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Janus, and swept away the Sabines from the gate. Romulus, the founder of Rome, is merely the Romar
The bloody struggle was renewed during several successive days, with various fortune and great mutual slaughter. At length, the Sabine women who had been carried away, and who were now reconciled to their fate, rushed with loud outcries between the combatants, imploring their husbands and their fathers to spare on each side those who were now equally dear. Both parties paused; a conference began, a peace was concluded, and a treaty framed, by which the two nations were united into one, and Romulus and Tatius became the joint sovereigns of the united people. But, though united, each nation continued to be governed by its own king and senate. During the double sway of Romulus and Tatius, a war was undertaken against the Latin town of Cameria, which was reduced and made a Roman colony, and its people were admitted into the Roman state, as had been done with those whom Romulus previously subdued. Tatius was soon afterward slain by the people of Laurentum, because he had refused to do them justice against his kinsmen, who had violated the laws of nations by insulting their ambassadors. The death of Tatius left Romulus sole monarch of Rome. He was soon engaged in a war with Fidenae, a Tuscan settlement on the banks of the Tiber. This people he likewise overcame, and placed in the city a Roman colony. This war, extending the Roman frontier, led to a hostile collision with Veii, in which he was also successful, and deprived Veii, at that time one of the most powerful cities of Etruria, of a large portion of its territories, though he found that the city itself was too strong to be taken. The reign of Romulus now drew near its close. One day, while holding a military muster or review of his army, on a plain near the Lake Capra, the sky was suddenly overcast with thick darkness, and a dreadful tempest of thunder and lightning arose. The people fled in dismay; and, when the storm abated, Romulus, over whose head it had raged most fiercely, was nowhere to be seen. A rumour was circulated, that, during the tempest, he had been carried to heaven by his father, the god Mars. This opinion was speedily confirmed by the report of Julius Proculus, who declared that, as he was returning by night from Alba to Rome, Romulus appeared unto him in a form of more than mortal majesty, and bade him go and tell the Romans that Rome was destined by the gods to be the chief city of the earth; that human power should never be able to withstand her people; and that he himself would be their guardian god Quirinus. (Plut., Wit. Rom — Liv., 1, 4, seqq. — Dion. Hal., &c.)—So terminates what may be termed the legend of Romulus, the founder and first king of Rome. That such an individual never existed is now very generally allowed, and, of course, the whole narrative is entirely fabulous. As to Romulus were ascribed all those civil and military institutiona of the Romans which were handed down by immemorial tradition; those customs of the nation to which lo definite origin could be assigned ; so to Numa were attributed all the ordinances and establishments of the national religion. As the idea of the ancient polity was imbodied under the name of Romulus, so was the idea of the national religion under the name of Numa. The whole story of Romulus, from the violation of his vestal mother by Mars, till the end of his life, when he is borne away in clouds and darkmess by his divine parent, is essentially poetical. In this, as in other cases, the poetical and imaginative form of the tradition is also the most ancient and genuine: and the variations, by which it is reduced into something physically possible, are the falsifications of later writers, who could not understand that, in popular legends, the marvellous circumstances are not the only parts which are not historically true, and that, by the substitution of commonplace incidents, they were spoiling a good poem without making a good history.
