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to this explanation, will be a band of warlike priest-stem of belief—Before we conclude, it may not be Amblunrett. The ancient geographical writers are diately to mind the Ambrosia of Olympus. (Compare
esses or Hierodulae, who, in renouncing maternity, and in giving themselves up to martial exercises, sought to imitate the periodical sterility of the great powers of light, the sun and moon, and the combats in which these were from time to time engaged, against the floomy energies of night and winter. (Creuzer, Sym; par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 90, seqq.)—That the legend of the Amazons rests on a religious basis, we readily admit, but that any Amazons ever existed, even as warlike priestesses, we do not at all believe. The first source of error respecting them is the etymology commonly assigned to the name. To derive this from the negative a and usioc, and to make it indicate the loss of one of the breasts, is, we think, altogether erroneous. If a Greek derivation is to be assigned to the term Amazon, it is far more correct to deduce the word from the intensive a, and utiloc, and to regard it as denoting, not the absence of one breast, but the presence of many. The name 'Audsov (Amazon) then becomes equivalent to the Greek IIožvuáaroc (Polymastus) and the Latin Multimammia, both of which epithets are applied by the ancient mythologists to the Ephesian Diana, with her numerous breasts, as typifying the great mother and nurse of all created beings. It is curious to connect with this the well-known tradition, that the Amazons founded the city of Ephesus, and at a remote period sacrificed to the goddess there. (Callim., H. in Dian. 238.-Dionys. Perieg., 828.) But how does the view which we have just taken of the erroneous nature of the common etymology, in the case of the name Amazon, harmonize with the remains of ancient sculp. ture In the most satisfactory manner. No monument of antiquity represents the Amazons with a mutilated bosom, but, wherever their figures are given, they have both breasts fully and plainly developed. Thus, for example, the Amazons on the Phigaleian frieze have both breasts entire, one being generally exposed, while the other is concealed by drapery, but still in the latter the roundness of form is very perceptible. Both breasts appear also in the fine figure of the Amazon belonging to the Lansdowne collection; and so again in the basso-relievo described by Winckelmann in his Monumenti Inediti. The authorities, indeed, on this head are altogether incontrovertible. (Winckelmann, Gesch. der Kunst des Alterthums, vol. 2, p. 131.-Ill., Mon. Ined., pt. 2, c. 18, p. 184— Muller, Archäologie der Kunst, p. 530.-Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles, vol. 2, p. 179.-Heyne, ad Apollod, 2, 5, 9.) The first Greek writer that made mention of females who removed their right breast was Hippocrates (ILepi topov, K. T. A., § 43). His remarks, however, were meant to apply merely to the females of the Sauromatae, a Scythian tribe; but subsequent writers made them extend to the fabled race of the Amazons.—It appears to us, then, from a careful examination of the subject, that the term Amazon originally indicated, neither a warlike female, nor a race of such females, but was merely an epithet applied to the Ephesian Diana, the great parent and source of nurture, and was intended to express the most striking of her attributes. The victories and conquests of the Amazonian race are nothing more, then, than a figurative allusion to the spread of her worship over a large ortion of the globe, and the contests with Bacchus, }. and Theseus refer in reality to the struggles of this worship with other rival systems of faith, for Bacchus, Hercules, and Theseus are nothing more than mythic types of three different forms of belief. Hence we see why the conflict of the Amazons with Theseus, who was nothing more than the symbol of the establishment of the Ionic worship, became a most appropriate ornament for the frieze of the Parthenon, the temple of the great national goddess Minerva. It was, in fact, a delineation of the downfall of a rival sys
