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a Chariot, Bees.—2. Of the Age of Men; of what precedes and follows Birth; of the Members of the Human Frame; of the External and Internal Parts of the Body. –3. Of the various relations between the Members of a Family or a City; of Friends, Country, Love; of the Relation between Master and Slave; of Metals, Travels, Roads; of Gayety and Sadness; of Happiness; of Rivers; of the Avaricious, the Industrious, and the Idle; of Buying and Selling, &c.—4. Of the Sciences. —5. Of the Chase, Animals, &c.—6. Of Repasts; of various Crimes, &c.—7. Of various Arts and Trades. —8. Of Justice, and the public Administration of it. –9. Of Cities, Edifices, Games, &c.—10. Of Wases, Utensils, &c.—The value of the work, for acquiring not only a knowledge of Greek terms, but also of antiquities, is conceded by all. The interest, moreover, is considerably increased by the citations from authors whose works are lost. Julius Pollux composed many other works that have not come down to us, such as Dissertations (Ata2.ÉÉtug) and Declamations (Mežérat); and among these are mentioned a discourse pronounced on the occasion of the marriage of Commodus, an eloge on Rome, and an accusation of Socrates. The best edition of the Onomasticon is that of Hemsterhusius, Amst., 1706, fol. There is a later one by W. Dindorf, Lips., 1824, 5 vols., in 6 parts, containing the notes of former editors.-III. An ecclesiastical writer in the ninth century, not to be confounded with the author of the Onomasticon. He compiled a chronology, which commences with the creation. The author calls it 'Iaropia ovauks (“a physical history”), because his work enlarges greatly respecting the creation of the world. It is rather, however, an ecclesiastical than a political history. The best edition is that of Hardt, Monach, 1792, 8vo. Hardt supposed that this work was just newly discovered; but the Abbé Morelli has proved that this is the same work with that entitled Historia Sacra ab orbe condito ad Valentinianum et Valentem Imp. a Biancono, Bonon., 1779, fol. Poly ÆNUs, I. a native of Lampsacus, and one of the friends of Epicurus. He had attended previously to mathematical studies. (Cic, de Fin., 1, 6.)—II. A native of Sardis, a sophist in the time of Julius Cæsar, and who is thought to have taken his praenomen (Julius) from the family that protected him. We have sour epigrams by him remaining. —III. A native of Macedonia, a rhetorician or advocate, who flourished about the middle of the second century of our era. He published a work entitled Srparnymuaruká (“Military Stratagems”), in eight books, of which the sixth and seventh are imperfect. This work, addressed to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, during their campaign against the Parthians, is of little value to military men, but not without interest in an historical point of view. It is well written, though rather affected, and too much loaded with ornament. Polyaenus has been justly censured for admitting into his list of stratagems instances of treachery and perfidy unworthy of warriors, and undeserving of being regarded as ruses de guerre. He is inexcusable on another point: he mutilates and distorts facts; he wishes to convert every military operation into a stratagem, particularly those of Alexander, a prince who contended openly with his foes, and detested stratagems of every kind. The most useful edition of Polyaenus is that of Mursinna, Berol., 1756, 12mo. A more correct text than the former is given by Coray in the Parerga Bibl. Hell, Paris, 1809, 8vo, forming the first volume of this collection. A critical edition, however, is still a desideratum. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 268, seqq.)—IV. A native of Athens, an historical writer. (Euseb., Chron., 1, p. 25.) Polybius, an eminent Greek historian, born at Megalopolis, in Arcadia, about B.C. 203. His father Ly: cortàs was praetor of the Achaean republic and the friend of Philopoemen, and under the latter Polybius learned the art of war, while he received from his own sa