people personified as an individual. It was the sashion in ancient tradition to represent races and nations as sprung from an ancestor, or composed of the sollowers of a leader, whose name they continued to bear; while, in reality, the name of the fictitious chief was derived from the name of the people; and the transactions of the nation were not unfrequently described as the exploits of the simple hero. (Hetherington's History of Rome, p. 4, seqq.—Malden's Host Rome, p. 122, seqq) Romulus Silvius, I. a king of Alba.—II. Momyllus Augustulus, the last of the emperors of the western empire of Rome. (Vid. Augustulus.) Rossus, a king of the Latins, who expelled the Tyrrhenians from the city afterward called, from him, Roma. (Plut., Wit. Rom.—Consult remarks under the article Roma, page 1172, col. 1.) Roscia LEx, de Theatris, by L. Roscius Otho, the tribune, A.U.C. 685. (Vid. Otho II.) Rosci RNUM, a sortified port on the coast of Bruttium, below Sybaris. It is now Rossano. The haven of the Thurians, by name Roscia, was nearer the sea, at the mouth of a small river. (Itin. Ant. — Procop., Rer. Goth., 3.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 387.) Roscius, I. Q., a Roman actor, from his surname Gallus supposed to have been a native of Gaul, north of the Po, although educated in the vicinity of Lanuvium and Aricia. He was so celebrated on the stage that his name has become, in modern times, a usual term to designate an actor of extraordinary excellence. Cicero, in his work on Divination (1, 36), makes his brother Quintus say that the young Roscius was found one night in his cradle enveloped in the folds of a serpent; that his father, having consulted the auspices respecting this prodigy, they told him that his child would attain great celebrity. Quintus adds, that a certain Praxiteles had represented this in sculpture, and that the poet Archias had celebrated it in a song. Roscius had some defect in his eyes, and is therefore said to have been the first Roman actor who used the Greek mask; the performers, before this, using only caps or beavers, and having their faces daubed and disguised with the lees of wine, as at the commencement of the dramatic art in Greece. And yet, as appears from the following passage of Cicero, the mask was not invariably worn even by Roscius: “All,” says Cicero, “depends upon the face, and all the power of the face is centred in the eyes. Of this our old men are the best judges, for they were not lavish of their applause even to Roscius in a mask.” (De Orat., 3, 59.) Valerius Maximus (8, 7) states, that Roscius studied with the greatest care the most trifling gesture which he was to make in public ; and Cicero relates, that though the house of this comedian was a kind of school where good actors were formed, yet Roscius declared that he never had a pupil with whom he was completely satisfied. If Plutarch be correctly informed, Cicero himself studied under this great actor; he was certainly his friend and admirer. Macrobius (Sat., 2, 10) informs us, that Cicero and Roscius sometimes tried which of the two could express a thought more forcibly, the one by his words, or the other by his gestures, and that these exercises gave Roscius so high an opinion of his art, that he wrote a work, in which he made a comparison between it and eloquence. The same author mentions that Sylla, the dictator, to testify his admiration, sent the actor a gold ring, a symbol of equestrian rank. His daily profits were 1000 denarii (nearly one hundred and eighty dollars). According to Pliny, his annual gains were about twenty thousand dollars. Roscius died about 62 B.C.; for, in Cicero's defence of Archias, which was delivered A.U. 693, the death of Roscius is alluded to as a recent event. (Horat., Epist., 2, 1, 82. — Plut, Wit. Cic.—Dunlop's Rom. Lit., vol. 1, p. 591.)—ll. Sextus, a native of Ameria, defended by Cicero in the first public or criminal trial in which that orator spoke. The father of Roscius had two mortal enemies, of his own name and district. During the proscriptions of Sylla, he was assassinated one evening while returning home from supper; and on the pretence that he was in the list of the proscribed, his estate was purchased for a mere nominal price by Chrysogonus, a favourite slave, to whom Sylla had given freedom, and whom he had permitted to buy the property of Roscius as a forfeiture. Part of the valuable lands thus acquired was made over by Chrysogonus to the Roscii. These new proprietors, in order to secure themselves in the possession, hired one Erucius, an informer and prosecutor by profession, to charge the son with the murder of his father, and they, at the same time, suborned witnesses, in order to convict him of the parricide. Cicero succeeded in obtaining his acquittal, and was highly applauded by the whole city for his courage in espousing a cause so well calculated to #. offence to Sylla, then in the height of his power. he oration delivered on this occasion is still extant, and must not be confounded with another that has also come down to us in defence of the tragedian Roscius, and which involved merely a question of civil right. (Cic., pro Rosc. Amer.)