Obrazy na stronie

geance of his father, but he soon obtained pardon and returned. He afterward accompanied Philip on an expedition against the Triballi, and saved his life in a battle. Philip, having been elected chief commander of the Greeks, was preparing for a war against Persia, when he was assassinated, B.C. 336. This occurrence, at an eventful crisis, excited some suspicion against Alexander and Olympias ; but as it was one of his first acts to execute Justice on those of his father's assassins who fell into his hands, several of the nobility being implicated in the plot, this imputation rests on little beyond surmise. It is more than probable that the conspirators were in correspondence with the Persian court, and that ample promises of protection and support were given to men undertaking to deliver the empire from the impending invasion of the captain-general of Greece. Alexander, who succeeded without opposition, was at this time in his twentieth year; and his youth, in the first instance, excited several of the states of Greece to endeavour to set aside the Macedonian ascendency. By a sudden march into Thessaly he, however, soon overawed the most active; and when, on a report of his death, chiefly at the instigation of Demosthenes and his party, the various states were excited to great commotion, he punished the open revolt of Thebes with a severity which ef. sectually prevented any imitation of its example. Induced to stand a siege, that unhappy city, after being mastered with dreadful slaughter, was razed to the ground, with the ostentatious exception of the house of the poet Pindar alone; while the unfortunate surviving inhabitants were stripped of all their *. sions and sold indiscriminately into slavery. Intimidating by this cruel policy, the Macedonian party {. the ascendency in every state throughout

reece, and Athens particularly disgraced itself by the meanness of its submission. Alexander then proceeded to Corinth, where, in a general assembly of the states, his office of superior commander was recognised and defined; and in the twenty-second year of his age, leaving Antipater, his viceroy, in Macedon, he passed the Hellespont, to overturn the Persian emire, with an army not exceeding four thousand five H. horse and thirty thousand foot. To secure the protection of Minerva, he sacrificed to her on the plain of Ilium, crowned the tomb of Achilles, and congratulated this hero, from whom he was descended through his mother, on his good fortune in having had such a friend as Patroclus, and such a poet as Homer to celebrate his fame. The rapid movements of Alexander had evidently taken the Persian satraps by surprise. They had, without making a single attempt to molest his passage, allowed him, with a far inferior fleet, to convey his troops into Asia. They now resolved to advance and contest the passage of the river Granicus. A force of twenty thousand cavalry was drawn up on the right bank of the stream, while an equal number of Greek mercenaries crowned the hills in the rear. Unintimidated, however, by this array, Alexander led his army across, and, after a severe conflict, gained a decisive victory. The loss on the Persian side was heavy, on that of their conquerors so extremely slight (only eighty-five horsemen and thirty foot-soldiers) as to lead at once to the belief, that the general, who wrote the account of Alexander's camaigns, mentioned the loss of only the native-born

acedonians. Splendid funeral obsequies were performed in honour of those of his army who had fallen; various privileges were granted to their fathers and children; and as twenty-five of the cavalry that had been slain on the Macedonian side belonged to the royal troop of the “Companions,” these were honoured with monumental statues of bronze, the workmanship of the celebrated Lysippus. The immediate consequence of this victory was the freedom and restoration of all the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and its sub