|amiss to examine more closely into the etymology of the term Amazon. We have thus far regarded the word as of Grecian origin. What if, after all, it be of Oriental birth, and have reference to the far-famed Asi of Oriental and Scandinavian mythology Salverte sees in them a class of female divinities, the spouses of the Asi, and he traces the first part of the name to the Pehlvi am, denoting “a mother,” or “a female” generally. (Essai sur les Noms, &c., vol. 2, p. 178.) Ritter also detects in the name an allusion to the Asi (Vorhalle, p. 465, seqq.); and, in connexion with this view of the subject, we may state that the name of Asia (the land of the Ası) was first given to a small district near the Cayster, and in the very vicinity of Ephesus, the city which the Amazons had founded. Ephesus, moreover, first bore, it is said, the name of Smyrna, an appellation afterward restowed on the city of Smyrna, which was founded by an Ephesian colony. This term Smyrna is said to have been originally the name of an Amazonian leader. Would it be too fanciful to deduce it from Asa-Myrina, and thus blend together the name of the African Amazon Myrina with the sacred appellation of the Asi AMAzoNius, a surname of Apollo at Pyrrhicus, in Laconia, from the protection he is said to have afforded to the inhabitants when attacked by the Amazons. (Pausan., 3, 25.) AMBARRI, a people of Gallia Celtica, situate between the AEdui and Allobroges, along either bank of the Arar or Saône. Following D'Anville's authority, we would place them in the present Department de l'Ain. Livy enumerates them among the Gallic tribes that crossed the Alps in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. (Lir., 5, 34.—Caes., B. G., 1, 11, et 14.) AMBAR valia, sacred rites in honour of Ceres, previous to the commencement of reaping, which were called sacra ambarralia, because the victim was carried around the fields (arca ambiebut.— Vid. Arvales). AMBIKN1, a people of Gallia Belgica, whose capital was Samarobriva, afterward called Ambiani or Ambianum, now Amiens. Their territory corresponds to what is now the Department de la Somme. (Cas., B. G., 2, 4.—Id. ib., 7, 75.) AMB1Atinus Vicus, a village of Germany, where the Emperor Caligula was born. It was situate between Confluentes and Baudobriga, and is supposed by some to be now Capelle, on the Rhine, by others Königstuhl. Mannert, without fixing the modern site, thinks it lay on the Moselle. (Geogr., 2, p. 210.-Sueton., Wit. Calig., S.) AMBIGAtus, a king of the Celtae, in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. According to the account given by Livy (5,34), he sent his two nephews, Sigovesus and Bellovesus, in quest of new settlements, with the view of diminishing the overflowing numbers at home. The two chieftains drew lots respecting their course, and Sigovesus obtained the route that led towards the Hercynian forest, Bellovesus the road to Italy. What is here stated, however, appears to be a mere fable, * its origin to the simultaneous emigrations of two hordes of Gallic warriors. (Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. 1, p. 39.) AMbiorix, a king of one half of the Eburones in Gaul, Cativolcus being king of the other half. He was an inveterate foe to the Romans, and after inflicting several serious losses upon, narrowly escaped the pursuit of, Caesar's men, on being defeated by that commander. (Caes., B. G., 5, 24, et 26.—ld, 6, 30.) A Marv AREti and AMbiv AR Eti (for we have, in the Greek Paraphrase of Caesar, b. 7, c. 75, 'Austs apérov, and at c. 90, 'Aububapirov), a Gallic tribe, ranked among the clients of the AEdui, whence Glareanus and Ciacconius suspect them to be the same with
the Ambarri. Almost all the MSS. of Caesar call them silent respecting them.
Hom, 0d., 1, 359, where ambrosia and nectar appear
Ambiva Riti, a tribe of Gallia Belgica, a short dis- to be used as synonymous terms.-Heyne, Excurs.
tance beyond the Mosa or Meuse. (Cas., B. G., 4.9) Ambracia, a celebrated city of Epirus, the capital
of the country, and the royal residence of Pyrrhus It was situate on the banks of and one of the latest and most distinguished of what
and his descendants. the Aracthus or Arethon, a short distance from the waters of the Ambracian Gulf. The founders of the lace were said to have been a colony of Corinthians, i. by Tolgus or Torgus, 650 B.C., who was
are denominated the Fathers of the Christian Church. He was born at Arelate (Arles), then the metropolis of Gallia Narbonensis, according to some authorities A.D. 333, according to others, 340. His father was
either the brother or the son of Cypselus, chief of the emperor's lieutenant in that district, and, after his
Corinth. (Strabo. 325.—Scymn., Ch., v. 452.) It early acquired some maritime celebrity, by reason of its advantageous position, and was a powerful and independent city towards the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, in which it espoused the cause of Corinth and Sparta. At a later period we find its independence threatened by Philip, who seems to have entertained the project of annexing it to the dominions of his brother-in-law, Alexander, king of the Molossians. (Demosth., Phil., 3, 85.) Whether it actually fell into the possession of that monarch is uncertain, but there can be no doubt of its having been in the occupation of Philip, since Diodorus Siculus (17, 3) asserts, that the Ambraciots, on the accession of Alexander the Great to the throne, ejected the Macedonian rrison stationed in their city. Ambracia, however, id