—III. Otho. (Vid. Otho II.) Rotow Agus, a city of Gallia Lugdunensis, at a later period the capital of Lugdunensis Secunda. Now Rouen. (Ptol.) Rox ANA, a Bactrian female, remarkable for her beauty. She was the daughter of Oxyartes, commander of the Sogdian rock for Darius; and, on the reduction of this stronghold by Alexander, became the wise of the conqueror. At the death of the monarch she was enceinte, and was subsequently delivered of a son, who received the name of Alexander Ægus, and who was acknowledged as king along with Philip Aridaeus. Roxana having become jealous of the authority of Statira, the other wife of Alexander, destroyed her by the aid of Perdiccas; but she herself was afterward shut up in Amphipolis, and put to death by Cassander. (Plut., Wit. Aler.—Quint. Curt, 8, 4.—Id., 10, 6– Justin, 12, 15, &c.) Roxol RN1. Vid. Rhoxolani. Rubé as ProMontorium, a promontory mentioned by Pytheas (Plin, 4, 13), and supposed by many to be the same with the North Cape, but shown by Mannert to correspond rather to the northern extremity of Curland. (Geogr., vol. 3, p. 300, seqq.) Rubi, a town of Apulia, between Canusium and Butuntun, now Ruro. The inhabitants were called Rubustini and Rubitini. (Plin, 3, 11.) It is also referred to by Horace and Frontinus. (Horat., Sat., 1, 5, 94.—Frontin., de Col.) For an account of some interesting discoveries made near Ruro, consult Romanelli (vol. 2, p. 172.-Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 299). Rubicon, a small stream of Italy, falling into the Adriatic a little to the north of Ariminum, and forming, in part, the northern boundary of Italia Propria. It was on this last account that it was forbidden the Roman generals to pass the Rubicon with an armed force, under the most dreadful imprecations; for in violating this injunction they would enter on the immediate territory of the republic, and would be, in effect, declaring war upon their country. Caesar crossed this stream with his army at the commencement of the civil war, and harangued his troops at Ariminum. When Augustus subsequently included Gallia Cisalpina within the limits of Italy, the Rubicon sank in importance; and in modern times it is difficult to ascertain the position of the true stream. D'Anville makes it correspond with a current which, formed of three brooks, is called at its mouth Fiumesino. A formal papal decree, however, issued in 1756, decided in favour of the 7 K.
Lusa ; but popular tradition designates the Pisatell as the true stream, and this river best suits the account we have of the situation of the Rubicon. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 243, seqq.—Appian, Bell. Civ., 2, 135–Suet., Caes., 30.-Plut., Wit. Caos. et Pomp. —Cic., Phil., 6, 3–Strab., 227—Plin., 3, 15 ) Rubigo, a goddess. (Vid. Robigo.) Rubo or Rhubo N, a river of Sarmatia, now the Windau according to Wilhelm (Germanien, und seine Bewohner, Weimar, 1823); but, according to Gossellin, the Niemen. Rudi.A., I, a city of Italy, in the territory of the Calabri, in Iapygia, and below Brundisium. It was rendered famous by being the birthplace of Ennius. (Sil. Ital, 12, 393–Horat., Od, 4, 8, 20. —Ovid, A. A., 3, 409–Strabo, 281.) The more proper form of the name is Rhudiae, the appellation being one of Greek origin. According to an antiquarian writer, the remains of Rhudiae, still known by the name of Ruge, were to be seen close to those of the town of Lupiae; he also states, that these towns were so near to each other that they might be said to form but one. (Ant. de Ferar. de sit. }. p. 77–Compare D'Anville, Anal Geogr. de l'Italie, p. 230. —Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 308) — II. A town of Apulia, in Italy, placed in the Tabula Theodosiana between Canusium and Rubi. It is sometimes called, for distinction’ sake, Rudiae (or Rhudia) Peucetime, as it lay in the district of Peucetia ; the other Rudiae being styled Rudia, Calabriae. Romanelli places the site of this town at Andria (vol. 2, p. 170.-Plin., 3, 11–Mela, 2, 4.—Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 299.) Rufinus, I minister of state to the Emperors Theodosius and Arcadius, and a native of Gaul. He was naturally vindictive and cruel, and is supposed to have stimulated Theodosius to the dreadful massacre of Thessalonica. After the death of this monarch, he succeeded, in fact, to absolute authority over the Eastern empire in the reign of Arcadius. He soon, however, fell beneath the power of Stilicho, general under Honorius in the Western empire, and was put to death by the army. He is said to have aspired to the supreme authority.—II. A Latin poet, supposed to have flourished about the sixth century. Cruquius published a small poem, which he attributed to Rufinus, on the fable of Pasiphaë, which he found in an old manuscript. This poem is composed of verses written in all the different measures employed by Horace, and is, therefore, sometimes prefixed to editions of the latter poet. It is regarded by many as the production of some grammarian, and, probably, of the same Rufinus, a treatise on metres by whom still remains, as well as a small poem, in thirty-two verses, on Love. (Burmann, Anthol. Lat., vol. 1, p. 513, 663. — Scholl, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 99.)—III. A grammarian of Antioch, alluded to in the previous article. Besides the works there mentioned, he wrote also a commentary on the metres of Terence.