sequent results were shown in the reduction of almost the whole of that country. A dangerous sickness, however, brought on by bathing in the Cydnus, checked for a time his career. He received a letter from Parmenio, saying that Philip, his physician, had been bribed by Darius to poison him. Alexander gave the letter to the physician, and at the same time drank the potion which the latter had prepared for him. Scarcely was he restored to health when he advanced towards the defiles of Cilicia, whither Darius had imprudently betaken himself with an immense army, instead of awaiting his adversary on the plains of Assyria. The second battle took place near Issus, between the sea and the mountains, and victory again declared for the Macedonian monarch. The Macedonians conquered on this day, not the Persians alone, but the united ef. forts of southern Greece and Persia; for the army of Darius, besides its eastern troops, contained thirty thousand Greek mercenaries, the largest Greek force of that denomination mentioned in history. It was this galling truth that, among other causes, rendered the republican Greeks so hostile to Alexander. All the active partisans of that faction were at Issus, nor were the survivers dispirited by their defeat. Agis, king of Sparta, gathered eight thousand who had returned to Greece by various ways, and fought with them a bloody battie against Antipater, who with difficulty defeated the Spartans and their allies. Without taking these facts into consideration, it is impossible duly to estimate the difficulties surmounted by Alexander. After the defeat at Issus, the treasures and family of Darius fell into the hands of the conqueror. }. latter were treated most magnanimously. Alexander did not pursue the Persian monarch, who fled towards the Euphrates, but, in order to cut him off from the sea, turned towards Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. Here he received a letter from Darius, proposing peace. Alexander answered, that if he would come to him he would restore, not only his mother, wife, and children, without ransom, but also his empire. This reply produced no effect. The victory at Issus had opened the whole country to the M. Alexander took possession of Damascus, which contained a large portion of the royal treasures, and secured all the towns along the Mediterranean Sea. Tyre, imboldened by the strength of its insular situation, resisted, but was taken, after seven months of incredible exertion, and destroyed. The capture of Tyre was perhaps the greatest military achievement of the Macedonian monarch; but it was tarnished by his cruel severity towards the conquered, thirty thousand of the inhabitants having been sold by him as slaves. Some excuse, however, may be found in the excited feelings of the Macedonian army, occasioned by numerous insults on the part of the Tyrians; by acts of cruelty towards some of their Macedonian captives; and also by the length and obstinacy of the siege; for more men were slain in winning Tyre, than in achieving the three great victories over Darius. Alexander continued his victorious march through Palestine, where all the towns surrendered except Gaza, which shared the fate of Tyre. Egypt, wearied of the Persian yoke, received him as a deliverer. In order to confirm his power, he restored the former customs and religious rites, and founded Alexandrea, which became one of the first cities of ancient times. Hence he went through the desert of Libya, to consult the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, an adventure resembling more the wildness of romance than the soberness of history, and which has on this very account been regarded by some with an eye of incredulity. It rests, however, on too firm a basis to be invalidated. After having been acknowledged, say the ancient writers, as the son of the god (vid. Ammon), Alexander, at the return of spring, marched against Darius, who in the mean time had collected an army in Assyria, and rejected the proposals of Alexander for peace. A battle was fought at Gaugamela, not far from Arbela, B.C. 331. Arrian estimates the army of Darius at 1,000,000 of infantry and 40,000 cavalry; while that of Alexander consisted of only 40,000 infantry and 7000 horse. On the Persian side, moreover, were some of the bravest and hardiest tribes of upper Asia. Notwithstanding the immense numerical superiority of his enemy, Alexander was not a moment doubtful of victory. At the head of his cavalry he attacked the Persians, and routed them after a short conflict. One great object of his ambition was to capture the Persian monarch on the field of battle ;-and that object was at one time apparently within his grasp, when he received, at the instant, a message from Parmenio that the left wing, which that general commanded, was hard pressed by the Sacae, Albanians, and Parthians, and he was compelled, of course, to hasten to its relief. Darius fled from the field of battle, leaving his army, baggage, and immense treasures to the victor. Babylon and Susa, where the riches of the East lay accumulated, opened their gates to Alexander, who directed his march to Persepolis, the capital of Persia. The only passage thither was defended by 40,000 men under Ariobarzanes. Alexander attacked them in the rear, routed them, and entered Persepolis triumphant. From this time the glory of Alexander began to decline. Master of the greatest empire in the world, he became a slave to his own passions; gave himself up to arrogance and dissipation; showed himself ungrateful and cruel, and in the arms of pleasure shed the blood of his bravest generals. Hitherto sober and moderate, this hero, who strove to equal the gods, and called himself a god, sunk to the level of vulgar men. Persepolis, the wonder of the world, he burned in a fit of intoxication. Ashamed of this act, he set out with his cavalry to pursue Darius. Learning that Bessus, satrap of Bactriana, kept the king prisoner, he hastened his march with the hope of saving him. But Bessus, when he saw himself closely pursued, caused Darius to be assassinated (B.C. 330), because he was an impediment to his flight. Alexander beheld on the frontiers of Bactriana a dying man, covered with wounds, lying on a chariot. It was Darius. The Macedonian hero could not restrain his tears. After interring him with all the honours usual among the Persians, he took ssession of Hyrcania and Bactriana, and caused imself to be proclaimed King of Asia. He was forming still more gigantic plans, when a conspiracy broke out in his own camp. Philotas, the son of Parmenio, was implicated. Alexander, not satisfied with the blood of the son, caused the father also to be put to death. This act of injustice excited general displeasure. At the same time, his power in Greece was threatened; and it required all the energy of Antipater to dissolve, by force of arms, the league formed by the Greeks against the Macedonian authority. In the mean time, Alexander marched in the winter through the north of Asia as far as it was then known, checked neither by Mount Caucasus nor the Oxus, and reached the Caspian Sea, hitherto unknown to the Greeks. Insatiable of glory and thirsting for conquest, he spared not even the hordes of the Scythians. Returning to Bactriana, he hoped to gain the affections of the Persians by assuming their dress and manners; but this hope was not realized. The discontent of the army gave occasion to the scene which ended in the death of Clitus. Alexander, whose pride he had offended, killed him with his own hand at a banquet. Clitus had been one of his most faithful friends and brave of. ficers, and Alexander was afterward a prey to the keenest remorse. In the following year he subdued the whole of Sogdiana. Oxyantes, one of the leaders of the enemy, had secured his family in a castle built on a lofty rock. The Macedonians stormed it. Roxana, the daughter of Oxyantes, one of the most beau

