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3y paying them the sums of money which he had prom'sed, but also in assigning them lands on the Syrian frontier, where they formed, in fact, a military colony. Psammitichus showed a great partiality for the Greeks on all occasions; and, in a Syrian expedition, he gave them the place of honour on the right, while he assigned the left to the Egyptians. The discontent of the national troops was so great at this, that a large number of the military caste, amounting, it is said, to 240,000 men, left Egypt and retired to Ethiopia. (Consult, on this subject, the learned note of St. Martin, Biogr. Univ., vol. 36, p. 180, seq.) So strong was the partiality of Psammitichus for everything Greek, that he caused a number of children to be trained up after the Grecian manner, and with these he formed the caste of interpreters, whom Herodotus found in his day existing in Egypt. Psammitichus also embellished his capital with several beautiful structures, and, among others, with the southern propylaea of the great temple of Vulcan. He carried on a long war in Syria, and his forces are said to have remained 29 years before the city of Azotus. It was during this period, probably, that he arrested by presents the victorious career of the Scythians, who had overrun Asia Minor, and were advancing upon Palestine and Egypt. This event would seem to have happened 626 B.C., or in the 13th year of the reign of the Jewish king Josiah, when the prophet Isaiah announced the approaching irruption of the Scythians into the territories of Israel. Psammitichus died after a reign of 54 years, leaving the crown to his son Necos.-Herodotus relates a very foolish story of Psammitichus, who, it seems, was desirous of ascertaining what nation was the most ancient in the world ; or, in other words, what was the primitive language of men. In order to discover this, he took two newlyborn children, and, having caused them to be placed in a lonely hut, directed a shepherd to nourish them with the milk of goats, which animals were sent in to them at stated times, and to take care himself never to utter a word in their hearing. The object was to ascertain what words they would first utter of themselves. At length, on one occasion, when the shepherd went in to them as usual, both the children, running up to him, called out Bekos. Psammitichus, on being informed of the circumstance, made inquiries about the word, and found that it was the Phrygian term for bread. He therefore concluded that the Phrygians were the most ancient of men . The truth is, the cry which the children uttered (supposing the story to be true) was bek (with the Greek termination as given by Herodotus, bek-os), and the children had learned it from the cry of the goats which sucksed them. (Herod., 2, 151, seqq.—St. Martin, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 36, p. 178, seqq.)—II. A descendant of the preceding, who came to the throne about 400 B.C., as a kind of vassal-king to Persia. (St. Martin, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 36, p. 18.1.) Psophis, a very ancient city in the northwestern part of Arcadia. Pausanias places it at the foot of the chain of Erymanthus, from which descended a river of the same name, which flowed near the city, and, af. ter receiving another small stream called Aroanius, }. the Alpheus on the borders of Elis (8, 24). sophis itself had previously borne the names of Erymanthus and Phegea. At the time of the Social war, it was in the possession of the Eleans, on whose territory it bordered, as well as on that of the Achaeans; and, as it was a place of considerable strength, proved a source of great annoyance to the latter people. It was taken by Philip, king of Macedon, then in alliance with the Achaeans, and made over by him to the latter people, who garrisoned it with their troops—The remains of Psophis are to be seen near the Khan of Tripotamia, so called from the junction of three rivers. (Puoquerille, vol. 5, p. 448. — Gell, Itinerary of Mo