ther the lessons of civil and political wisdom. He played a distinguished part in the history of his country as ambassador to the Roman generals, and as a commander of the Achaean cavalry. At the age of about 15 years he was selected by his father to join an embassy to Egypt, which, however, was not sent. At the age of 40 years he was carried as a hostage to Rome, and continued there for the space of 17 years. He became the friend, the adviser, and the companion in arms of the younger Scipio. In order to collect materials for his great historical work, which he now projected, he ... into Gaul, Spain, and even traversed a part of the Atlantic. Scipio gave him access to the registers or records known by the name of libri censuales, which were preserved in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, as well as to other historic monuments. On his return to Greece, after the decree of the senate which granted the Achaean hostages permission to return to their homes, he proved of great service to his countrymen, and endeavoured, though fruitlessly, to dissuade them from a war with the Romans. The war broke out when he was in Africa, whither he had accompanied Scipio, and with whom he was present at the taking of Carthage. He hastened home, but appears to have arrived only after the fall of Corinth. Greece having been reduced under the Roman power, he traversed the Peloponnesus as commissary, and by his mild and obliging deportment won the affections of all. Some years after he travelled into Egypt; in the year of Rome 620, he accompanied Scipio into Spain, and finally he returned to Achaia, where he died at the advanced age of about 82 years, of a fall from his horse.—Polybius gave to the world various historical writings, which are entirely lost, with the exception of his General History (IoTopia kaffožtkä), in forty books. It embraced a period of 53 years, from the commencement of the second Punic war (A.U.C. 555) to the reduction of Macedonia into a Roman province (A.U.C. 587). Thirty-eight books were devoted to the events of this period; while two others precede them, and serve as an introduction to the work. In these last the historian runs rapidly over the interval which had elapsed between the taking of Rome by the Gauls and the first descent of the Romans on Sicily, and after this enumerates what had occurred up to the commencement of the second Punic war. His object was to prove that the Romans did not owe their greatness to a mere blind fatality; he wished it to be made known by what steps, and by favour of what events, they had become masters, in so short a time, of so extensive an empire. (Lucas, Ueber Polybius Darstellung des AEtolischen Bundes, Königsb., 1827, p. 6, seqq.) His history is of a general nature, because he does not confine himself merely to those events which related to the Romans, but embraces, at the same time, whatever had passed during that period among every nation of the world. Of the 40 books which it originally comprehended, time has spared only the first five entire. Of the rest, as far as the 17th, we have merely fragments, though of considerable size. Of the remaining books we have nothing lest except what is found in two meager abridgments which the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the tenth century, caused to be made of the whole work. The one of these is entitled “Embassies,” or the history of treaties of peace; the other is styled “Virtues and Vices.” Among the fragments that remain of Polybius are from the 17th to the 40th chapters of the sixth book, inclusive, which treat of the Roman art of war, and have often been published separately under this title. That part of the history which is lost embraced a narrative of those events of which the historian was himself an eyewitness; an irreparable loss for us, though Livy made frequent use of it. The history of Polybius possesses, in one respect, a peculiar character, distinguishing it from the works of all the historians who had preceded him. Not content with relating events in the order in which they had occurred, he goes back to the causes which produced them ; he unfolds their attendant circumstances, and the consequences they have brought with them. He judges the actions of men, and paints the characters of the principal actors. In a word, he forms the judgment of the reader, and causes him to indulge in reflections which ought to prepare him for the administration of public affairs (Tpayuata). Hence the title of his history, 'Iaropia Tpayuartko. Never has a history been written by a man of more good sense, of more perspicacity, or of a sounder judgment, and one more free from all manner of prejudice. Few writers have united in a greater degree a knowledge of military and political affairs; no one has carried farther a rigid impartiality, and a respect for virtue. Cicero gives an animated character of this history in his treatise De Oratore (2, 15. – Compare the remarks of Ast, Grundriss der Philologic, p. 202).