, and the spouse of Neptune. She for a long time shunned the addresses of this deity ; but her place of concealment was discovered to Neptune by a dolphin, and the god, out of gratitude, placed this fish among the
stars. Amphitrite had, by Neptune, Triton, one of the sea-deities. (Orld, Metamorph., 1, 14.—Hesiod, Theog.)
AmphitRYoN, a Theban prince, son of Alcaeus and Hipponome. His sister Anaxo had married Electryon, king of Mycenae, whose sons were killed in a battle by the Teleboans. (Wid. Alcmena.)
AMphitry on 1 KDEs, a surname of Hercules, as the supposed son of Amphitryon. (Virg., AEm., 8, 103.)
AMPHRYsus, a river of Thessaly, flowing into the Sinus Pagasaeus, above Phthiotic Thebes. Near this stream, Apollo, when banished from heaven, fed the flocks of King Admetus. Hence, among the Latin
poets, the epithet Amphrysius becomes equivalent to Apollineus. (Lucan, 6, 367–Wurg., AEm., 6, 398.) A Mrs Agas, a river of Africa, forming the boundary between Mauritania Caesariensis and Numidia, and falling into the sea to the east of Igilgilis, or Jigel. On a branch of it stood Cirta, the capital of Numidia. The modern name is Wad-il-Kabar, i e., the Great River. (Ptol.—Mela, 1, 6–Plin., 5, 3.) AMsANott's, or A MsANcti W Allis Et Lacus, a celebrated valley and lake of Italy, in Samnium, to the southwest of Trivicum. Virgil (Æn., 7, 563) has left us a fine description of the place. The waters of the lake were remarkable for their sulphureous properties and exhalations. Some antiquaries have confounded this spot with the Lake of Cutiliae, near Reate; but Servius, in his commentary on the passage of Virgil just referred to, distinctly tells us that it was situate in the country of the Hirpini, which is also confirmed by Cicero (de Div., 1) and Pliny (H. N., 2, 93). The latter writer mentions a temple consecrated to the goddess Mephitis, on the banks of this sulphureous lake, of which a good description is given by Romanelli, taken from a work of Leonardo di Capoa. (Romanelli, vol. 2, p. 351.) The lake is now called Musul, and is close to the little town of Fracento. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 251.) A McLics, son of Procas, king of Alba, and younger brother of Numitor. The crown belonged of right to the latter, but Amulius, dispossessed him of it, put to death his son Lausus, and fearing lest he might be dethroned by a nephew, compelled Rhea Sylvia, the daughter of Numitor, to become a vestal, which priesthood bound her to perpetual virginity. Notwithstanding, however, all these precautions, Rhea became the mother of Romulus and Remus by the god Mars. Amulius thereupon ordered her to be buried alive for having violated her vow as a priestess of Vesta, and the two children to be thrown into the Tiber. They were providentially saved, however, by some shepherds, or, as others say, by a she-wolf; and, when they attained to manhood, they put to death the usurper Amulius, and restored the crown to their grandfather Numitor. (Ornd, Fast., 3, 67.—Liv., 1, 3, seqq.— Pluto, Vit. Rom., &c.) A Myci Portus, a harbour on the Thracian Bosporus, north of Nicopolis, and south of the temple of Jupiter Urius. Here Amycus, an ancient king of the Bebryces, was slain in combat with Pollux. His tomb was covered, according to some, with a laurel, and hence they maintain that the harbour was also called Daphnes Portus. Arrian, however, speaks of a harbour of the insane Daphne near this, which no doubt has given rise to the mistake. (Arrian, Peripl. Euz., p. 25—Plin., 5, 43.) AMycLAF, I, a city of Italy, in Latium, in the vicinity of Fundi and the Caecubus Ager. It was said to have been of Greek origin, being colonized from the town of Amycla in Laconia. Concerning the destruction of Amycla’, in Italy, strange tales were related. According to some accounts, it was infested and finally rendered desolate by serpents. (Plin, 3, 5, who also quotes Varro to the same effect.—Isigon., ap. Sot., de Mir. Font., &c.) Another tradition represented the fall of Amycla as having been the result of the silence enjoined by law on its inhabitants, in order to put a stop to the false rumours of hostile attacks which had been so frequently circulated. The enemy at last, however, really appeared ; and, finding the town in a defenceless state, it was destroyed. This"account is in general acceptation with the poets. (Virg., AEn., 10, 563–Sil. Ital., 8, 528–Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 123.)—II. One of the most ancient cities of Laconia, a short distance to the southwest of Sparta. It was founded long before the arrival of the Dorians and Heraclidae, who conquered and reduced it to the condition of a small town. It was, however, conspicuous, even in Pausanias's time, for the number of its temples and other edifices, many of which were richly adorned with sculptures and other works of art. Its most celebrated structure was the temple of the Amyclean Apollo. (Polyb., 4, 9, 3) Amycla is mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, 584) and Pindar (Pyth, 1, 122—Isthm., 7, 18). Polybius states that Amycla was only twenty stadia from Sparta (Polyb, 5, 18); but Dodwell observes, that SclaroChorio, which occupies its ancient site, is nearly double that distance. (Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 413.-Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 213.) Polybius describes the country around Amycla as most beautifully wooded and of great fertility; which account is corroborated by Dodwell, who, says, “it luxuriates in fertility, and abounds in mulberries, olives, and all the fruit-trees which grow in Greece.” AMycLAs, I, son of Lacedæmon and Sparta, built the city of Amyclas. (Pausan, 3, 1.)—II. The name which Lucan gives to the master of the small twelveoared vessel in which Caesar had embarked in disguise, for the purpose of sailing to Brundisium, and bringing from that place over into Greece the remainder of his forces. " A violent wind producing a rough sca, the pilot despaired of making good his passage, and ordered the mariners to turn back. Caesar, perceiving this, rose up, and showing himself to the pilot according to Plutarch, but, according to Lucan, to Amyclas the master of the vessel, exclaimed, “Go forward, my friend, and fear nothing; thou carriest Caesar and Caesar's fortunes in thy vessel.” The effect of this speech was instantaneous; the mariners forgot the storm and made new efforts; but they were at length permitted to turn about by Caesar himself. (Plut., Wit. Cas.) The noble simplicity of Caesar's reply, as given above by Plutarch, has been amplified by Lucan into tumid declamation. (Pharsal., 5,578, seqq.) AMYcus, son of Neptune by Melia, was king of the Bebryces. He was famous for his skill in boxing with the cestus or gauntlets, and challenged all strangers to a trial of strength. After destroying many persons in this way, he was himself slain in a contest with Pollux, whom he had defied to the combat, when the Argonauts, in their expedition, had stopped for a season on his coasts. (Apoll. Ithod., 2, 1, seqq.—Virg., don., 5, 373.) AMyMöNF, I. one of the Danaides, and mother of Nauplius by Neptune. The god produced a fountain, by striking the ground with his trident, on the spot where he had first seen her Wid. Amymone, II. (Propert, 2,26,46–Hygin, fal. 169)—II. A soun: tain of Argolis, called after Amymone the daughter of Danaus. It was the most famous among the streams which contributed to form the Lernean Lake. (Eurip, Phan., 195.-Pausan., 2, 37.) Amy's ras, I. was king of Macedonia, and succeeded his father Alcetas, B.C. 547. His son Alexander murdered the ambassadors of Megabyzus, for their improper behaviour to the ladies of his father's court. Bubarcs, a Persian general, was sent with an army to revenge the death of the ambassadors; but he was gained over by rich presents, and by receiving in marriage the hand of a daughter of Amyntas, to whom he had been previously attached. (Herod., 5, 19. —Justin, 7, 3.)—II. Successor to Archelaus, B.C. 299. He reigned only one year, and performed nothing remarkable –III. The third of the name, ascended the throne of Macedonia B.C. 397, after having dispossessed Pausanias of the regal dignity. He was expelled by the Illyrians, but restored by the Thessalians and Spar. tans. He made war against the Illyrians and Olynthians, with the assistance of the Lacedæmonians, and hved to a great age. His wife Eurydice conspired against his life; but her snares were seasonably discovered by one of his daughters by a former wife. He had Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip (father of R
Alexander the Great) by his first wife; and by the other he had Archelaus, Aridaeus, and Menclaus. He reigned 24 years. (Justin, 7, 4 et 9.)—IV. Grandson of Amyntas III. He was yet an infant, when Perdiccas his father and his uncle Alexander were slain by the orders of Eurydice their mother. He was, of course, the lawful heir to the crown; but Philip, having in his savour the wishes of the nation, ascended the throne in preference to him. He asterward served in the armies of both Philip and Alexander. Having conspired against the latter, he was put to death. (Justin, 7, 4, seqq.—Id, 12, 7.)—V. One of the de uties sent by Philip of Macedon to the Thebans, B.C. 339, to induce them to remain faithful to his interests. —WI. A general of Alexander's, B.C. 331, sent back to Macedonia to make new levies. (Quint. Curt., 4, 6.—Id., 5, 1.)—VII. Another officer of Alexander's. who went over to Darius, and was slain in attemptin to seize upon Egypt. (Quint. Curt, 3, 9.)—VIII. Son of Arrhabeus, commanded a squadron of cavalry in Alexander's army. He was implicated in the conspiracy of Philotas, but acquitted. (Quint. Curt., 4, 15, &c.)