rea, p. 122. Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 323.) Psyche (Yuxià), a young maiden beloved by Cupid, and of whom the following legend is related by Apuleius : She was the daughter of a king and queen, and the youngest of three sisters. Her beauty was so remarkable that people crowded from all parts to gaze upon her charms, altars were erected to her, and she was worshipped as a second Venus. The Queen of Love was irritated at seeing her own altars neglected and her adorers diminishing. She summoned her son, and ordered him to inspire Psyche with a passion for some vile and abject wretch. The goddess then departed, after having conducted her son to the city where Psyche dwelt, and left him to execute her mandate. Meantime Psyche, though adored by all, was sought as a wise by none. Her sisters, who were far inferior to her in charms, were married, but she remained single, hating that beauty which all admired. Her father consulted the oracle of Apollo, and was ordered to expose her on a rock, whence she would be carried away by a monster. The oracle was obeyed, and Psyche, amid the tears of the people, was placed on a losty crag. Here, while she sat weeping, a zephyr, sent for the purpose, gently raised and carried her to a charming valley. Overcome by grief, she fell asleep, and, on awakening, beholds a grove with a sountain in the midst of it, and near it a stately palace of most splendid structure. Venturing to enter this palace, she goes over it, lost in admiration of its magnificence; when, suddenly, she hears a voice, telling her that all there is hers, and that her commands will be obeyed. She bathes, sits down to a rich repast, and is regaled with music by invisible performers. At night she retires to bed; an unseen youth addresses her in the sostest accents, and she becomes his bride. Her sisters, meanwhile, had come to console their parents for the loss of Psyche, whose invisible spouse informs her of the event, and warns her of the danger likely to arise from it. Moved by the tears of his bride, however, he consents that her sisters should come to the palace. The obedient zephyr conveys them thither. They grow envious of Psyche's happiness, and try to persuade her that her invisible lord is a serpent, who will finally devour her. By their advice she provides herself with a lamp and a razor to destroy the monster. When her husband was asleep, she arose, took her lamp from its place of concealment, and approached the couch; but there she beheld, instead of a dragon, Love himself. Filled with amazement at his beauty, she leaned in rapture over him : a drop of oil fell from the lamp on the shoulder of the god: he awoke and flew away. Psyche caught at him as he rose, and was raised into the air, but fell ; and, as she lay, the god reproached her from a cypress for her breach of faith. The abandoned Psyche now roams through the world in search of Cupid, and making many fruitless endeavours to destroy herself. She arrives at the kingdom of her sisters; and, by a false tale of Cupid's love for them, causes them to cast themselves from the rock on which she had been exposed, and through their credulity they perish. She still roams on, persecuted and subjected to numerous trials by Venus. This goddess, bent on her destruction, despatches her to Proserpina with a box, to request some of her beauty. Psyche accomplishes her mission in safety ; but, as she is returning, she thinks she may venture to open the box and take a portion for herself. She opens the box, when, instead of beauty, there issues from it a dense, black exhalation, and the imprudent Psyche falls to the ground in a deep slumber from its effects. In this state she is found by Cupid, who had escaped by the window of the chamber where he had been confined by his mother: he awakens her with the point of one of his arrows, reproaches her with her curiosity, and then proceeds to the palace of Jupiter, to interest him in her favour. Jupiter takes pity on her and endows her with immortality : Venus is reconciled, and the marriage of Psyche with Cupid takes place amid great joy in the skies. The offspring of their union was a child, whom his parents named Pleasure. (Apuleius, Mct., 4, 83, seqq.—Op., ed Oudend., vol. 1, p. 300, seqq. Keightley's Mythology, p. 148, seqq. Among the various explanations that have been given of this beautiful legend, the following appears the most satisfactory : This fable, it is said, is a representation of the human soul (inyà). The soul, which is of divine origin, is here below subjected to error in its prison-house, the body. Hence trials and purifications are set before it, that it may become capable of a higher view of things, and of true desire. Two loves meet it: the earthly, a deceiver, who draws it down to earthly things; the heavenly, who directs its view to the original, fair and divine, and who, gaining the victory over his rival, leads off the soul as his bride. (Hirt, Berlin Akad., 1816–Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 3, p. 573.) Psylli, a people of Libya near the Syrtes, very exj in curing the venomous bite of serpents, which ad no fatal effect upon them. They were destroyed by the Nasamones, a neighbouring people. It seems very probable that the Nasamones circulated the idle story respecting the destruction of the Psylli, which Herodotus relates, without, however, giving credit to it. He states that a south wind had dried up all the reservoirs of the Psylli, and that the whole country, as far as the Syrtes, was destitute of water. They resolved, accordingly, after a public consultation, to make an expedition against the south wind; but, having reached the deserts, the south wind overwhelmed them beneath the sands. (Lucan, 9, 894, 937.-He•od., 4, 172.—Pausan., 9, 28.) PTERIA, a small territory, forming part of Cappadocia according to Herodotus (1,76), or, more properly speaking, of Paphlagonia, and in the vicinity of the city of Sinope. Here the first battle took place between Croesus and Cyrus. (Herod, l. c.— Larcher, Hist. Herod., vol. 8, p. 468.) ProLEMAEUs, I. surnamed Soter, and sometimes Lagi (i. e., son of Lagus), king of Egypt, and son of Arsinoë, who, when pregnant by Philip of Macedonia, married Lagus. (Vid. Lagus.) Ptolemy was educated in the court of the King of Macedonia. He became one of the friends and associates of Alexander, and, when that monarch invaded Asia, the son of Arsinoë attended him as one of his generals. During the expedition he behaved with uncommon valour; he killed one of the Indian monarchs in single combat, and it was to his prudence and courage that Alexander was indebted for the reduction of the rock Aornus. After the conqueror's death, in the general division of the Macedonian empire, Ptolemy obtained as his share the government of Egypt, with Libya, and part of the neighbouring territories of Arabia. In this appointment the governor soon gained the esteem of the people by acts of kindness, by benevolence and clemency, though he did not assume the title of indeendent monarch till seventeen years after. He made É. master of Coelosyria, Phoenicia, and the neighbouring coast of Syria; and when he had reduced Jerusalem, he carried above 100,000 prisoners to Egypt, to people the extensive city of Alexandrea, which became the capital of his dominions. After he had rendered these prisoners the most attached and faithful of his subjects by his liberality and the grant of various privileges, Ptolemy assumed the title of King of Egypt, and soon after reduced Cyprus under his power. He made war with success against Demetrius and Antigonus, who disputed his right to the provinces of Syria; and from the assistance he gave to the people of Rhodes against their common enemies, he received the name of Soter. While he extended his dominions,