-The style of Polybius is not free from faults. The period when the Attic dialect was spoken in all its purity had long passed away, and he wrote in the new dialect which had arisen after the death of Alexander. A long residence also out of his native country, and sometimes among barbarian nations, had rendered him, in some little degree, a stranger to his mother-tongue. Though his diction is always noble, yet he occasionally mingles with it foreign terms, and even Latinisms. We find in him, too, phrases borrowed from the school of Alexandrea, and passages taken from the poets; he loves, also, occasional digressions; but, whenever he indulges in these, they are always instructive.—“In Polybius,” says Müller, “we find neither the art of Herodotus, nor the strength of Thucydides, nor the conciseness of Xenophon, who says all in a few words: Polybius is a statesman full of his subject, who, caring little for the approbation of literary men, writes for statesmen; reason is his distinctive character.” (Allgemeine Geschichte, 5, 2.)—Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De Comp. Verb., c. 4) remarks, that no man of taste can endure to read the work of Polybius to the end. It is strange that he did not take into consideration the highly attractive nature of the events, and the spirit with which they are narrated.—Besides his general history, Polybius wrote “Memoirs of the Life of Philopoemen” (lib. 10, Erc. Peiresc., p. 28), a work on “Tactics” (lib. 9, Erc., c. 20), and a letter “on the situation of Laconia,” addressed to Zeno of Rhodes (lib. 16, Exc.). From a passage of Cicero, moreover (Ep. ad Fam., 5, 12), it would appear that Polybius had written a detached “History of the Numantine war.” It is probable that his visit to Spain, during the second consulship of Scipio, gave him the idea of this last-mentioned work, and furnished him with the materials.—Plutarch relates that Marcus Brutus, the assassin of Caesar, made an abridgment of the history of Polybius, and that he was occupied with this in his tent on the evening preceding the battle of Philippi. Casaubon is hence led to infer that the abridgment or epitome which we possess, from the 7th to the 17th books, may be the work of Brutus; but this abridgment is made with so little judgment that we cannot properly ascribe it to that distinguished Roman.—The best edition of Polybius is that of Schweighaeuser, Lips., 1789–95, 9 vols. 8vo. Orellius published in 1818, from the Leipsic press, the commentary of Æneas Tacticus, in one volume 8vo, as a supplement to this edition. The Excerpta Vaticana of Polybius, which Mai first made known in his “Scriptorum Veterum nova Collectio” (vol. 2, Rom., 1827, 4to, p. 369–464), were afterward published anew, under the title of “Polybil Historiarum Excerpta Vaticana,” by Geel, Lugd. Bat., 1829, 8vo; and “Polybii et Appiani Historiarum Excerpta Vaticana,” by Lucht, Altonde, 1830, 8vo. (Schöll, Gesch. Griech. Lit., vol. 2, p. 135, seqq.— Id. ib., vol. 3, p. 603.)
Polybus, a king of Corinth, and the adoptive father of CEdipus. (Vid. OEdipus.) He was succeeded by Adrastus, who had fled to Corinth for protection. (Pausan., 2, 6.)
Polycarpus, a father and martyr of the church, born probably at Smyrna during the reign of Nero. He was a disciple of the Apostle John, and was by him appointed bishop of that city; and he is thought to be the angel of the church of Smyrna, to whom the epistle in the second chapter of Revelations is addressed. Ignatius also esteemed Polycarp highly, who, when the former was condemned to die, comforted and encouraged him in his sufferings. On the event of a controversy between the Eastern and Western churches, respecting the proper time for celebrating Easter, Polycarp undertook a journey, to Rome to conser with Anicetus; but, though nothing satisfactory took place on that affair, he violently while at Rome, opposed the heresies of Marcion and Valentinus, and converted many of their followers. During the persecution of the Christians under Marcus Aurelius, Polycarp suffered martyrdom with the most heroic sortitude, A.D. 169. When he was going to the flames, the proconsul offered him his life if he would blaspheme Christ, to which the venerable prelate answered, “Eighty and siz years have I served him, and he has ever treated me with kindness; how, then, can I blaspheme him ''' His “Epistles to the Philippians,” the only one of his pieces which has been preserved, is contained in Archbishop Wake's “Genuine Epistles.” The best edition of the original is that by Aldrich, Oron., 8vo, 1708. Another edition appeared from the same press, by Smith, 1709, 4to.