—IV. An ecclesiastical" writer, a native of Concordia, a place near Aquileia. By some he is called Toranius. He was the friend of St. Jerome, with whom, however, he had at one time a quarrel on points of doctrine. His death occurred A.D. 408. Rufinus translated, from Greek into Latin, Josephus, and the Ecclesiastical History of Fusebius, &c.; besides which, he left some treatises in defence of Origen, and on other subjects. His works were printed at Paris in 1580. Rugii, a people of Germany, on the coast of the Sinus Codanus, between the Viadrus or Oder and the Vistula, and situate to the west of the Gothones. They were in possession of the isle of Rugia (now Rugen), where the goddess Hertha was worshipped with peculiar reverence. Ptolemy gives Rhugium as their capital. At a subsequent period they sounded a new kingdom on the northern side of the Danube, named after them Rugiland, in Austria and "..., Hungary, which was overthrown by Odoacer. 43.−Jour. Get., 50, 57.) Rupilius, a native of Præneste, surnamed Rer, who, having been proscribed by Octavianus, then a triumvir, fled to the army of Rutus, and became a fellowsoldier of Horace. Jealous, however, of the military advancement which the latter had obtained, Rupilius reproached him with the meanness of his origin, and Horace therefore retaliates in the seventh Satire of the first book, where a description is given of a suit between this Rupilius and a certain Persius, tried before Marcus Brutus, at that time governor of Asia Minor. (Compare Gesner, ad loc.—Dunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 3, p. 251.) Ruteni, a people of Celtic Gaul, whose territory answered to the modern Rouergue. Their chief city was Segodunum, now Rhodez. (Cas., B. G., 1, 45. —Id. ib., 7, 7, &c.) Rutilius, I. Lupus, a rhetorician, a treatise of whose, in two books, de Figuris Sententiarum et Elocutionis, still remains. The period when he flourished is uncertain. A false reading in Quintilian (3, 1, 21) has given rise to the belief that he was contemporary with this writer; but Ruhnken has shown that, in this passage of Quintilian, we must read Tutilius for Rutilius, and that Rutilius was anterior to Celsus, who lived under Augustus and Tiberius. The work of Rutilius already alluded to is extracted and translated from a work by a certain Gorgias, a Greek writer contemporary with him, and not to be confounded with the celebrated Gorgias of Leontini. The best edition is that of Ruhnken, Lugd. Bat., 1768, 8vo, republished by Frotscher, Lips., 1831, 8vo.—II. Numatianus, a native of Gaul, born either at Tolosa (Toulouse) or Pictavii (Poitiers), and who flourished at the close of the fourth and commencement of the fifth centuries of our era. We have an impersect poem of his remaining, entitled Itinerarium, or De Reditu. It is written in elegiac verse, and, from the elegance of its diction, the variety and beauty of its images, and the tone of feeling which pervades it, assigns its author a distinguished rank among the later Roman poets. Rutilius had been compelled to make a journey from Rome into Gaul, for the purpose of visiting his estates in the latter country, which had been ravaged by the barbarians, and the Itinerary is intended to express the route which he took along the coast of the Mediterranean. Rutilius is supposed by some to have been prefect at Rome when that city was taken by Alaric, A.D. 410. He was not a Christian, as appears from several passages of his poem, though the heavy complaints made by him against the Jewish race ought not, as some editors have imagined, to be extended to the Christians. We have remaining of this poem the first book, and sixty-eight lines of the second ; and perhaps the particle potius, in the first line of the first book, would indicate that the commencement of this book was also lost. The remains of the poetry of Rutilius are given by Burmann and Wernsdorff, in their respective editions of the Poeta. Latini Minores. There are also separate editions. Rutúli, a people of Latium, along the coast below the mouth of the Tiber. They were a small community, who, though perhaps originally distinct from the Latins, became subsequently so much a part of that nation that they do not require a separate notice. Their capital was Ardea, and Turnus was their prince, according to the fable of the AEneid, when the Trojans arrived in Italy. (Wid. Ardea, Latium, Turnus.) Rutupiae (called also Ritupae, Portus Ritupis, and Portus Ritupius), a harbour on the coast of Britain, famed for its excellent oysters. It is generall considered as corresponding to Richborough, i. D'Anville is in favour of Sandwich. (Compare Bede, 1, 1, “Rutubi, nunc corrupte Reptacostir.”) Rutu
pia was the port to which the Romans commonly came, from the opposite coast of Gaul, the harbour on this latter side, whence they usually started, being Gesoriacum. Thus the Itinerarium Maritimum (p. 496) says, “A portu Gesoriacensi ad portum Ritupium Stadia CCCCL” (46 geographical miles). It is on this account that the name of the Ritupian harbour frequently occurs in the later writers. The Itin. Ant. (p. 463) gives the same statement as the Itin. Marit. relative to the passage across. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 160.) As regards the Rutupian oysters, consult Juvenal (4, 141), and the remarks of the commentators, and also Pliny (9,54; 32, 6).