tiful virgins of Asia, was among the prisoners. Al. exander fell in love with and married her. Upon the news of this, Oxyantes thought it best to submit, and

came to Bactria, where Alexander received him with

distinction. Here a new conspiracy was discovered, at the head of which was Hermolaus, and among the accomplices Callisthenes. All the conspirators were condemned to death except Callisthenes, who was mutilated and carried about with the army in an iron cage, until he terminated his torments by poison. Alexander now formed the idea of conquering India, the name of which was scarcely known. He passed the Indus, and formed an alliance with Taxilus, the ruler of the region beyond this river, who assisted him with troops and 130 elephants. Conducted by Taxilus, he marched towards the river Hydaspes, the passage of which, Porus, another king, defended at the head of his army. Alexander conquered him in a bloody battle, took him prisoner, but restored him to his kingdom. He then marched victoriously on, established Greek colonies, and built, according to Plutarch, seventy towns, one of which he called Bucephala, after his horse, which had been killed on the Hydaspes. Intoxicated by success, he intended to advance as far as the Ganges, and was preparing to pass the Hyphasis, when the discontent of his army obliged him to terminate his progress and return. Previous to turning back, however, he erected on the banks of the Hyphasis twelve towers, in the shape of altars; monuments of the extent of his career, and testimonials of his gratitude towards the gods. On these gigantic altars he offered sacrifices with all due solemnity, and horse-races and gymnastic contests closed the festivities. When he had reached the Hydaspes, he built a fleet, in which he sent a part of his troops down the river, while the rest of the army proceeded along the banks. On his march he encountered several Indian princes, and, during the siege of a town belonging to the Malli, was severely wounded. Having recovered, he continued his course down the Indus, and thus reached the sea. Having entered the Indian Ocean and performed some rites in honour of Neptune, he left his fleet; and, after ordering Nearchus, as soon as the season would permit, to sail to the Persian Gulf, and thence up the Tigris, he himself prepared to march to Babylon. He had to wander through immense deserts, in which the ...]". of his army, destitute of water and food, perished in the sand. Only the fourth part of the troops with which he had set out returned to Persia. On his route he quelled several mutinies, and placed governors over various provinces. In Susa he married two Persian princesses, and rewarded those of his Macedonians who had married Persian women; because it was his intention to unite the two nations as closely as possible. He distributed rich rewards among his troops. At Opis, on the Tigris, he declared his intention of sending the invalids home with presents. The rest of the army mutinied ; but he persisted, and effected his purpose. Soon after, his favourite, Hephæstion, died. His grief was unbounded, and he buried his body with royal splendour. On his return from Ecbatana to Babylon, the magicians are said to have predicted that this city would be fatal to him. The representations of his friends induced him to despise these warnings. He went to Babylon, where many foreign ambassadors waited for him, and was engaged in extensive plans for the future, when he became suddenly sick after a banquet, and died in a few days, B.C. 323. Such was the end of this conqueror, in his 32d year, after a reign of 12 years and 8 months. He left behind him an immense empire, which became the scene of continual wars. He had designated no heir, and being asked by his friends to whom he left the empire, answered, “To the worthiest.” After many disturbances, the generals acknowledged Aridaeus, a man of a very weak #" the son and divided the provinces among themselves, under the name of satraples. They appointed Perdiccas, to whom Alexander, on his deathbed, had given his ring, prime minister of the two kings. The body of Alexander was interred by Ptolemy in Alexandrea, in a golden coffin, and divine honours were paid to him, not only in Egypt, but also in other countries. The sarcophagus in which the coffin was enclosed has been in the British Museum since 1802. The English nation owe the acquisition of this relic to the exertions of Dr. Clarke, the celebrated traveller, who found it in the possession of the French troops in Egypt, and was the means of its being surrendered to the English army. In 1805, the same individual published a dissertation on this sarcophagus, fully establishing its identity.—No character in history has afforded matter for more discussion than that of Alexander; and the exact quality of his ambition is to this day a subject of dispute. By some he is regarded as little more than a heroic madman, actuated by the mere desire of personal glory; others give him the honour of vast and enlightened views of policy, embracing the consolidation and establishment of an empire, in which commerce, learning, and the arts should flourish in common with energy and enterprise of every description. Each class of reasoners find facts to countenance their opinion of the mixed character and actions of Alexander. The former quote the wildness of his personal daring, the barren nature of much of his transient mastery, and his remorseless and unnecessary cruelty to the vanquished on some occasions, and capricious magnanimity and lenity on others. The latter advert to facts like the foundation of Alexandrea, and other acts indicative of large and prospective views of true policy; and regard his expeditions rather as schemes of discovery and exploration than mere enterprises for fruitless conquest. The truth appears to embrace a portion of both these opinions. Alexander was too much smitten with military glory, and the common selfengrossment of the mere conqueror, to be a great and consistent politician; while such was the strength of his intellect, and the light opened to him by success, that a glimpse of the genuine sources of lasting greatness could not but break in upon him. The fate of a not very dissimilar character in our days shows the nature of this mixture of lofty intellect and personal ambition, which has seldom effected much permanent good for mankind in any age. The fine qualities and defects of the man were, in Alexander, very similar to those of the ruler. His treatment of Parmenio and of Clitus, and various acts of capricious cruelty and ingratitude, are contrasted by many instances of extraordinary greatness of mind. He was also a lover and favourer of the arts and literature, and carried with him a train of poets, orators, and philosophers, although his choice of his attendants of this description did not always do honour to his judgment. He, however, encouraged and patronised the artists Praxiteles, Lysippus, and Apelles; and his munificent presents to Aristotle, to enable him to pursue his inquiries in natural history, were very serviceable to science. Alexander also exhibited that unequivocal test of strong intellect, a disposition to employ and reward men of talents in every department of knowledge. In person this extraordinary individual was of the middle size, with a neck somewhat awry, but possessed of a fierce and majestic countenance.—It may not be amiss, before concluding this sketch, to consider for a moment the circumstances connected with the death of this celebrated leader. His decease has usually been ascribed either to excess in drinking or to poison. Neither of these suppositions appears to be correct. The fever to which he fell a victim (for the Royal Diary whence Arrian has copied his account of the last illness of Alexander, speaks ex