Polycletus, I. a celebrated sculptor and statuary, who flourished about 430 B.C. Pausanias (6, 6) calls him an Argive; but Pliny (34, 8, 19) introduces his name with the epithet of “Sicyonian.” In order to reconcile these two conflicting authorities, it has been conjectured that the artist was descended from Sicyonian parents, and was born at Sicyon, but was afterward presented by the Argives with the freedom of their city. Another supposition is, that, when a young man, he went to Argos, in order to avail himself of the instructions of the celebrated Ageladas, that he remained there, and having thus made Argos, as it were, his second native city, styled himself on his productions, not a Sicyonian, but an Argive (Sullig, Dict. Art., p. 103.)—Polycletus may be said to have perfected that which his predecessor, Phodias, had invented. He did not possess the grandeur of imagination which characterized this great artist, nor did he even attempt, like him, to create the images of the most powerful deities. It seems, indeed, that he excelled less in representing the robust and manly gra: ces of the human frame, than in the sweet, tender, and unconscious loveliness of childhood. In his works, however, he manifested an equal aspiration after ideal beauty with Phidias. He seems to have laboured to render his statues perfect in their kind, by the most scrupulous care in the finishing. , Hence he is said ...to have observed, that “the work becomes most dis. ficult when it comes to the nail.” He framed a statue of a life-guardsman (Aopu%poc, Doryphorus), so marvellously exact in its proportions, and so exquisite in its symmetry, that it was called “the Rule” (Kavāv), and became the model whence artists derived their canons of criticism which determined the correctness of a work. (Plin., l. c. — Cic., Brut, 86 — Lucian, de Saltat., 75.) He executed also a statue of a youth binding a fillet (Atadovuévoc, Diadumenus), of so perfect a beauty that it was valued at the high price of a hundred talents. Another of his celebrated works represented two boys playing at dice, which was regarded with the highest admiration in aster days at Rome, where it was in the possession of the Emperor Titus. Polycletus is said to have amos
which Phidias invented, to perfection. He discovered
the art of balancing of figures on one leg; and is said
to have been so partial to this mode of representing the human sorm, that he almost invariably adopted it in his statues. He is accused by Varro of too great uniformity in his figures, and the constant repetition of the same idea. Nothing could exceed the exactness of symmetry with which he sramed his statues; but it seems that they were destitute of passion, sentiment, and expression. It is singular that, notwithstanding the refinement, the extreme polish, and exactness of finishing with which his works were in general elaborated, he represented the hair in knots, after the fashion of the ancient sculptors. These defects, however, seem to have derogated but little from his fame, either in his own age or in after times. (Encycl. Metropol, div. 2, vol. 1, p. 400, seq.)—Polycletus used, in many of his works, the brass of Ægina. (Plin., 34, 2, 5.) His highest glory, perhaps, was obtained from a statue made of ivory and gold, and dedicated in the Heraeum by the citizens of Argos and Mycenae. The estimation in which this work was held is evident from Strabo (551). The production itself is described in Pausanias (2, 17, 4), whose remarks are admirably illustrated by Böttiger (Andeut., 122).-Like other statuaries of the same age, Polycletus was also distinguishes as an architect, and erected a theatre, with a dome, at Epidaurus, on a piece of ground consecrated to AEsculapius. This building Pausanias pronounces to be superior, in respect of symmetry and elegance, to every other theatre, not excepting even those at Rome. All ancient writers bestow the highest praises on Polycletus. Cicero pronounces his works absolutely perfect. (Brut., 18.) Quintilian mentions his diligence and the gracesuiness of his productions, but in
timates that they were deficient in majestic dignity.
(Quint., 12, 10.) Dionysius of Halicarnassus says of his works, conjointly with those of Phidias, that they were esteemed karū to aestvöv kai ucyažárexvov Kai d:touartków (de Isocr., p. 95, ed. Syll.). The breasts of his statues were particularly admired. (Auct, ad Herenn., 4, 6.) We find also, in other writers, several narratives illustrative of his skill, and his accurate judgment of the arts. Consult, in particular, Plutarch (Symp., 2, 3) and Ælian (W. H., 14, 8, 16). He wrote also a treatise on the Symmetry of the Members of the Human Body, of which Galen makes mention. (Hopi Tāv kaff' 'Itroop. Kai II 247, 4, 3, vol. 5, p. 449, ed. Kuhn.—Sullig, Dict. Art., p. 104.)—II. A statuary, a native of Argos, who flourished a little be. fore Olymp. 100. He executed, among other works, a figure of Hecate at Argos, the Amyclean Venus, and a statue of Alcibiades. (Pausan, 2, 22.