SABA, the capital of the Sabaei, in Arabia Felix, situate on a rising ground, in the interior of the country, and in a northeastern direction from the harbour of Pudun (Dsjesan). According to Strabo (778), it was also called Meriaba, and in this he is followed by later writers, who, however, give the more correct form Mariaba. It would seem, that Mariaba is a general term for a chief city, and hence we find more than one appearing in the geography of Arabia. According to Mannert, Saba would appear to correspond with the modern Saada or Saade. (Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, . 66.) p SABXchus or SABXcon, a king of AEthiopia, who invaded Egypt, and reigned there after the expulsion of King Amasis. After a reign of fifty years he was terrified by a dream, and retired into his own kingdom. Diodorus Siculus states (1, 66), that after the departure of Sabachus, there was an anarchy of two years, which was succeeded by the reign of twelve kings, who, at their joint expense, constructed the labyrinth. (Consult remarks under the article Psammitichus.) The name of Sabacon, in hieroglyphic characters, has been found amid the ruins of Abydos, (Bähr, ad Herod., 2, 36.) SABAEI, a people of Arabia Felix, represented by some of the ancient writers, especially the poets, as one of the richest and happiest nations in the world, on account of the valuable products of their land. Another name, viz., that of the Homerita (thought to be derived from Himiar, the name of a sovereign, and which signifies the red king), appears in a later age confounded with that of the Sabaeans. (Wid. Saba.) SABATE, a town of Etruria, northeast of Caere, and not far from the site of the present Bracciano. It was in the immediate vicinity of a lake, called from it the Lacus Sabatinus. The town was said to have been swallowed up by the waters of the lake, and it was even asserted, that in calm weather its ruins might still be seen below the surface of the water. (Sotion., de Mirand. Font.) Columella notices the fish of the lake, and Frontinus speaks of its water being conveyed by an aqueduct to the capital. (Columell., 8, 16.— Front., de Aquaed., 1.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 235.) SABATINI, a people of Campania, who derived their name from the small river Sabatus that flowed through their territory. They are mentioned by Livy (26,33) among the Campanian tribes that revolted to Hannibal. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 247.) SABXtus, a river rising in Campania, and flowing into Samnium, where it joined the Calor, near Beneventum. It is now the Sabbato. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 247.) Sabazius, a surname of Bacchus, given him, according to some, by the Thracians (Schol. ad Arist., Vesp., v. 9), or, according to others, by the Phrygians. (Strabo, 470-Schol. ad Aristoph, Ar., v. 874. —Schol. ad Lysist, v. 398.) De Sacy inclines to the opinion that the root of this appellation may be found in the name of the Arabian city Saba. (Sainte-Croix, Mystères du Paganisme, vol. 2, p. 95, edit. De Sacy.) SAbbXTA or SABBATHA, a city of Arabia Felix, the capital of the Chatramatitae. Most commentators on the Periplus, in which mention is made of it, suppose it to be the same with Schibam or Scebam, which AlEdrisi places in Hadramaut, at four stations, or a hundred miles, from Mareb. (Vincent's Periplus, p. 334.) Mannert, however, declares for Mareb (Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 83). The modern name Mareb will be a corruption from Mariaba, a name common to many cities of Arabia. This place was the great depôt for the incense-trade. (Wid. Saba.) SABElli. Vid. Sabini. SABINA, Julia, grand-niece of the Emperor Trajan, and wife of Hadrian, to whom she became united chiefly through the means of the Empress Plotina. She lived unhappily with her husband, partly from her own asperity of temper, and partly, perhaps, from the gross vices of her consort. Hadrian's unkindness to her is said to have been the cause of her death. (Wid. Hadrianus.) SABIN1, a people of Italy, whose territory lay to the northeast of Rome. The Sabines appear to be generally considered as one of the most ancient indigenous tribes of Italy, and one of the few who preserved their race pure and unmixed. (Strabo, 228.) We are not to expect, however, that fiction should have been more sparing of its ornaments in setting forth their origin, than in the case of other nations far less interesting and less celebrated. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, among other traditions respecting the Sabines, mentions one which supposes them to have been a colony of the Lacedæmonians about the time of Lycurgus (2, 49), an absurd fable which has been eagerly caught up by the Latin poets and mythologists. (Sil. Ital, 15, 545.—Ovid, Fast., 1,260.