—IX. A king of Galatia, who succeeded Deiotarus. He was the last ruler of this country. which was added to the Roman empire, after his death, by Augustus—X. A geographical writer, author of a work entitled Xraduoi, or the Encampinents of Alexander in his conquest of Asia. (Athen., 10, 422, b., &c.) It has not come down to us. AMYNtor, king of Ormenium, a city of the Dolopians. He put out the eyes of his son Phaenix on a false charge of having corrupted one of the royal concubines. He was slain by Hercules on attempting to oppose the passage of that hero through his territories. (Apollod, 2, 7–ld., 3, 13–Compare Homer, Il., 9, 448.) A My Ricus CAMpus, a plain of Thessaly, in the district of Magnesia, near the town and river of Amyrus It was famed for its wines. (Polyb., 5, 99.) AMyrtaeus, an Egyptian leader during the revolation under Inarus. He succeeded theistor. (Herod., 2, 140, and 3, 15–Thucyd., 1, 110–Diod. Soc., 11, 74.) Ctesias, however, makes him to have been a king of Egypt in the time of Cambyses, whereas the other account places him in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus. As regards this discrepance, consult Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 121. AMYRus, I. a river of Thessaly, in the upper part of the district of Magnesia, and near the town of Meliboea. (Apoll. Rhod., 1, 595)—II. A city of Thessaly, near the river of the same name. (Schol. in Apoll. Rhod., l.c.) A Mystis, a river of India falling into the Ganges. Mannert makes it to be the same with the Patterca, near the modern city of Hurdwar. (Geogr., vol. 5, P. 93.) AMYTHAoN, a son of Cretheus, king of Iolchos, by Tyro. He married Idomene, by whom he had Bias and Mclampus. After his father's death, he established himself in Messenia. He is said to have given a more regular form to the Qlympic games. (Apol łod., 1, 9 - Heyne, ad loc.)—Melampus is called Amy thaonius, from his father Amythaon. (Virg, G., 3, 550.) A Mytis, I, a daughter of Astyages, whom Cyrus married. (Ctesias, p. 91.-Consult Eähr, ad loc — II. A daughter of Xerxes, who married Megabyzus, and disgraced herself by her licentious conduct. ANACEs or ANACTEs, a name given to Castor and Pollux. Their festivals were called Anaceia ("AraKeia). The Athenians applied the term Anaces ("Awaker) in a general sense to all those deities who were believed to watch over the interests, as well public as private, of the city of Athens: in a special sense, however, the appellation was given to the Dioscuri, on account of the peculiar advantages who capital 12.
of Attica had derived from them. (Compare Tzet:.., ad Il., p. 69.) Spanheim (ad Callum, Hymn in Jov, 79) and Schelling (Samothr. Gotthewt. p. 95) derive the form "Avake: from the Hebrew Enakam. (Deuteron, 1, 28.) The Greek grammarians, on the other hand, have sought for an etymology in their own language, and make the term in question coine from avo, “above,” as expressive of the idea of superiority and dominion. They attach to this name the triple sense of Jesic, Baat?etic, and oikočearórno, Hence also the adverb divakóc (Herodot, 1, 24.—Thucyd., 8, 102), which the scholiasts explain by mpovomrakóc kai ovZaktuköc. (Compare Eustath., ad Od, 1, 397– Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 305, in notis.) ANach Arsis, a Scythian philosopher, who flourished nearly six centuries besore the Christian era. He was the son of a Scythian prince, who had married a native of Greece. Early instructed by his mother in the Greek language, he became desirous of acquiring a portion of Greek wisdom, and obtained from the king of Scythia an embassy to Athens, where he arrived in the year 592 B.C., and was introduced to Solon by his countryman Toxaris. On sending in word that a Scythian was at the door, and requested his friendship, Solon replied that friends were best made at home. “Then let Solon, who is at home, make ine his friend,” was the smart retort of Anacharsis; and, struck by its readiness, Solon not only admitted him, but, finding him worthy of his confidence, favour. ed him with his advice and friendship. He accordingly resided some years at Athens, and was the first stranger whom the Athenians admitted to the honours of citizenship. He then travelled into other countries, and finally returned to Scythia, with a view to communicate to his countrymen the information he had received, and to introduce among them the laws and religion of Greece. The attempt was, however, unsuccessful; for the Scythians were not only indisposed to receive them, but it is said that Anacharsis was killed by an arrow, from the king, his brother's, own hand, who detected him performing certain rites in a wood, before an image of Cybele. Great respect, however, was paid to him after death, which is not unusual. Anacharsis was famous for a manly and nervous kind of language, which was called, from his country, Scythian eloquence. The apophthegins attributed to him are shrewd, and better worth quoting than many of the ancient saws, which are often indebted for their celebrity much more to their antiquity than to their wisdom. His repartee to an Athenian, who reproached him with the barbarism of his country, is well known: “My country is a disgrace to me, but you are a disgrace to your country.” Strabo tells us, from an old historian, that Anacharsis invented the bellows, the anchor, and the potter's wheel : but this account is very doubtful, as Pliny, Seneca (Epist., 90), Diogenes Laertius, and Suidas, who likewise speak of the inventions ascribed to that philosopher, mention only the last two : while Strabo, moreover, remarks that the potter's wheel is noticed in Homer. (Beckman's History of Inventions, vol. 1, p. 104.