—Dio Chrysost., Orat., 37, vol. 2, p. 122, ed. Reiskc. — Sillig, Dict. Art., p. 104.) Polych Kres, I. a tyrant of Samos, who raised himself to the chief power, from the condition of a private erson, by his abilities alone, about 566 B.C. His istory is narrated at length by Herodotus. He shared, at first, the government of his country with his two brothers Pantaleon and Syloson; but subsequently he caused the former to be put to death, and expelled the latter ; after which he reigned with undivided authority. His successes were great and rapid, and he acquired a power which made him dreaded equally by his subjects and neighbours; and his alliance was courted by some of the most powerful sovereigns of that period. He conquered the Lesbians and other islanders, and had a fleet of 100 ships, a navy superior to that of any one state recorded at so early a date. (Herod., 3, 39–Thucyd., 1, 13.—Strab., 637.) The Samians attempted to revolt from him; but, though ...hey were assisted in the undertaking by the Lacedæmonians, they sailed of success, and many were driven into exile. (Herod., 3,44, seqq.) The Spartans landed in the island with a large force, and besieged the
| principal city with vigour, but they were finally forced to abandon the enterprise, after the lapse of forty days. (Herod., 3, 54, seqq.) The Samian exiles then retired to Crete, where they founded Cydonia.—Polycrates was remarkable for the good fortune which, for a long period, constantly attended him. So extraor. dinary, in fact, was the prosperity which he enjoyed, that Amasis, king of Egypt, his friend and ally, advised him by letter to break the course of it, by depriving himself of some one of his most valuable possessions. This advice was in accordance with the heathen belief, that a long career of uninterrupted felicity was sure to terminate in the greatest misery. Polycrates, having resolved to follow the counsels of Amasis, selected an emerald ring which he was accustomed to use as a signet, and which he regarded as his rarest treasure; he then embarked on board a galley, and, when he had reached the open sea, consigned this ring to the waves. Strange to relate, about five or six days afterward, while Polycrates was still grieving for the loss of the costly jewel, a fisherman brought to his palace, as a present for the monarch, a very large fish which he had caught, and, on opening it, the ring was found in its belly Polycrates wrote word of this to Amasis, who immediately broke off the alliance with him, through fear of sharing the evil fortune with which he was certain that the tyrant of Samos would ultimately be visited. (Herod., 3, 40, seqq.) The prediction of Amasis was at last fatally verified. Polycrates fell a victim to the cruel and artful designs of the Persian satrap Oroetes, who lured him on by the temptation of immense wealth; and, having induced him to come to Magnesia, on the river Maeander, and thus got him into his power, nailed him to a cross. (Herod., 3, 120, seqq.) Herodotus alleges two reasons for this conduct on the part of Ortetes; one, that he was led to the step by the reproaches of an acquaintance, the governor of Dascylium, who upbraided him for not having added Samos to the Persian dominions, when it lay so near, and had been seized by a private citizen (Polycrates), with the help of but fifteen armed men; the other, that a messenger from Oraetes had been disrespectfully treated by Polycrates. The daughter of Polycrates had dissuaded her father from going to Oroetes, on account of illomened dreams with which she had been visited, but her advice was disregarded. She dreamed, for example, that she saw her father alost in the air, washed by Jupiter and anointed by the sun. The circumstance of her father's being suspended on a cross fulfilled the vision. He was washed by Jupiter, that is, by the rain, and anointed by the sun, “which extracted,” says Herodotus, “the moisture from his body.” (Herod., 3, 125.)—Polycrates, though tainted by many vices, knew how to estimate and reward merit. He cultivated a friendship with Anacreon, and retained the physician Democedes at his court. Pythagoras was also his contemporary; but, unable to witness, as it is said, the dependance of his country, he quitted Samos, in order to cultivate science in foreign countries. (Herod., 3, 121. —Id., 3, 131. — o 638.)—II. An Athenian rhetorician and sophist, who wrote an encomium on Busiris, and another on Clytemnestra. His object in selecting these as the subjects of his imaginary declamations appears to have been to attract public notice. (Quintil., 2, 17.) He wrote also an Oration against Socrates; not the one. however, which his accuser uttered against that philosopher, but a mere exercise of his skill. It was composed, too, after the death of Socrates. Isocrates criticises both the eulogium on Busiris and the speech against Socrates, in his treatise entitled also Busiris. (Isocr., Busir, 2.—Argument, incert. auct, ad Isocr., Busir.—AElian, War. Hist., 11, 10.-Perizon. ad AEl., l. c.—Athenaeus, 8, p. 335, a.)