not long enjoy the freedom which it thus regained, for, having fallen into the hands of Pyrrhus, we are told that it was selected by that prince as his usual place of residence. (Strabo, 325–Liv., 38, 9.) Ovid (Ibis, v. 306) seems to imply that he was interred there. Many years after, being under the dominion of the AEtolians, who were at that time involved in hostilities with the Romans, this city sustained a siege against the latter, almost unequalled in the annals of ancient warfare for the gallantry and perseverance displayed in defence of the place. (Polyb., frag, 22, 13.) Ambracia, at last, opened its gates to the soe, on a truce being concluded, and was stripped by the Roman consul, M. Fulvius Nobilior, of all the statues and pictures with which it had been so richly adorned by Pyrrhus. From this time Ambracia began to sink into a state of insignificance, and Augustus, by transferring its inhabitants to Nicopolis, completed its desolation. (Straho, 325–Pausan, 5, 23.) In regard to the topography of this ancient city, most travellers and antiquaries are of opinion, that it must have stood near the town of Arta, which now gives its name to the gulf. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 145, seqq.) Ambracius SINUs, a gulf of the Ionian Sea, between Epirus and Acarnania. Scylax (Peripl., p. 13) calls it the Bay of Anactorium, and observes, that the distance from its mouth to the farthest extremity was one hundred and twenty stadia, while the entrance was scarcely four stadia broad. Strabo (325) makes the whole circuit three hundred stadia. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 153.) AMRRöNEs, a Gallic horde, who invaded the Roman territories along with the Teutones and Cimbri, and were defeated with great slaughter by Marius. The name is thought to mean, “dwellers on the Rhone” (Amb-rones). So Ambidravii, “dwellers on the Draave;” Sigambri, “dwellers on the Sieg,” &c. (Compare Psister, Gesch. der Teutschen, vol. 1, p. 35.) Ambrosia, the celestial food on which the gods were supposed to subsist, and to which, along with nectar, they were believed to owe their immortality. The name is derived from suffporos, “immortal.” (Compare Heyne, Excurs. 9, ad Il., 1–Id., Obs. ad Hom., Il., 1, 190). There is a striking resemblance between the Grecian and Hindoo mythology in this respect. The Amrita, or water of life, recalls imme
death, Ambrose, who was the youngest of three children, returned with the widow and family to Rome. Here, under the instructions of his mother and his sister Marcellina, who had vowed virginity, he received a highly religious education, and that bias in favour of Catholic orthodoxy by which he was subsequently so much distinguished. Having studied law, he pleaded causes in the court of the praetorian prefect, and was in due time appointed proconsul of Liguria. He thereupon took up his residence at Milan, where a circumstance occurred which produced a sudden change in his fortunes, and transformed him from a civil governor into a bishop. Auxentius, bishop of Milan, the Arian leader in the west, died, and left that see vacant, when a warm contest for the succession ensued between the Arians and Catholics. In the midst of a tumultuous dispute, Ambrose appeared in the midst of the assembly, and exhorted them to conduct the election peaceably. At the conclusion of his address, a child in the crowd exclaimed, “Ambrose is bishop " and, whether accidentally or by management, the result throws a curious light upon the nature of the times; for the superstitious multitude, regarding the exclamation as a providential and miraculous suggestion, by general acclamation declared Ambrose to be elected. After various attempts to decline the episcopal office, Ambrose at length entered upon the discharge of its duties, and rendered himself conspicuous by his decided and unremitting opposition to the tenets of Arianism. To his zealous endeavours also was owing the failure of the attempt made by the remains of a pagan party to re-establish the worship of paganism. The strength and ability of Ambrose were such, that, although opposed to him on ecclesiastical points, Valentinian and his mother respected his talents, and in moments of political exigency required his assistance. The most conspicuous act on the part of Ambrose was his treatment of Theodosius for the massacre at Thessalonica. The emperor was consigned to a retirement of eight months, and not absolved ever then until he had signed an edict, which ordained that an interval of thirty days should pass before any sentence of death, or even of confiscation, should be executed. After having paid the funeral honours to Theodosius, who died soon after obtaining peaceable possession of the entire Roman empire, the bishop departed from this world with a composure worthy of his firm character, in the year 