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Ptolemy was not negligent of the interests of his subjects at home, and established many wise regulations for the improvement of his people, and the cultivation of literature and the arts. He died at the age of eighty

four, having governed Egypt as viceroy for seventeen .

years, and then ruled over it as monarch for twentythree years. The date of his death is B.C. 283. (Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. 184—Id ib., p. 237. —ld. ib., vol. 2, p. 379.) He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus, who had been his partner on the throne the last two years of his reign. Ptolemy has been commended for his abilities not only as a sovereign, but as a writer; and among the many val: uable compositions of antiquity which have been lost, we have to lament a history of the life and expeditions of Alexander the Great by the King of Egypt, greatly admired and valued for elegance and authenticity, and from which Arrian obtained important materials for his work on the same subject.—II. Son of Ptolemy the First, succeeded his father on the Egyptian throne, and was called Philadelphus from the affection entertained by him for his sister and wife Arsinoë. He showed himself worthy in every respect to succeed his great father, and, conscious of the advantages which arise from an alliance with powerful nations, he 'sent am. bassadors to Italy to solicit the friendship of the Romans, whose name and military reputation had become universally known for the victories which they had just obtained over Pyrrhus and the Tarentines. But while Ptolemy strengthened himself by alliances with foreign powers, the internal peace of his kingdom was disturbed by the revolt of Magas, his brother, king of Cyrene. The sedition, however, was stopped, though kindled by Antiochus, king of Syria, and the death of the rebellious prince re-established peace for some time in the family of Philadelphus. Antiochus, the Syrian king, married Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy; and the father, though old and infirm, conducted his daughter to her husband's kingdom, and assisted at the nuptials. Philadelphus died in the sixty-fourth year of his age, two hundred and forty-six years before the Christian era. He left two sons and a daughter by Arsinoe, the daughter of Lysimachus. He had afterward married his sister Arsinoë, whom he loved with uncommon tenderness, and to whose memory he began to erect a celebrated monument. (Vid. Dinocrates.) During the whole of his reign, Philadelphus was employed in exciting industry, and in encouraging the liberal arts and useful knowledge among his subjects. The inhabitants of the adjacent countries were allured by promises and presents to increase the number of the Egyptian subjects, and Ptolemy could boast of reigning over numerous well-peopled cities. He gave every possible encouragement to commerce; and by keeping two powerful fleets, one in the Mediterranean, and the other in the Red Sea, he made Egypt the mart of the world. His army consisted of 200,000 foot, 40,000 horse, besides 300 elephants, and 2000 armed chariots. With justice, therefore, he has been called the richest of all the princes and monarchs of his age; and, indeed, the remark is not false, when it is observed that at his death he left in his treasury 750,000 Egyptian talents, a sum equivalent to two hundred millions sterling. His palace was the asylum of learned men, whom he admired and patronised ; and by increasing the library which he himself, or, according to others, his father had founded, he showed his taste for learning, and his wish to encourage genius. (Vid. Alexandrea, and Alexandrina Schola.) The whole reign of Philadelphus was 38 years, and from the death of his father 36 years. (Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 2, p. 379.)—III. The third of the name, succeeded his father Philadelphus on the Egyptian throne B.C. 245. He early engaged in a war against Antiochus Theos for his unkindness to Berenice, the Egyptian king's sister, so he had