of Philip and the dancer Philinna, and Alexander the pressly of a violent fever having been the cause of posthumous son of Alexander and Roxana, as kings, his decease) was contracted very probably in his visit

to the marshes of Assyria. The thirst which subsequently compelled him, on a public day, to quit his military duties, proves that this fever was raging in his veins before it absolutely overcame him. The carousals in which he afterward indulged must have seriously increased the disease. Strong men like Alexander have often warded off attacks of illness by increased excitement; but, if this fall to produce the desired effect, the reaction is terrible. It is curious to observe, in Arrian's account of Alexander's last illness, that no physicion is mentioned. The king seems to have trusted to two simple remedies, abstinence and bathing. His removal to a summer-house, close to the large cold bath, shows how much he confided in the latter remedy. But the extraordinary fatigues which he had undergone, the exposure within the last three years to the rains of the Pendjab, the marshes of the Indus, the burning sands of Gedrosia, the hot vapours of Susiana, and the marsh miasma of the Babylonian Lakes, proved too much even for his iron constitution. The numerous wounds by which his body had been perforated, and especially the serious injury done to his lungs by an arrow among the Malli, must in some degree have impaired the vital functions, and enfeebled the powers of healthy reaction. (Plut., Wit. Aler.— Arrian, Erp. Aler—Quintus Curtius–Diod. Sic., 17 et 18–Encyclop. Americ, vol. 1, p. 151, seqq.— Biogr. Unir., vol. 1, p. 195— Williams's Life of Alerander the Great, p. 346, &c., Am. ed.)—After many dissensions and bloody wars among themselves, the generals of Alexander laid the foundations of several great empires in the three quarters of the globe Ptolemy seized Egypt, where he firmly established himself, and where his successors were called Ptolemies, in honour of the founder of their empire, which subsisted till the time of Augustus. Seleucus and his posterity reigned in Babylon and Syria. Antigonus at first established himself in Asia Minor, and Antipater in Macedonia. The descendants of Antipater were conquered by the successors of Antigonus, who reigned in Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans in the time of King Perseus. Lysimachus made himself master of Thrace; and Leonatus, who had taken possession of Phrygia, meditated for a while to drive Antipater from Macedonia. Eumenes established himself in Cappadocia, but was soon overpowered by his rival Antigonus, and starved to death. During his lifetime, Eumenes appeared so formidable to the successors of Alexander, that none of them dared to assume the title of king. Alexander IV., son of Alexander the Great and Roxana. He was born after his father's death, and was proclaimed king while yet an infant, along with Philip Aridaeus, an illegitimate brother of Alexander the Great. Soon after, however, he was put to death, together with Roxana, by Cassander, who thereupon assumed the sovereign power. (Justin, 15, 2.) Alexander W., son of Cassander. He ascended the throne of Macedonia along with his brother Antipater, B.C. 298. Antipater, however, having put to death Thessalonica, their mother, Alexander, in order to avenge his parent, called in the aid of Demetrius, son of Antigonus. A reconciliation, however, having taken place between the brothers, Demetrius, who was apprehensive lest this might thwart his own views on the crown of Macedon, slew Alexander and seized upon the royal authority. (Justin, 16, 1.)