—Compare Ritter's Vorhalle, p. 237 and 262.) The epistles which bear the name of Anacharsis, and which were published in Greek and Latin, at Paris, 1552, are unequivocally spurious. They are supposed to have been produced at a later period, in the school of the sophists. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict, vol. 1, p. 72–Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 116, seqq.) ANAcium ('Avakeiov), a temple at Athens, sacred to Castor and Pollux, and standing at the foot of the Acropolis. It was a building of great antiquity, and contained paintings of Polygnotus and Micon. (Pausan., 1, 18.-Harpocr., s. v. 'Avakeiov.) ANAcrion, a celebrated Greek poet, of whose life little is actually known. It is, however, generally ad
mitted that he was born at Teos, a city of lonia, in the early part of the sixth century before the Christian era, and that he flourished in the sixtieth Olympiad. From Abdera, to which city his parents had fled from the dominion of Croesus, the young Anacreon betook himself to the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. Here he was received with great distinction, but subsequently retired to Athens, where he remained in great favour with Hipparchus, who then possessed the power which Pisistratus had usurped. The death of his patron caused him to return to his native city, whence he retired to Abdera on the breaking out of the disturbances under Histia us. He attained the age of eighty-five years. The time and manner of his death are uncertain, and variously reported: the most popular opinion is, that he died from suffocation, in consequence of swallowing a grape-stone while in the act of drinking. The bacchanaiian turn of his poetry is, however, and not without some appearance of reason, supposed by many to be the sole foundation for this tradition. In the poetry generally attributed to him, a great difference, as to quality, is easily discernible, a circumstance which has contributed not a little to strengthen the supposition that the whole is not genuine. Indeed, some critics have not hesitated to affirm, that very few of the compositions which go under his name are to be ascribed to Anacreon. The fragments collected by Ursinus, with a few others, seein, according to them, to be his most genuine productions. To decide from the internal evidence contained in his writings, as well as from the general tenour of the meager accounts handed down to us, he was himself an amusing voluptuary and an elegant profligate. Few Grecian poets have obtained greater popularity in modern times, for which in England he is indebted to some excellent translations, in part by Cowley, and altogether by Fawkes, not to mention the point and elegance of the more paraphrastic version of Moore.—Of the editions in the original Greek, the most celebrated is the quarto, printed at Rome in 1781, by Spaletti : the most learned and useful is that of Fischer, Lips., 1754 (reprinted in 1776 and 1793 with additions), in 8vo. Other editions worthy of notice are, that of Brunck, Argent, 1778, 16mo (reprinted in 1786, in 32ino and 16mo); that of Gail, Paris, 1799, 4to, with a French version, dissertations, music, &c.; that of Moebius, Halle, 1810, 8vo, and that of Mehlhorn, Glogav., 1825, 8vo. ANActorium, the first town on the northern coast of Acarnania, situate on a low neck of land opposite Nicopolis, of which it was the emporium. (Straho, 450.) The site is now called Punta, which many antiquaries, however, have identified with Actium: but this is evidently an error. Thucydides reports (1, 55), that Anactorium had been colonized jointly by the Corcyreans and Corinthians. These were subsequently ejected by the Acarnanians, who occupied the place in conjunction with the Athenians. (Thucyd, 4, 49, and 7, 31–Oompare Scymnus, Ch., v. 459.) Anactorium ceased to exist as a town when Augustus transferred its inhabitants to Nicopolis. (Pausan, 7, 23.) ANAdvomäNE ('Avačvouávn scil. ’A&poćirm), a celebrated picture of Venus, painted by Apelles, which originally adorned the temple of Æsculapius at Cos. It represented the goddess rising out of the sea (fivaÖvouéumv) and wringing her hair. Augustus transferred it to the temple of Julius Caesar, and remitted to the inhabitants of Cos a tribute of one hundred talents in return. The lower part of the figure having been injured, no Roman painter could be found to supply it. (Plin, 35, 10.) ANAGNía, the principal town of the Hernici, situate about thirty-six miles to the east of Rome. It is now Anagni. The fertility of the surrounding country is much commended by Silius Italicus (8, 392)