married with the consent of Philadelphus. With the most rapid success he conquered Syria and Cilicia, and advanced as far as Bactriana and the confines of India; but a sedition at home stopped his progress, and he returned to Egypt loaded with the spoils of conquered nations. Among the immense riches which he brought, he had many statues of the Egyptian gods, which Cambyses had carried away into Persia when he conquered Egypt. These were restored to the temples, and the Egyptians called their sovereign Euergetes (or Benefactor), in acknowledgment of his attention, beneficence, and religious zeal for the gods of his country. The last years of Ptolemy's reign were passed in peace if we except the refusal of the Jews to pay the tribute of 20 silver talents which their ancestors had always paid to the Egyptian monarchs. Euergetes died 221 years before Christ, after a reign of 25 years; and, like his two illustrious predecessors, was the patron of learning.—IV. The fourth, succeeded his father Euergetes on the throne of Egypt, and received the surname of Philopator, probably from the regard which he manifested for the memory of his father; though, according to some authorities, he destroyed him by poison. He began his reign with acts of the greatest cruelty, and he successively sacrificed to his avarice his own mother, his wife, his sister, and his brother. He received, in derision, the name of Typhon, from his evil morals, and that of Gallus, because he appeared in the streets of Alexandrea with all the gestures of the priests of Cybele. In the midst of his pleasures Philopator was called to war against Antiochus, king of Syria, and at the head of a powerful army he soon invaded his enemy's territories, and might have added the kingdom of Syria to Egypt if he had made a prudent, use of the victories which attended his arms. In the latter part of his reign, the Romans, whom-a dangerous war with Carthage had weakened, but, at the same time, roused to superior activity, renewed, for political reasons, the treaty of alliance which had been made with the Egyptian monarchs. Philopator at last, weakened and enervated by intemperance and continued debauchery, died in the 37th year of his age, after a reign of 17 years, 204 years before the Christian era.-V. The fifth, succeeded his father Philopator as king of Egypt, though only in the fourth year of his age. During the years of his minority he was under the protection of Sosicius and of Aristomenes, by whose prudent administration Antiochus was dispossessed of the provinces of Coelosyria and Palestine, which he had conquered in war. The Romans also renewed their alliance with him after their victories over Hannibal, and the conclusion of the second Punic war. This flattering embassy induced Aristomenes to offer the care of the patronage of the young monarch to the Romans; but the regent was confirmed in his honourable office, and, by making a treaty of alliance with the people of Achaia, he convinced the Egyptians that he was qualified to wield the sceptre and to govern the nation. But, now that Ptolemy had reached his 14th year, according to the laws and customs of Egypt, the years of his minority had expired. He received the surname of Epiphanes, or Illustrious, and was crowned at Alexandrea with the greatest solemnity, and the faithful Aristomenes resigned into his hands an empire which he had governed with honour to himself and with credit to his sovereign. Young Ptolemy was no sooner delivered from the shackles of a superior, than he betrayed the same vices which had characterized his father. The counsels of Aristomenes were despised, and the minister, who for ten years had governed the kingdom with equity and moderation, was sacrificed to the caprice of the sovereign, who abhorred him for the salutary advice which his own vicious inclinations did not permit him to follow. His cruelties raised seditions among his subjects, but

these were twice quelled by the prudence and the

moderation of one Polycrates, the most saithful of his

corrupt ministers. In the midst of his extravagance,

Epiphanes did not forget his alliance with the Romans.