2. Kings of Epirus. Alex ANDER I., surnamed Molossus, was brother of Olympias, and successor to Arybas. He came into Italy to aid the Tarentines against the Romans, and used to say, that while his nephew, Alexander the Great, was warring against women (meaning the effeminate nations of the east), he was fighting against men, (Justin, 17, 3.—Liv., 8, 17, et 27.) As regards the circumstances connected with his death, vid. Acheron, II.

Alexander II., son of the celebrated Pyrrhus. To avenge the death of his father, who had been slain at Argos, fighting against Antigonus, he seized upon Macedonia, of which the latter was king. He was soon, however, driven out, not only from Macedonia, but also from his own dominions, by Demetrius, son of Antigonus. Taking refuge, on this, among the Acarmanians, he succeeded, by their aid, in regaining the throne of Epirus. (Justin, 26, 3–Id., 28, 1– Plut., Wit. Pyrr., 34.)

3. Kings of Syria.

Alex ANDER I., surnamed Bala or Balas, a man of low origin, but of great talents and still greater audacity, who claimed to be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, assumed the name of Alexander, and being acknowledged by Ptolemy Philometor, Ariarathes, and Attalus, seized upon the throne of Syria. He was afterward defeated and driven out by Demetrius Nicator, the lawful heir ; and, having taken refuge with an Arabian prince, was put to death by the latter. (Justin, 35, l, seq.)

*sor. II., surnamed Zabina the Slave, a usurper of the throne of Syria. He was the son of a petty trader in Alexandrea, but claimed, at the instiga: tion of Ptolemy VII., to have been adopted by Antiochus VIII. Ptolemy aided him with troops, and Demetrius Nicator was defeated at Damascus, and driven out of his kingdom. A few years after, however, Alexander was himself defeated by Antiochus Grypus, aided in his turn by the same Ptolemy, and put to death. Grypus was son of Demetrius Nicator. (Justin, 39, l, seq.)

4. Princes of Judaea.

Alex ANDER I., Jannaeus, monarch of Judaea, son of Hyrcanus, and brother of Aristobulus, to whom he succeeded, B.C. 106. He was a warlike prince, and displayed great ability in the different wars, in which he was engaged during his reign. Driven from his kingdom by his subjects, who detested him, he took up arms against them, and waged a cruel warfare for the

space of six years, slaying upward of 50,000 of his:

foes. Having at last re-entered Jerusalem, he crucified, for the amusement of his concubines, 800 of his revolted subjects, and at the same time caused their wives and children to be massacred before their eyes. Being re-established on the throne, he made various conquests in Syria, Arabia, and Idumea, and finally died of intemperance at Jerusalem, B.C. 76, after a reign of 27 years. (Josephus, Ant Jud., 17, 22, &c.)