—Hygin., ap. Serv. ad AEn., 8, 638.) Their name, according to Cato, was derived from the god Sabus, an aboriginal deity, supposed to be the same as the god invoked by the Latins in the expression Medius Fidius. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 297)—The Romans, observes Niebuhr, have no common national name for the Sabines, and the tribes which are supposed to have issued from them: the latter, whether Marsians and Pelignians, or Samnites and Lucanians, they term Sabellians. That these tribes called themselves Savini or Sabini is nearly certain, from the inscription on the Samnite denarius coined in the Social war; at least as to the Samnites, whose name is in every form manifestly, and in the Greek Xavviral directly, derived from Savini: but the usage of a people whose writings have perished, like everything that is extinct in fact, has lost its rights. I think myself at liberty to employ the term Sabellians for the whole race; since the tribes which were so named by the Romans are far more important than the Sabines, and it would clearly have offended a Latin ear to have called the Samnites Sabines. —When Rome crossed the frontiers of Latium, the Sabellians were the most widely-extended and the greatest people in Italy. The Etruscans had already sunk, as they had seen the nations of earlier greatness sink, the Tyrrhenians, Umbrians, and Ausonians. As the Dorians were great in their colonies, the mothercountry remaining little; and as it lived in peace, while the tribes it sent forth diffused themselves widely by conquests and settlements, so, according to Cato, was it with the old Sabine nation. Their original home is placed by him about Amiternum, in the high*st Apennines of the Abruzzo, where, on Mount Majella, the snow is said never wholly to disappear, and where the mountain-pastures in summer receive the Apulian herds. From this district they issued in very ancient times, long before the Trojan war; and, exelling in one quarter the Aborigines, in another the mbrians, took possession of the territory which for
three thousand years has borne their name. Out of this the overflowing population migrated to different parts. It was an Italian religious usage, in times of severe pressure from war or pestilence, to vow a sacred spring (ver sacrum); that is, all the creatures born in the spring: at the end of twenty years the cat tle were sacrificed or redeemed, the youth sent out. (Liv., 33, 44.—Festus, s. v. Mamertini.-Dion. Hal., 1, 16.) Such a vow the Romans made in the second year of the second Punic war; but only as to their flocks and herds. (Liv., 22, 9.) Such vows, the tradition runs, occasioned the sending out of the Sabine colony: the gods to whom each was dedicated charged sacred animals to guide them on their way. One colony was led by a woodpecker, the bird of Mamers, into Picenum, then peopled by Pelasgians or Liburnians: another multitude by an ox into the land of the Opicans; this became the great Samnite people: a wolf guided the Hirpini. That colonies issued from Samnium is known historically. The Frentani on the Adriatic were Samnites, who emigrated in the course of the second Roman war; Samnites conquered Camo and the country as far as the Silarus; another ost, calling themselves Lucanians, subdued and gave name to Lucania.-The Italian national migrations came down like others from the North ; and Cato's opinion, that the origin of all the Sabellians was derived from the neighbourhood of Amiternum, admits of no other rational meaning than that the most ancient traditions, whether they may have been Sabine or Umbrian, assigned that district as the habitation of the people that conquered Reate. Dionysius, indeed, seems to have understood Cato as having derived all the Sabines, and, consequently, through them their colonies, from a single village, Testrina, near Amiternum, as it were from a germe ; but so extravagant an abuse of genealogy ought not surely to be imputed to Cato's sound understanding. He must have known and remembered how numerous the nation was at the time of its utmost greatness, when it counted perhaps millions of freemen. At Reate, in the Sabina, in the country of the Marsians, they found and subdued or expelled the Aborigines; about Beneventum, Opicans, and probably, therefore, in the land of the Hirpini also. On the left bank of the Tiber they dwelt in the time of the Roman kings, low down, intermingled with the Latins, even south of the Anio, not merely at Collatia and Regillum, but also on two of the Roman hills. Wars with the Sabines form a great part of the contents in the earliest annals of Rome; but with the year 306 they totally cease, which evidently coincides with their diffusion in the south of Italy. Towards this quarter the tide now turned, and the old Sabines on the Tiber became quite insignificant.