397. It is evident, that Ambrose was one of those men of great energy of mind and temperament, who, in the adoption of a theory or a party, hold no middle course, but act with determination towards the fulfilment of their purposes. Regarded within their own circles, there is generally something in such characters to admire; and, beyond that, as certainly much to condemn. It must be conceded, however, that men resembling Ambrose effected much to advance the Roman Catholic Church to the power to which it afterward attained, and, by necessary sequence, to the abuse of it which produced the Reformation. The writings of this father are numerous, and the great object of almost all of them was to maintain the faith and discipline of the Catholic Church, while some of them are written to recommend celibacy as the summit of Christian persection. His best work is “De Officiis,” intended to explain the duties of Christian ministers. The most accurate edition of his works is that of the Benedictines, Paris, 2 vols. fol., 1682–90. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict, vol. 1, . 67.) p Ambryssus, a city of Phocis, said to have been founded by the hero Ambryssus, situate between two chains of mountains, west of Lebedaza, and northwest of Anticyra. It was destroyed by the Amphictyons, but rebuilt and fortified by the Thebans before the battle of Cheronaea. (Pausan., 10, 3, and 36.) Its ruins were first discovered by Chandler, near the village of Dystomo. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 159.) AMBubai.e. female minstrels, of Syrian origin, who exercised their vocation at Rome, and were also of dissolute lives. (Acron, ad Horat., Serm., 1, 2, 1.— Nork, Etymol. Handworterbuch, vol. 1, p. 45, seq.) The name is supposed to be derived from the Syriac abub or anhub, “a flute.” AMbijli, a surname of Castor and Pollux, in Sparta, and also of Jupiter and Minerva. They were so named, it is said, from duso??, delay, because it was thought that they could delay the approach-of death. Some, on the other hand, consider the term in question to be of Latin origin, and derived from ambulare. (Compare the remarks of Vollmer, Worterb. der Mythol, s. r.) AMéles, a river of the lower world, according to Plato, whose waters no vessel could contain : Töv 'Auéâmra Torauðv, où to boop dyyelow oióèv aréyeuv. (De Rep., 10, vol. 7, p. 229, ed Bekk.) AMENANUs, a river of Sicily, near Catania. It is now the Judicello. (Strabo, 360.-Ovid, Met., 15, 279.) AMERíA, one of the most considerable and ancient cities of Umbria. It lay south of Tuder, and in the vicinity of the Tiber. According to Cato, who is quoted by Pliny (3, 14), Ameria could boast of an origin greatly anterior to that of Rome, having been founded, it is said, 964 years before the war with Perseus, or 1045 years before the Christian era. Cicero, in his defence of the celebrated Roscius, who was a native of Ameria, has frequent occasion to speak of this town. From him we learn its municipal rank, and from Frontinus, that it became a colony under Augustus. (Compare Strabo, 228—Festus, s. v. Ameria.) The small episcopal town of Amelia now represents this ancient city. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 273.) Awkstritus, a town of Sicily, near the Halesus. The Romans besieged it for seven months when in the hands of the Carthaginians, but without success. It was taken, however, after a third siege, and razed to the ground, the surviving inhabitants being sold as slaves Steph. Byz. calls the place Amestratus; Diodorus Siculus, Mystratum; and Polybius, Myttistratum. (Diod. Sic, 23, ecl. 9.—Polyb., 1, 24.) It is now Mistretta, in the Val. de Demoma. Awestris, queen of Persia, and wife to Xerxes. Having discovered an intrigue between her husband and Artaynta, and imputing all the blame solely to the mother of the latter, she requested her from the king at a royal festival; and, when she had her in her power, cut off her breasts, nose, ears, lips, and tongue, and sent her home in this shocking condition. She also, on another occasion, sacrificed fourteen Persian children of noble birth, “to propitiate,” says Herodotas, “the deity who is said to dwell beneath the earth.” (Herodot., 9, 110, seqq.—Id., 7, 114.) Amid . a city of Mesopotamia, taken and destroyed by Sapor, king of Persia. It was repeopled by the inhabitants of Nisibis, after Jovian's treaty with the Persians, and by a new colony which was sent to it. It was called also Constantia, from the Emperor Constantius. Its ancient walls, constructed with black