Above all others, he showed himself eager to cultivate

friendship with a nation from whom he could derive so

many advantages, and during their war against Antio

chus he offered to assist them with money against a

monarch whose daughter, Cleopatra, he had married,

but whom he hated on account of the seditions he had

raised in the very heart of Egypt. After a reign of 24 years, Ptolemy was poisoned, 180 years besore Christ,

by his ministers, whom he had threatened to rob of their possessions to carry on a war against Seleucus,

king of Syria.-WI. The sixth, succeeded his father

Epiphanes on the Egyptian throne, and received the

surname of Philometor, probably by antiphrasis, an

account of his hatred against his mother Cleopatra.

He was in the sixth year of his age when he ascended

the throne, and during his minority the kingdom was governed by his mother, and at her death by a eunuch, who was one of his favourites. He made war against Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, to recover the provinces of Palestine and Caelosyria, which were part of the Egyptain dominions, and, after seveal successes, he fell into the hands of his enemy, who detained him in confinement. During the captivity of Philometor, the Egyptians raised to the throne his younger brother Ptolemy Euergetes, or Physcom, also son of Epiphanes; but he was no sooner established in his power than Antiochus turned his arms against Egypt, drove out the usurper, and restored Philometor to all his rights and privileges as king of Egypt. This artful behaviour of Antiochus was soon comprehended by Philometor; and when he saw that Pelusium, the key of Egypt, had remained in the hands of his Syrian ally, he recalled his brother Physcon, and made him partner on the throne, and concerted with him how to repel their common enemy. This union of interest in the two royal brothers incensed Antiochus: he entered Egypt with a large army, but the Romans checked his progress and obliged him to retire. No sooner were they delivered from the impending war, than Philometor and Physcon, whom the fear of danger had united, began with mutual jealousy to oppose each other's views. Physcon was at last banished by the superior power of his brother, and, as he could find no support in Egypt, he immediately repaired to Rome. To excite more effectually the compassion of the Romans, and to gain their assistance, he appeared in the meanest dress, and took his residence in the most obscure corner of the city. He received an audience from the senate, and the Romans settled the dispute between the two royal brothers by making them independent of one another, and giving the government of Libya and Cyrene to Physcon, and confirming Philometor in the possession of Egypt and the island of Cyprus. These terms of accommodation were gladly accepted ; but Physcon soon claimed the dominion of Cyprus, and in this he was supported by the Romans, who wished to aggrandize themselves by the diminution of the Egyptian power. Philometor refused to give up the island of Cyprus, and, to call away his brother's attention, he somented the seeds of rebellion in Cyrene. But the death of Philometor, 145 years before the Christian era, left Physcon master of Egypt and all the dependant provinces.—WII. The seventh Ptolemy, surnamed Physcon on account of an abdominal protuberance, produced by his intemperate habits (rid. Physcon), ascended the throne of Egypt after the death of his brother Philometor; and, as he had reigned for some time conjointly with him (vid. Ptolemaeus VI.), his succession was approved, though the wife and the son of the deceased monarch laid claims to the crown. Cleopatra was supported in her claims by the Jews, and it was at last agreed that Physcon should marry the queen, and that her son should succeed on the throne at his death. The nuptials were accordingly celebrated, but on that very day the tyrant murdered Cleopatra's son in her arms. He ordered himself to be called Euergetes, but the Alexandreans refused to do it, and stigmatized him with the appellation of Kakergetes, or Evil-doer, a surname which he deserved by his tyranny and oppression. A series of barbarities rendered him odious; but, as no one attempted to rid Egypt of her tyrant, the Alexandreans abandoned their habitations, and fled from a place which continually streamed with the blood of their massacred fellowcitizens. If their migration proved fatal to the commerce and prosperity of Alexandrea, it was of the most essential service to the countries where they retired; and the numbers of Egyptians that sought a safe asylum in Greece and Asia, introduced among the inhabitants of those countries the different professions that were practised with success in the capital of Egypt. Physcon endeavoured to repeople the city which his cruelty had laid desolate ; but the fear of sharing the fate of its former inhabitants prevailed more than the promise of riches, rights, and immunities. The king, at last, disgusted with Cleopatra, repudiated her, and married her daughter by Philometor, called also Cleopatra. He still continued to exercise the greatest cruelty upon his subjects; but the prudence and vigilance of his ministers kept the people in tranquillity, till all Egypt revolted when the king had basely murdered all the young men of Alexandrea. Without friends or support in Egypt, he fled to Cyprus, and Cleopatra, the divorced queen, ascended the throne. In his banishment Physcon dreaded lest the Alexandreans should also place the crown on the head of his son, by his sister Cleopatra, who was the governor of Cyrene; and under these apprehensions he sent for the young prince, called Memphitis, to Cyprus, and murdered him as soon as he reached the shore. To make the barbarity more complete, he sent the limbs of Memphitis to Cleopatra, and they were received as the queen was going to celebrate her birthday. Soon after this he invaded Egypt with an army, and obtained a victory over the forces of Cleopatra, who, being left without friends or assistance, fled to her eldest daughter Cleopatra, who had married Demetrius, king of Syria. This decisive blow restored Physcon to his throne, where he continued to reign for some time, hated by his subjects and feared by his enemies. He died at Alexandrea in the 67th year of his age, after a reign of 29 years, about 116 years before Christ. This prince, notwithstanding his cruel disposition, was a lover of learning, and received from some the appellation of Philologist. Aristarchus was his preceptor, and he is said also to have made important additions to the Alexandrean library, as well in original manuscripts as in copies.—VIII. The eighth, surnamed Soter II, succeeded his father Physcon as king of Egypt. He had no sooner ascended the throne than his mother Cleopatra, who reigned conjointly with him, expelled him to Cyprus, and placed the crown on the head of his brother Ptolemy Alexander, her favourite son. Soter, banished from Egypt, became king of Cyprus; and soon after he appeared at the head of a large army, to make war against Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judaea, through whose assistance and intrigue he had been expelled by Cleopatra. The Jewish monarch was conquered, and 50,000 of his men were left on the field of battle. Soter, after he had exercised the greatest cruelty upon the Jews, and made vain attempts to recover the kingdom of Egypt, retired to Cyprus till the death of his brother Alexander restored him to his native dominions. Some of the cities of Egypt refused to acknowledge him as their sovereign, and Thebes, for its obstinacy, was closely be. sieged for three successive years, and from a powerful