Poly DAMAs, I, a Trojan, son of Antenor by The
ano, the sister of Hecuba. He married Lycaste, a natural daughter of Priam. According to Dares, Poly damas, in conjunction with Antenor and Æneas, betrayed Troy to the Greeks. (Dar., Phryg., 39, seqq.) —II. A son of Pantholis, and born the same night as Hector. He was distinguished for wisdom and valour. Dictys of Crete makes him to have been slain by Ajax. Homer, however, is silent about the manner of his death. (Dict. Cret., 2, 7–Hom., Il., 11, 57.—Id. ib., 14, 458, &c.)—III. A celebrated athlete of Scotussa, remarkable for his great size and strength of body, in both of which respects he is said to have surpassed all the men of his time. He was conquered, indeed, according to one account, by Promachus of Pallene, at the Olympic games, but this was denied by his countrymen the Thessalians. (Pausan, 6, 5. —Id., 7, 27.) He is said to have killed lions with his hands, tearing them in pieces like so many lambs. (Diod. Sic., fragm., 18, p. 640, ed. Wess.) Pausanias, however, merely says that he met a lion on one occasion, and, though unarmed, destroyed it in emulation of Hercules (6, 5). At another time he seized the largest and fiercest bull in a herd, and held it so firmly by one of its hind legs, that the animal, aster many efforts, only managed to escape at length with the loss of its hoof. He could also hold back a chariot, when advancing at full speed, so firmly with one hand, that the charioteer could not urge it onward in the least by the most vigorous application of the lash to his steeds. The same of his exploits obtained for him an invitation to the court of Artaxerxes, where he slew three of the royal body-guard, called the immortals, who attacked him at once. He lost his life by an act of foolhardiness; for, having one day entered a cave along with some friends for the purpose of carousing in this cool retreat, the roof of the cave became rent on a sudden, and was on the point of falling. The rest of the party fled; but Polydamas, endeavouring to support with his arms the falling mass, was crushed beneath it. A statue was erected to him at Olympia, on the pedestal of which was inscribed a narrative of his exploits. (Pausan, 6, 5.) Lucian says, that the touch of this statue was believed to cure fevers. (Deor. Concil., 12.) Polypectes, king of the island of Seriphus when Danae and her son Perseus were wafted thither. (Wid. Danaë, and Perseus.) Poly DöR Us, I. a son of Cadmus and Harmonia. He succeeded his father on the throne of Thebes, and married Nycteis, daughter of Nycteus, by whom he became the father of Labdacus. (Apollod., 3, 4, 2.—Id., 3, 5, 4.—Consult Heyne, ad loc.)—II. A son of Priam and Hecuba, treacherously put to death by Polymnestor, king of Thrace, to whose care his father had consigned him, on account of his early years, towards the close of the Trojan war. (Wid. Polymnestor.) According to the legend followed by Euripides, in his play of the “Hecuba,” the body of the young Trojan prince was thrown into the sea, and, having been washed up by the waves on the beach, was there sound by Hecuba, then a prisoner to the Greeks. Virgil, however, following a different version of the fable, makes him to have been transfixed by many spears, and these spears to have grown into trees over his corpse. When Æneas visited the Thracian coast, and was preparing to offer a sacrifice in this spot, he endeavoured to pull up some of these trees, in order to procure boughs for shading the altar. From the root of the first tree thus plucked from the earth, drops of blood issued. The same thing happened when another was pulled up ; until at last the voice of Polydorus was heard from the ground, entreating Æneas to forbear. Funeral rites were thereupon prepared for him, and a tomb erected to his memory. (AEm., 3, 19, seqq.) PolyGNötus, one of the most distinguished painters
of antiquity. He was a native of Thasos, but obtained the right of citizenship at Athens; and hence Theophrastus calls him an Athenian (ap. Plin., 7, 56). The period when he flourished has been made a matter of dispute. Pliny observes, that he lived before the 90th Olympiad; some modern philologists, however, conjecture that the period of his same was about Olymp. 80. (Jen. Lit. Journ., 1805, vol. 3, p. 34.) —As Polygnotus was born at Thasos, and was there instructed by his father Aglaophon, it seems necessary to inquire at what period he removed to Athens; and no time can be fixed on with greater probability than that in which Cimon returned to Athens, after bringing Thasos under the dominion of his countrymen. (Muller, Nunt. Liter. Götting., 1824, scid. | 15.) It is a very consistent supposition, that Polygnotus accompanied Cimon on his return ; and there existed a powerful reason for Cimon to solicit the artist to remove with him to Athens, that he might have his assistance, namely, in embellishing with paintings those public buildings which he had either begun to erect or had in contemplation. Among the most important of these buildings was the temple of Theseus, still existing, reared on the ashes of the ancient hero, which were brought by Cimon from Scyros. This last circumstance took place B.C. 469 ; and it is highly probable that in the following year the temple itself was commenced. All these particulars concur to support the opinion that Polygnotus flourished about Olymp. 