stones, have caused it to be termed by the Turks Kara-Amul, (“black Amid”), although it is more.commonly denominated Diar-Bekir, from the name of its district. (Ammian. Marcell., 18, 22.-Procop., de Bell. Pers., 1,8–Salmas., Exercit. Plin., p. 488.3 AMILCAR. Wid. Hamilcar. AMINE1, a people of Campania, mentioned by Macrobius (Sat., 2, 16), as having occupied the spot, where was afterward the Falernus Ager. The Aminean wine is thought to have derived its name from them. (Consult, however, the remarks of Heyne, ad Virg., Georg., 2, 97, War. Lect.) The more correct opinion appears to be, that the Aminean wine was so called, because made from a grape transplanted into Italy from Aminaeum, a place in Thessaly. Macrobius, however, asserts, that the Falernian wine was more anciently called Aminean. (Compare Heyne, ad Virg., Georg., 2, 97.) A MisèNus sinus, a gulf of the Euxine, east of the mouth of the Halys, on the coast of Pontus, so called from the town of Amisus. A Misia, now the Ems, a river of Germany, falling into the German Ocean. Strabo (201) calls it Amasia ('Auaqia), and Pliny (4, 14) Amasis. AMisus, a city of Pontus, on the coast of the Euxine, northwest from the mouth of the Iris. It was founded by a colony of Milesians, was the largest city in Pontus next to Sinope, and was made by Pharnaces the metropolis of his kingdom. It is now called Samsoun. (Strabo, 547—Polyb, Exc. de legat., 55.Mannert, 6, pt. 2, p. 448, seqq.) AMItERNUM, a city in the territory of the Sabines, the birthplace of Sallust the historian. It was situate a short distance below the southern boundary of the Praetutii, and its ruins are to be seen near S. Vittorino, a few miles to the north of Aquila. From Livy (10, 39) we learn, that this town, having fallen into the hands of the Samnites, was recovered by the consul Sp. Carvilius (A.U.C. 459). Under the Romans it became successively a praefectura and a colony, as we are informed by Frontinus and several inscriptions. (Romanelli, vol. 3, p. 330.) In Ptolemy's time, Amiternum seems to have been included among the cities of the Westini. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 3.19.) AMMIANUs. Wid. Marcellinus. AM Mochostus, a promontory of Cyprus, whence by corruption comes the modern name Famagosta, or, more properly, Amgoste: now the principal place in the island. (Ptol—Cramer's Asia Manor, vol. 2, p. 381.) AMMox, or HAMMon, a name given to Jupiter, as worshipped in Libya. When Bacchus was conquering Africa, he is said to have come with his army to a spot called, from the vast quantity of sand lying around, by the name of Hammódes ("Automo, i. e., sandy, from tiunoo, “sand,” and eldog, “ aspect” or “appearance”). Here his forces were in great danger of perishing from want of water, when a ram on a sudden appeared, and guided them to a verdant spot, or oasis, in the midst of the desert. When they reached this place, the ram disappeared, and they found an abundant supply of water. Bacchus, therefore, out of gratitude, erected on the spot a temple to Jupiter, giving him, at the same time, the surname of Ammon or Hummon, from the Greek stuuoc or àuuoc, “sand,” in allusion to the circumstances connected with his appearance; and the statue of the deity had the head and horns of a ram. (Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 20.) According to another version of the fable, Bacchus, in his extremity, prayed to Jupiter for aid, and the god, appearing under the form of a ram, indicated the place of the fountain with his foot, the water, before unseen, immediately bubbling up through the sand.—The spot to which the fable points is the Oasis of Ammon (rid. Oasis), and the fountain is the famous Fons Solis, or fountain of the Sun, which, according to Herodotus § 181), was
tepid at dawn, cool as the day advanced, very cool at les of Dodona; whereas the priests of Thebes ascribed noon, diminishing in coolness as the day declined, warm the origin of the oracles at Dodona and in the Oasis of st sunset, and boiling hot at midnight. Here also was Ammon to the two Egyptian females connected with the celebrated oracle of Ammon, which Alexander the the service of the temple at Thebes, and who had been Great visited, in order to obtain an answer respecting carried away and sold into slavery by certain Phoenithe divinity of his origin. An account of the expedi- |cians. Herodotus, with no little plausibility, seeks to tion is given by Plutarch (Wit. Aler, c. 26), and, as may reconcile these two statements, by conjecturing that well be expected, the answer of the oracle was alto- the Dodoneans gave the name of doves or pigeons gether acceptable to the royal visitant, though the to the females carried off, because they used a foreign credit previously attached to its answers was seriously tongue, and their speech resembled the chattering of impaired by the gross flattery which it had on this oc- birds; and the remark of the same Dodoneans, that the casion displayed. . The temple of Ammon, like that of pigeons were of a black colour, he explains by the cirDelphi, was famed for its treasures, the varied offer- cumstance of these females being, like the other Egypings of the