and populous city it was reduced to ruins. In the latter part of his reign Soter was called upon to assist the Romans with a navy for the conquest of Athens; but Lucullus, who had been sent to obtain the wanted supply, though received with kingly honours, was dismissed with evasive and unsatisfactory answers, and the monarch refused to part with troops which he deemed necessary to preserve the peace of his kingdom. Soter died 81 years before the Christian era, after a reign of 36 years since the death of his father Physcon, eleven of which he had passed with his mother Cleopatra on the Egyptian throne, eighteen in Cyprus, and seven after his mother's death. This monarch is sometimes called Lathyrus, from an excrescence like a vetch (24th poc) on his nose.—IX. The ninth, called also Alexander Ptolemy I., was raised to the throne by his mother Cleopatra, in preserence to his brother, and conjointly with her. Cleopatra expelled, but afterward recalled him; and Alexander, to prevent being expelled a second time, put her to death; for which unnatural action he was himself murdered by one of his subjects.-X. The tenth, or Alexander Ptolemy II, was son of the preceding. He was educated in the island of Cos, and, having fallen into the hands of Mithradates, escaped subse

quently to Sylla. He was murdered by his own subjects.—XI. The eleventh, or Alexander Ptolemy III., was king of Egypt after his brother Alexander, the last mentioned. After a peaceful reign he was banished by his subjects, and died at Tyre B.C. 65, leaving his kingdom to the Romans—XII. The twelfth, the illegitimate son of Soter II., ascended the throne of Egypt at the death of Alexander III. He received the surname of Auletes, from the skill with which he played upon the flute. Besides, however, this derisory title, he had the surnames of Philopator, Philadelphus, and Neodionysus (the New Bacchus or Osiris, these deities being often confounded by the Greeks)