80–This distinguished painter seems to have contributed more largely to the advancement of his art than all who had preceded him. Before his time, the countenance was represented as destitute of animation and fire, and a kind of leaden dulness pervaded its features. His triumph it was to kindle up expression in the sace, and to throw feeling and intellect into the whole frame. He was the Prometheus of painting. He also first represented the mouth open, so that the teeth were displayed, and occasion was given to use that part of the visage in the expression of peculiar emotions. He first clothed his figures in light, airy, and transparent draperies, which he elegantly threw about the forms of his women. He was, in short, the author of both delicacy and expression in the paintings of Greece: but his style is said to have been hard, and his colouring not equal to his design.--His great works consisted of nose with which he adorned the Poecile (IIotkižm Xrost) at Athens. The decoration of this building as, on the part of Polygnotus, gratuitous (Plut., V.t. Cim., 4); whereas Mycon, a contemporary artist, who was employed in adorning another part of the same building, received a liberal compensation for the exertions of his genius. Polygnotus, however, was not without his reward. The Amphictyonic council offered him a public expression of thanks for having also gratuitously embellished the temple at Delphi, and decreed that, whenever he should travel, he was to be entertained at the public expense. One of his pictures was preserved at Rome, representing a man on a scaling-ladder, with a target in his hand, so contrived that it was impossible to tell whether he was going upward or descending.-Polygnotus and Mycon were the first who used, in painting, the kind of ochre termed Athenian “sil.” (Plin., 33, 12, 56.) The former likewise made a kind of ink from the husks of grapes, styled “tryginon” (Plin., 35, 6, 25); and he left behind him some paintings in enamel. (Plin., 35, 11, 36) Cicero mentions him among those who executed paint: ings with only four colours (Cic, Brut., 18); and Quintilian observes, that his productions were very highly esteemed even in later periods. (Quintil, 12, 10.) Aristotle calls him ypassic #9tróc (Polis, 8, 5); and he elsewhere contrasts the three artists, Polygnotus, Panso, and Dionysius, in that the paintings of the first were more favourable than * of the second more unfavourable, and those of the last exact representations. (Arist., Poét., 2, 2.) Pliny states, that Polygnotus likewise gave attention to statuary. (Plin., 34, 8, 18.—Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Polyhy MN1A and PolyMN1A, one of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, who presided over singing and rhetoric, and was deemed the inventress of harmony. She was represented veiled in white, holding a sceptre in her left hand, and with her right raised up, as if ready to harangue. Ausonius describes her attributes in the following line, “Signat cuncta manu, loquitur Polyhymnia gestu. (Idyll., ult.) The etymology of the name is disputed. According to the common acceptation of the term, it comes from trožūc, “much,” and iuvoo, “a song” or “hymn,” and indicates one who is much given to singing. Some, however, deduce it from tožíg and piveia, “memory,” and therefore write the name Polymncia, making her the Muse that watches over the remembrance of things and the establishment of truth. Hence Virgil remarks, “Nam verum fateamur : amat Polymneia verum.” (Ciris, 55.—Consult Heyne, ad loc. in War. Lect.) PolyMNEstor or PolyMEstor, a king of the Thracian Chersonese, who married Ilione, one of the daughters of Priam. When Troy was besieged by the Greeks, Priam sent his youngest son Polydorus, with a large amount of treasure, to the court of Polymnestor, and consigned him to the care of that monarch. His object in doing this was to guard the young prince against the contingencies of war, and, at the same time, to provide resources for the surviving members of his family, in case Troy should fall. As long as the city withstood the attacks of its foes, Polymnestor remained faithful to his charge. But when the tidings reached him of the death of Priam and the destruction of Troy, he murdered Polydorus, and seized upon the treasure. A very short time after this, the Grecian fleet touched at the Chersonese on its return home, bearing with it the Trojan captives, in the number of whom was Hecuba, the mother of Polydorus. Here one of the female Trojans discovered the corpse of the young prince amid the waves on the shore, Polymnestor having thrown it into the sea. The dreadful intelligence was immediately communicated to Hecuba, who, calling to mind the fearful dreams which had visited her during the previous night, immediately concluded that Polymnestor was the murderer. Resolving to avenge the death of her son, and having obtained from Agamemnon a promise that he would not interfere, she enticed Polymnestor within, under a