pious; and these, in the time of the Per- tians, of a dark complexion. It is very evident that sian invasion of Egypt, excited so far the cupidity of we have here some allusion to Egyptian colonies, and Cambyses as to induce him to send a large body of to the influence which prophetic females would exerforces across the desert to seize upon the place. The cise in such colonies recently established. The only expedition, however, proved a signal failure; no ac- difficulty, however, is how to connect the Pelasgic shrine counts of it were ever received, and it is probable, of Dodona with anything of an Egyptian character. therefore, that the Persian troops were purposely mis. (Consult the remarks of Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 4, p. led on their route by the Egyptian guides, and that all 151, and of Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 486.)— perished in the desert. (Wid. Cambyses.)—Herodotus Browne, an English traveller, discovered in 1792 the (2,54, seqq.) gives us two accounts respecting the or- site of the temple of Ammon, in a fertile spot called igin of the temple of Ammon. One, which he heard the Qasis of Surah, situated in the midst of deserts, from the priests of Jupiter in Thebes, stated, that two five degrees nearly west of Cairo. In 1798, Horneman priestesses had been carried off by some Phoenicians discovered the Fons Solis. In 1816 Belzoni visited from Thebes, and that one of them had been conveyed the spot, and found the fountain situated in the midst to Libya and there sold as a slave, and the other to of a beautiful grove of palms. He visited the sountain Greece. These two females, according to them, had at noon, evening, midnight, and morning. He had unfounded oracles in each of these countries. Accord- fortunately no thermometer with him. But, judging ing to the other story, which he heard from the priest- from his feelings at those several periods, it might be esses at . Dodona, two black pigeons had flown 100° at midnight, 80° in the morning early, and at from Thebes in Egypt; one of these had passed noon about 40°. The truth appears to be, that no into Libya, the other had come to Dodona in Greece, change takes place in the temperature of the water, but and both had spoken with a human voice, and di- in that of the surrounding atmosphere; for the well is rected the establishment of oracles in each of these deeply shaded, and about 60 feet deep. The account places.—Thus much for the ordinary narrative. Am- of Herodotus, who was never on the spot, is evidently mon, says Plutarch (de Is... et Os., p.354), is the Egyp- incorrect. He must have misunderstood his informer. tian name for Jupiter. This god was particularly wor- (Compare Rennell's Geogr. of Herod., p. 593, seqq.) shipped at Thebes, called in the sacred books Hammon. AM Mosit, a people of Africa, occupying what is now no, “the possession of Hammon,” and in the Septua- the Oasis of Siwah. According to Herodotus (2,42), gint version (Ezek., c. 20) the city of Ammon. Jablon- the Ammonians were a colony of Egyptians and Æthiski derives the word Ammon from Am-oein, “shining.” opians, speaking a language composed of words taken According, however, to Champollion the younger, the from both those nations—The arable territory of the term in question (Amon or Amen) denoted, in the Oasis of Siwah is about six miles long and four broad. Egyptian language, “secret,” “concealed,” or “he The chief plantation consists of date-trees; there are who reveals his secret powers.” It is sometimes also, also pomegranates, fig-trees, olives, apricots, and baas the same writer informs us, united with the word nanas. A considerable quantity of a reddish-grained Kneph, another appellation of the Supreme Being, and rice is cultivated here, being a different variety from from this results the compound Amenebis (Amen-Neb) that which is grown in the Egyptian Delta. It also which is found on a Greek inscription in the greater | produces wheat for the consumption of the inhabitants. Oasis. (Letronne, Rech. sur l'Egyp., p. 237, seqq.) | Abundance of water, both fresh and salt, is found. The Greek etymology of the name Ammon, from dulloc | The fresh-water springs are mostly warm, and are acor duoc, “sand,” is sanciful and visionary, and only cused of giving rise to dangerous severs when used by affords another proof of the constant habit in which that strangers. The population of Siwah is capable of furnation indulged, of referring so many things to them- nishing about 1500 armed men. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., selves, with which they had not, in truth, the slightest vol. 4, p. 173, Am. ed.) For remarks on the celebraconnexion. From all that has been said by the ancient ted Fons Solis, consult preceding article towards its writers, it would appear very clearly, that the allusion close.