—Strictness of morals and cheerful contentedness were the peculiar glory of the Sabellian mountaineers, but especially of the Sabines and the four northern cantons: this they preserved long after the ancient virtue had disappeared at Rome from the hearts and the demeanour of men. Most of the Sabellian tribes, and the Sabines themselves, inhabited open hamlets; the Samnites and the members of the northern confederacy dwelt, like the Epirots, around the fortified summits of their hills, where a brave people could defend the approaches even without walls: not that they had no fortified towns, but the number was small.—The Sabellians would have made themselves masters of all Italy, had they formed a united or even a firmly-knit federal state, which should have lastingly appropriated its conquests, holding them in dependance, and securing them by colonies. But, unlike the Romans, the enjoyment of the greatest freedom was what they valued the highest; more than greatness and power, more than the permanent preservation of the state. Hence they did not keep their transplanted tribes attached to the mothercountry: they became forthwith foreign, * \ostile to the state they had issued from: while Rome, sending out colonies of small numbers, was sure of their fidelity; and by means of these, and by imparting dependant civil rights, converted a far greater number of subdued enemies into devoted subjects. (Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. 1, p. 71, seqq., Cambridge translation.)—In fixing the limits of the Sabine territory, we must not attend so much to those remote times when they reached nearly to the gates of Rome, as to that period in which the boundaries of the different people of Italy were marked out with greater clearness and precision, namely, the reign of Augustus. We shall then find the Sabines separated from Latium by the river Anio ; from Etruria by the Tiber, beginning from the point, where it receives the former stream, to within a short distance of Otricoli. The Nar will form their boundary on the side of Umbria, and the central ridge of the Apennines will be their limit on that of Picenum. To the south and southeast it may be stated generally, that they bordered on the AEqui and Westini. From the Tiber to the frontiers of the latter people, the length of the Sabine country, which was its greatest dimensions, . be estimated at 1000 stadia, or 120 miles, its breadth being much less considerable. (Strabo, 228.—Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 300.) Sabinus, Aulus, a Roman poet, the friend and contemporary of Ovid, and to whom the last six of the heroic epistles of that bard are generally ascribed by commentators. These are, Paris to Helen, Helen to Paris, Leander to Hero, Hero to Leander, Acontius to Cydippe, and Cydippe to Acontius. He was the author, also, of several answers to the epistles of Ovid, as Ulysses to Penelope, AEneas to Dido, &c., and likewise of a work on Days, which his death prevented him from completing. This last-mentioned production is thought by some to have given Ovid the idea of his Fasti. (Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 291.) SAbis, I. a river of Gallia Belgica, rising in the ter. ritory of the Nervii, and falling into the Mosa (Maese) at Namurcum (Namur), in the territory of the Aduatici. It is now the Sambre. (Caes., B. G., 2, 16, 18.) —II. A river of Carmania, between the southern promontory of Carmania and the river. Andanis. Manmert is inclined to identify it with the Anamis, which runs by the city of Hormuza, and falls into the Persian Gulf near the promontory of Armozum. (Mela, 3,8. –Plin, 6, 23.) It is also called the Saganus.—III. A river of Cisalpine Gaul, rising in Umbria, and falling into the Adriatic north of the Rubicon. It is now the Savio. At its mouth lay the town of Savis, now Torre del Sario. SABRATA, a city of Africa, in the Regio Syrtica, west of CEa and east of the Syrtis Minor. It formed, together with CEa and Leptis Magna, what was called Tripolis Africana. Justinian fortified it, and it is now Sabart or Tripoli Vecchio. (Itin. Anton.—Solin., c. 27.-Plin, 5, 4.—Procop., AEdif., 6, 4.) SABRINA, also called Sabriana, now the Serern in England. (Ptol.—Tac., Ann., 12, 31.) SacAE, a name given by the Persians to all the more northern nations of Asia, but which, at a subsequent period, designated a particular people, whose territory was bounded on the west by Sogdiana, north and east by Scythia, and south by Bactriana and the chain of Imaus. Their country, therefore, corresponds in some degree to Little Bucharey and the adjacent districts. The Sacae were a wild, uncivilized race, of nomadic habits, without cities, and dwelling in woods and caves. (Herod, 7, 9–Mela, 3, 7–Plin., 6, 17–Ammian. Marcell., 23, 6.)—As regards the origin of the name Sacar, which some etymologists deduce from the Persian Ssagh, “a dog,” and which they suppose to have been used as a term of contempt for a people of difserent race and religion, consult remarks under the article Scythia.