His rise showed great marks of prudence and circumspection; and as his predecessor, by his will, had left the kingdom of Egypt to the Romans, Auletes knew that he could not be firmly established on his throne without the approbation of the Roman senate. He was successful in his applications; and Caesar, who was then consul and in want of money, established his succession, and granted him the alliance of the Romans, after he had received a very large sum. But these measures rendered the monarch unpopular at home; and, when he had suffered the Romans quietly to take possession of Cyprus, the Egyptians revolted, and Auletes was obliged to fly from his kingdom, and seek protection among the most powerful of his allies. His complaints were heard at Rome at first with indifference; and the murder of a hundred noblemen of Alexandrea, whom the Egyptians had sent to justify their proceedings before the Roman senate, rendered him unpopular and suspected. Pompey, however, supported his cause, and the senators decreed to reestablish Auletes on his throne; but, as they proceeded slowly in the execution of their plans, the monarch retired from Rome to Ephesus, where he lay concealed for some time in the temple of Diana. During his absence from Alexandrea, his daughter Berenice had made herself absolute, and established herself on the throne by a marriage with Archelaus, a priest of Bellona's temple at Comana; but she was soon driven from Egypt, when Gabinius, at the head of a Roman army, approached to replace Auletes on his throne. Auletes was no sooner restored to power than he sacrificed to his ambition his daughter Berenice, and behaved with the greatest ingratitude and perfidy to Rabirius, a Roman who had supplied him with money when expelled from his kingdom. Auletes died four years after his restoration, about 51 years before the Christian cra. He left two sons and two daughters,

and by his will ordered the elder of his is, to marry 11

the elder of his daughters, and to ascend with her the vacant throne. As these children were young, the dying monarch recommended them to the protection and paternal care of the Romans ; and accordingly Pompey the Great was appointed by the senate to be their patron and their guardian. Their reign was as turbulent as that of their predecessors, and it is remarkable for no uncommon events; only we may observe that the young queen was the Cleopatra who soon after became so celebrated.—XIII. The thirteenth, ascended the throne of Egypt conjointly with his sister Cleopatra, whom he had married according to the directions of his father Auletes. (Vid. Cleopatra VII.)—XIV. Apion, king of Cyrene, was the illegitimate son of Ptolemy Physcon. After a reign of twenty years he died; and, as he had no children, he made the Romans heirs of his dominions. The Romans presented his subjects with their independence—XV. Ceraunus, a son of Ptolemy Soter by Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater. Unable to succeed to the throne of Egypt, Ceraunus fled to the court of Seleucus, where he was received with friendly marks of attention. Seleucus was then king of Macedonia, an empire which he had lately acquired by the death of Lysimachus in a battle in Phrygia; but his reign was short ; and Ceraunus perfidiously murdered him, and ascended his throne 280 B.C. The murderer, however, could not be firmly established in Macedonia as long as Arsinoë the widow, and the children of Lysimachus, were alive, and entitled to claim his kingdom as the lawful possession of their father. To remove these obstacles, Ceraunus made offers of marriage to Arisnoë, who was his own sister. The queen at first refused, but the protestations and solemn promises of the usurper at last prevailed upon her to consent. The nuptials, however, were no sooner celebrated than Ceraunus murdered the two young princes, and confirmed his usurpation by rapine and cruelty. But now three powerful princes claimed the kingdom of Macedonia as their own: Antiochus, the son of Seleucus; Antigonus, the son of Demetrius; and Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus. These enemies, however, were soon removed; Ceraunus conquered Antigonus in the field of battle, and stopped the hostilities of his two other rivals by promises and money. He did not long remain inactive: a barbarian army of Gauls claimed a tribute from him, and the monarch immediately marched to meet them in the field. The battle was long and bloody. The Macedonians might have obtained the victory if Ceraunus had shown more prudence. He was thrown down from his elephant, and taken prisoner by the enemy, who immediately tore his body to pieces. Ptolemy had been king of Macedonia only eighteen months. (Justin, 24, &c. Pausan., 10, 10.-XVI. An illegitimate son of Ptolemy Soter II., or Lathyrus, king of Cyprus, of which he was tyrannically dispossessed by the Romans. Cato was at the head of the forces which were sent against Ptolemy by the senate, and the Roman general proposed to the monarch to retire from the throne, and to pass the rest of his days in the obscure office of high-priest in the temple of Venus at Paphos. This offer was rejected with the indignation which it merited, and the monarch poisoned himself at the approach of the enemy. The treasures found in the island amounted to the enormous sum of £1,356,250 sterling, which were carried to Rome by the conquerors.-XVII. A son of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, by Antigone, the daughter of Berenice. He was left governor of Epirus when Pyrrhus went to Italy to assist the Tarentines against the Romans, where he presided with great prudence and moderation. He was killed, bravely fighting, in the expedition which Pyrrhus undertook against Sparta and Argos.-XVIII. Claudius, a celebrated astrononer, chronologer, musical writer, and geographer of antiquity, born in Egypt, and who flourished about the