in the legend of Ammon is an astronomical one. This AM Monius, I. the preceptor of Plutarch. He taught is very apparent from the story told by Herodotus (2, philosophy and Inathematics at Delphi, and lived du42), and which he received from the priests of Thebes. ring the first century of the Christian era, in the reign According to this narrative, Hercules was very desi- of Nero, to whom he acted as interpreter when that rous of seeing Jupiter, whereas the god was unwilling monarch visited the temple at Delphi. Plutarch makes to be seen; until, at last, Jupiter, yielding to his im- frequent mention of him in his writings, and particuportunity, contrived the following artifice. Having larly in his treatise on the inscription of the Delphic separated the head from the body of a ram, and flayed temple.—II. Saccas, or Saccophorus (so called because the whole carcass, he put on the skin with the wool, in early life he had been a sack-bearer), a celebrated and in that form showed himself to Hercules. Now, philosopher, who flourished about the beginning of the if Hercules denote the sun, and aries the first sign of third century. He was born at Alexandrea, of Christhe zodiac, the whole may be an allegory illustrative | tian parents, and was early instructed in the catechetof the opening of the year.—As regards the establish- |ical schools established in that city. Here, under the ment of the oracle of Ammon, it may be observed, that | Christian preceptors, Athenagoras, Pantoenus, and the account respecting the two doves or pigeons, which | Clemens Alexandrinus, he acquired a strong propenis given by Herodotus, and has already been alluded to, sity towards philosophical studies, and became excame, as that historian informs us, from the priestess- ceedingly desirous of reconciling the different opinions
which at that time subsisted among philosophers. Porphyry (ap. Euseb., Hist. Ecc., 6, 19) relates, that Ammonius passed over to the legal establishment, that is, apostatized to the pagan religion. Eusebius (l.c., p. 221) and Jerome (De S. E., c. 55, p. 132), on the contrary, assert that Ammonius continued in the Christian faith until the end of his life. But it is probable that these Christian fathers refer to another Ammonius, who, in the third century, wrote a Harmony of the Gospels, or to some other person of this name ; for they refer to the sacred books of Ammonius: whereas Ammonius Saccas, as his pupil Longinus attests, wrote nothing. (Compare Fabricius, Bibl. Gr., vol. 4, p, 160, 172.) It is not easy, indeed, to account for the particulars related of this philosopher, but upon the supposition of his having renounced the Christian faith. According to Hierocles (De Fato, ap. Phot., Bibl., vol. 2, p. 461, ed. Bekker), Ammonius was induced to adopt the plan of a distinct eclectic school, by a desire of putting an end to those contentions which had so long distracted the philosophical world. Ammonius had many eminent followers and hearers, both pagan and Christian, who all, doubtless, promised themselves much illumination from a preceptor that undertook to collect into a focus all the rays of ancient wisdom. He taught his select disciples certain sublime doctrines and mystical practices, and was called Geočičaktor, “the heaven-taught philosopher.” These mysteries were communicated to them under a solemn injunction of secrecy. Porphyry relates, that Plotinus, with the rest of the disciples of Ammonius, promised not to divulge certain dogmas which they learned in his school, but to lodge them safely in their purified minds. This circumstance accounts for the fact mentioned on the authority of Longinus, that he left nothing in writing. Ammonius probably died about the year 243. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 58, seqq.— Compare Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 5, p. 119, seqq.) —III. A Christian writer, a native of Alexandrea, who lived about 250 A.D. He wrote a Harmony of the Gospels, which Jerome cites with commendation.—IV. The son of Hermias, so called for distinction' sake from other individuals of the name, was a native of Alexandrea, and a disciple of Proclus. He taught philosophy at Alexandrea about the beginning of the sixth century. His system was an eclectic one, embracing principles derived both from Aristotle and Pla. to. He cannot be regarded as an original thinker: he was very strong, however, in mathematics, and in the study of the exact sciences, which rectified his judgment, and preserved him, no doubt, from the extravagances of the New Platonism. Ammonius has left commentaries on the Introduction of Porphyry: on the Categories of Aristotle, together with a life of that philosopher; on his treatise of Interpretation; and scholia on the first seven books of the Metaphysics. Of the commentaries on the Introduction of Porphyry we have the following editions: Venice, 1500, fol. Gr. ; Wenice, 1516, 8vo, ap. Ald, Gr. ; Venice, 1569, fol., Lat. transl.