Sacra INsulA, an island in the Tiber, not far from its mouth, formed by the separation of the two branches of that river. It received its name from the circumstance of the snake's having darted on shore here, which the Romans had brought srom Epidaurus, supposing it to be AEsculapius. (Procop., B. G., 1, 26.) Sacra Wia, a celebrated street of Rome, where a treaty of peace and alliance was fabled to have been made between Romulus and Tatius. It led from the Amphitheatre to the Capitol, by the temple of the Goddess of Peace and the temple of Caesar. The triumphal processions passed through it to the Capitol. (Horat., Od., 4, 2–Sat., 1, 9.--Liv., 2, 13.-Cic., Planc., 7.—Att., Ep., 4, 3.) SACRUM, I. BELLUM, a name given to the war carried on against the Phocians, for their sacrilege in relation to the sanctuary at Delphi. (Vid. Phocis.)— II. Promontorium, a promontory of Spain, now Cape St. Vincent, called by Strabo the most westerly part of the earth. It was called Sacrum because the ancients believed this to be the place where the sun, at his setting, plunged his chariot into the sea. (Mela, 2, 6.-Plin., 4, 22.)—III. Another promontory, on the coast of Lycia, near the Chelidonian Islands, and now Cape Kelidonia. This headland obtained great celebrity from its being commonly looked upon as the commencement of the great chain of Taurus, which was accounted to traverse, under various names, the whole continent of Asia. (Plin., 5, 27.) But Strabo observes, that Taurus really began in Caria (Strab., 666); and other geographers even supposed it to commence with Mycale. (Arrian, Exp. Al., 5, 5, 2.) The modern name of the Sacred Promontory comes from the group of the Chelidonian Islands, in its immediate vicinity, to, which we have already referred (Cramer's Asia Missor, vol. 2, p. 256.)—IV. Anothel at the southern extremity of Corsica, now Cape Corso. (Ptol.) Sadyżtes, one of the Mermnada, who reigned in Lydia 12 years after his father Gyges. He made war against the Milesians for six years. (Herod., 1, 16.) SAETXbis, I. a river of Spain, between the Iberus and the Pillars of Hercules. According to some, it is now the Cennia or Senia ; Ukert, however, makes it the same with the Udubra of Pliny and the Turulis of Ptolemy. (Mela, 2, 6.)—II. A city of Spain (Hispania Tarraconensis), in the territory of the Contestani, and situate on a height, just below the river Sucro or Xucar. It was a municipium, and had received a Roman colony, from which latter circumstance it took the name of Augusta. Saetabis was famed for its linen manufacture. (Plin., 19, 2–Catull., 12.—Id., 20, 14.—Sil. Ital., 3,373.) The Arabians changed the name to Xatira. (Marca, Hisp., 2, 6, p. 118.—Laborde, Itin, vol. 1, p. 226.) Since the commencement of the present century, however, its more usual appellation is S. Phelippe. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 425.—Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 405.) SAGKris. Wid. Sangaris. SAGRA or SAGRAs, a river of Magna Græcia, in the territory of the Bruttii, falling into the Sinus Tarentinus, a short distance above the Zephyrian promontory. It was on the banks of the Sagras that the memorable overthrow of the Crotoniatae took place, when they were defeated by a force of 10,000 Locrians, with a small body of Rhegians. So extraordinary a result did this appear, that it gave rise to the proverbial expression, dàmbéo repa Töv šti Sáypa. Among other marvellous circumstances connected with this event, it was reported that the issue of the battle was known at Olympia the very day on which it was fought. (Strab., 261. – Cicero, N. D., 2, 2. —Justin, 20, 2.) Geographers differ much as to the modern river which corresponds with this celebrated stream; but, if Romanelli is correct in affirming that the mountain from which the Alaro takes its source is still called