middle of the second century of our era, under the Antonines. During the middle ages, it was generally supposed that he had reigned in Egypt, and the first edition of his Almagest, that of Grynaeus, 1538, is dedicated to the King of England as the production of a king. This error is thought to have originated with Albumazar, an Arabian of the ninth century, who was led into the mistake by the Arabic name of the astronomer (Bathalmius), which, according to Herbelot, means in Arabic “a king of Egypt” (Bibliotheca Orient, s. v ), just as the ancient monarchs of the land were named Féraoun (Pharaohs). Ptolemy, however, is styled King of Alexandrea almost two centuries before Albumazar, by Isidorus of Seville. (Originum, 3, 25.)—Another opinion, not less generally received, but probably just as erroneous as the former, is that which makes Ptolemy to have been born at Pelusium. Suidas and Eudoxia call him a philosopher of Alexandrea; but it has been said that this appellation has only been given him on account of his long sojourn in the capital of Egypt. No ancient writer makes mention of his native country, though many manuscripts of the Latin translations of his works, and also the printed editions of these versions, style him Pheludiensis, which many regard as a corruption for Pelusiensis. Raidel (Comment. in C. Ptol. Geogr., Norimb., 1737, 4to, p. 3) cites the Arab scholiast on the Tetrabiblos, Ali-Ibn-Redman, named Haly, to prove that Pelusium was the native place of our astronomer. Buttmann, on the other hand, proves the citation of Raidel to be false. Haly, or his translator, makes no mention whatever of the native place of Ptolemy; he only calls this writer al-Feludhi (Pheludianus), from the surname which the Arabs have given him. It is true, in a biography or preface found at the head of a Latin version of the Almagest, made from the Arabic, we read the following: “Hic autem ortus et educatus fuit in Alexandrea majori, terra AEgypti. Hujus tamen propago de terra Sem, et de provincia qua dicitur Pheuludia.” This absurd passage, however, which does not even say that Ptolemy was born out of Alexandrea, proves nothing else but the desire of the Arab translator to represent the astronomer as the descendant of an Arabian or a Syrian (de terra Sem.—Museum der Alterthums., Wissenschaft, vol. 2, p. 463, seqq.). —Theodorus Meliteniota states that Ptolemy was born at Ptolemais, or Hermeion, in the Thebaid, and that he was contemporary with Antoninus Pius. This writer does not, it is true, cite his authority; yet nothing prevents our admitting the accuracy of his statement, derived, no doubt, from some ancient writer, provided we can reconcile it with the surname Al Feludi, which the Arabians have given to Ptolemy. This surname has only thus far been found in the Latin translations: in the Arabic books Ptolemy is sometimes named Bathalmius, al Kaludi (Abulpharagii Hist., p. 73, l. 5; p. 105, l. 3; p. 123, 1. antep.–Casiri, Biblioth. Anah. Hist., vol. 1, p. 348. —Memoires sur l'Egypte, p. 389, where an extract is given from Abderaschid el Bakin, who calls Ptolemy Barthalmyous el Qloidy). Kaludi is expressed by Claudius in the Latin versions. The change from Kaludi to Faludi is extremely simple, since in Arabic the letter K is distinguished from F only by an additional point. Thus Phcludianus is merely corrupted from Claudius, and ought not to be rendered by Pelusianus. Thus, too, Bathalmius al Kaludi is only an Arabic version of IITožouaioc & K%aúðtoo, as Suidas writes the name, the praenomen being mistaken by the Arabian translators for an appellative. — Another point, of more importance is to ascertain the place where Ptolemy made his observations, because on this depends the degree of precision of which his observations on latitude were susceptible. The astronomer states positively that he made these observations under the parallel of Alexandrea; while, on the other hand, there

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