—Of the commentary on the Categories, and of that on the treatise of Interpretation, Venice, 1503, fol. ; Venice, 1546, ap. Ald., 8vo. Of the commentary on the treatise of Interpretation alone, Venice, 1549, 8vo, Gr. et Lat. The scholia on the Metaphysics have never been edited. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 123, seqq.)—V. A priest of one of the Egyptian temples. He was one of the literary men who fled from Alexandrea to Constantinople after the destruction of the pagan temples. There he became, together with Helladius, one of the masters of Socrates, the ecclesiastical writer: this is a fact which appears firmly established, and the reasons alleged by Valckenaer for placing him in the first or second century have been generally considered insufficient. Ammonius has left us a work on Greek synonymes, &c., under the title IIepi 6wotov kai diapópov Aéeov. It is a production
of very inferior merit. The best edition is that of Valckenaer, Lugd. Bat, 1739, 4to. An abridgment of this edition was published at Erlang, in 1787, 8vo, under the care of Ammon. Valckenaer's edition has also been reprinted entire, but in a more portable form, at Leipzig, 1822, 8vo, under the care of Schaeffer, who has added the inedited notes of Kulencamp, and the critical letter of Segaar, addressed to Walckenaer and published at Utrecht in 1776, 8vo. We have also a treatise of Ammonius, IIspi (invpoãoytaç, “On the improper use of words,” which has never been printed. —WI. A physicials of Alexandrea, surnamed the Lithotomist, from his skill in cutting for the stone; an operation which, according to some, he first introduced. He invented an instrument for crushing the larger calculi while in the bladder. He was accustomed also to make use of caustic applications, especially red arso nic, in hemorrhages. (Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 1, ; 465.) AMNisus, a port of Gnossus in Crete, southeast from Gnossus, with a small river of the same name in its vicinity. (Hom., Od., 19, 188.—Apoll. Rhod, 3,877.) AMoR, the son of Venus, was the god of love. (Wid. Cupido.) AMorgos, now Amorgo, one of the Cyclades, and situate to the east of Nicasia. According to Scylax (Peripl., p. 22) and Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. 'Auop yoc), it contained three towns, Arcesine, Ægialus, and Minoa. The former yet preserves its name, and stands on the northern extremity of the island. Egia lus is perhaps Porto S. Anna. Minoa was the birth place of Simonides, an iambic poet, mentioned by Strabo (487) and others. Amorgus gave its name to a peculiar linen dress manufactured in the island. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Auopyog.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 416.) A MPELius, Lucius, the author of a work that has reached us, entitled Liber Memorialis. The particular period when he lived is unknown. Bähr makes him to have flourished after Trajan, and before Theodosius. His work is divided into fifty small chapters, and is addressed to a certain Macrinus. It contains a brief account of the world, the elements, the carth, history, &c., and appears to be compiled from previous writers. Marks of declining Latinity are visible in it. The best editions are that of Tzschucke, Lips., 1793, 8vo, and that of Beck, Lips., 1826, 8vo. (Bähr, Gesch. Rom. Lit., vol. 1, p. 454, seqq.) AMPElus, I. a promontory of Crete, on the eastern coast, south of the promontory of Sammonium. It is now Cape Sacro. (Ptol., p. 91.) Pliny (4, 12) assigns to Crete a town of this same name ; and there are, in fact, some ruins between the mouth of the river Sacro and the promontory. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 372.)—II. A promontory of Macedonia, at the eastern extremity of the peninsula of Sithonia, and forming the lower termination of the Sinus Singiticus. Livy calls it the Toronean promontory (31,45). Ampelusia, called also Cote and Soloé, a promontory of Africa, on the coast of Mauritania, and forming the point of separation between the Fretum Herculeum (Straits of Gibraltar) and the shore of the Western Ocean. It is now Cape Spartel. The ancient name Ampelusia refers to its abounding in vines, a signification which Cote is said to have had in the Punic or Phoenician tongue. (Compare the remarks of Hamaker, Miscell. Phanic, p. 247, Lugd. Bat, 1824, 4to.) Amphia Raides, a patronymic of Alcmaeon, as being son of Amphiaraús. (Orid, Fast., 2, 43.) Amphiarius, a famous soothsayer and warrior, according to some a son of Oicleus, according to others of Apollo. So, also, one account makes his mother to have been named Clytaemnestra; another, Hypermnestra,
daughter of the AEtolian king Thestius. * appears