promise of showing him where some treasures were hid, and then, with the aid of the other female captives, she deprived him of sight, having first murdered before his eyes his two sons who had accompanied him. (Eurip., Hec.) — Hyginus gives a different version of the legend. According to this writer, when Polydorus was sent to Thrace, his sister Ilione, apprehensive of her husband's cruelty, changed him for her son Diphilus, who was of the same age, so that Polydorus passed for her son, and Diphilus for her brother, the monarch being altogether unacquainted with the imposition. After the destruction of Troy, the conquerors, who wished the house and family of Priam to be extirpated, offered Electra, the daughter of Agamemnon, in ". to Polonnestor, if he would destroy Ilione and Polydorus. The "onarch accepted the offer, and immediately murdered his - on son Diphilus, whom he had been taught to regard as Polydorus. Polydorus, who passed as the son of Polymnestor, consulted the oracle after the murder of Diphilus; and when he was informed that his father was dead, his mother a captive in the hands of the Greeks, and his country in ruins, he communicated the answer of the god to Ili. one, whom he had always regarded as his parent. Ilione told him the measures she had pursued to save his life, and upon this he avenged the perfidy of Pol
ymnestor by putting out his eyes. 109.) PolyNices, a son of CEdipus, king of Thebes, by Jocasta. He inherited his father's throne with his brother Eteocles, and it was agreed between the two brothers that they should reign each a year alternately. Eteocles first ascended the throne by right of seniority ; but, when the year was expired, he resused to resign the crown to his brother. Polynices thereupon fled to Argos, where he married Argia, the daughter of Adrastus, king of the land. Adrastus levied a large army to enforce the claims of his son-in-law to the throne, and laid siege to the city of Thebes. The command of the army was divided among seven chieftains, who were to attack each one of the seven gates of the city. All the Argive leaders, with the exception of Adrastus, were slain, and the war ended by a single combat between Eteocles and Polynices, in which both brothers sell. (Vid. Eteocles.) PolyphoMUs, a son of Neptune, and one of the Cyclopes in Sicily. He is represented as of monstrous size, with but one eye, and that in the centre of his forehead, and as leading a pastoral life. According to the Homeric fable, Ulysses, on his return from Troy, was thrown upon that part of the coast of Sicily which was inhabited by the Cyclopes; and having, with twelve of his companions, entered the cave of Polyphemus during his absence, they were found therein by him on his return, and were kept immured for the purpose of being devoured. Four of the companions of the Grecian chief fell a prey to the voracity of the monster; and Ulysses would probably have shared the same fate, had he not adopted the following expedient. Having intoxicated the Cyclops, he availed himself of his state of insensibility to deprive him of sight, by means of a large stake which had been discovered in the cave, and which, after having sharpened it to a point and heated it in the fire, he plunged into his eye. Polyphemus roared so loudly with pain that he roused the other Cyclopes from their mountain retreats. On inquiring the cause of his outcries, they were told by Polyphemus that No man (Odric), the name which Ulysses had applied to himself, had inflicted the calamity, whereupon they retired to their dens, recommending him to supplicate his father Neptune for aid, since his malady came not, as he himself said, from human hands, and must therefore be a visitation from Jove. The monster then, having removed the immense stone which blocked up the mouth of the cave, placed himself at its entrance to prevent the escape of his enemies. Ulysses, however, eluded his vigilance by fastening the sheep together, “three and three,” with osier bands, and by tying one of his companions beneath the middle one of every three. In this way the whole party passed out safely, the hero himself bringing up the rear, and clinging to the belly of a thick-fleeced and favourite ram. (Hom, Od., 9, 172, seqq.) Virgil has embellished his AEneid by interweaving the story of Ulysses and the Cyclops. He feigns that the prince of Ithaca, in the hurry of departure, had left behind him one of his followers, Achaemenides by name, who, after supporting a miserable existence in the woods by the meager fare of roots and berries, gladly threw himself into the hands of the Trojans when Eneas was coasting along the island of Sicily. (Virg., AEn., 3, 588, seqq.) Homer relates, that it was the wrath of Neptune for the injury inflicted on his son by Ulysses that induced the god to destroy his vessel on the Phaeacian coast. (Od., 11, 101, seqq.—0d., 5, 286, seqq.) PolysperchoN, an AEtolian, a general of Alexander's, who commanded the Stymphaeans in the battle of Arbela, and afterward subdued Bubacene for the conqueror. The freedom of his remarks on a subse. quent occasion, when he saw a Persian prostrating himself before Alexander, so offended that prince, the