Alex ANDER II., son of Aristobulus II., was made prisoner, along with his father, by Pompey, but managed to escape while being conducted to Rome, raised an army, and made some conquests. Hyrcanus, son of Alexander Jannaeus, being then on the throne, solicited the aid of the Romans, and Marc Antony being sent by Gabinius, defeated Alexander near Jerusalem. After standing a siege for some time in the fortress Alexandreion, he obtained terms of peace; but not long after, having taken up arms for Casar, who had released his father, he fell into the hands of Metellus Scipio, and was beheaded at Antioch. (Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 14, 13 )

Alex ANDER III., son of Herod the Great, put to death by his father, along with Aristobulus his brother, on false-charges brought against them by Pheroras their uncle, and Salome their aunt. (Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 16, 17.)

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6. Individuals.

Alex ANDER, I. tyrant of Phera in Thessaly, who seized upon the sovereign power, B.C. 368. He was of a warlike spirit, but, at the same time, cruel and vindictive, and his oppressed subjects were induced to supplicate the aid of the Thebans, who sent Pelopidas with an army. The tyrant was compelled to yield, but, having subsequently escaped from the power of the Theban commander, he reassembled an army, and Pelopidas having been imprudent enough to come to him without an escort, the tyrant seized and threw him into prison, whence he was only released on the appearance of Epaminondas at the head of an armed force. By dint of negotiation, he now obtained a truce, but renewed his acts of violence and cruelty as soon as the Thebans had departed. Pelopidas marched against and defeated him, but lost his own life in the action. Stripped upon this of all his conquests, and restricted to the city of Pherae, he no longer dared to carry on war by land, but turned his attention to piracy, and had even the audacity to pillage the Piraeus or main harbour of Athens. He was assassinated at last by his wife Thebe. (Val. Max., 9, 13.—Corn. Nep., Wit. Pelop.–Pausan., 6, 5.)—II. Lyncestes, was accused of being one of the conspirators in the plot against Philip of Macedon, which resulted in the death of that monarch. He was pardoned on account of his having been the first to salute Alexander, Philip's son, as king. Not long after, however, he was detected in a treacherous correspondence with Darius, and put to death. (Justin, 11, 2.)—III. Son of Polysperchon, at first a general on the side of Antigonus, after the death of Alexander the Great, and very active in driving out for him, from the Peloponnesus, the garrisons of Cassander. He afterward went over to Cassander, but was assassinated by some Sicyonians, after no long interval of time, at the siege of Dyma.-IV. A famous impostor of Paphlagonia, who lived in the time of Lucian, under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. By his artifices he succeeded in passing himself for a person sent by AEsculapius, and prevailed upon the Paphlagonians to erect a temple to this deity. As the priest and o of the god, he ran a long career of deception, a full account of which is given in the Supplement.—W. Severus, a Roman emperor. (Wid. Severus.)—WI. An Athenian painter, whose portrait appears on a marble tablet sound at l'esina in 1746, and stating the name and country of the artist. The age in which he lived is not known.—WII. A native of Acarnania. (Vid. Supplement.)—VIII. A. tolus. (Wid. Supplement.)—IX. A commander of horse in the army of Antigonus Doson. (Wul. Supplement.)—X. A son of Marc Antony and Cleopatra. (Wid. Supplement.) —XI. Brother of Molo. (Wid. Supplement.)—XII. A native of Cotyaeum, in Phrygia, or, according to Suidas, of Miletus, who flourished in the second century of our era. He took the name of Cornelius Alexander, from his having been a slave of Cornelius Lentulus, who gave him his freedom, and made him the instructer to his children. He was surnamed Polyhistor, from the variety and multiplicity of his knowledge. The ancient writers cite one of his works in forty books, each one of which appears to have contained the description of some particular country, and to have had a separate title, such as Aiyvrrakā. Kaptaká, &c. Pliny often refers to him. It is probable that he was the author of a work entitled 6avuagiov avvayo; #, “A collection of wonderful things,” of which Photius speaks as the production of an individual named Alexander, without designatin him any farther. This work contained accounts o animals, plants, rivers, &c. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr. vol. 5, p. 276, seq.)—XIII. A native of Ego in Achaia, the disciple of Xenocrates, and, as is thought,of Sosigenes. He was one of the instructers of the Emperor Nero. Some critics regard him as the * of the der the name of Alexander of Aphrodisia. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 156.)—XIV. A native of Aphrodisia in Caria, who flourished in the beginning

commentary on Aristotle, which commonly passes un- 1548; a Latin edition among the “Medical art's

of the third century. He is regarded as the restorer

of the true doctrine of Aristotle, and he is the principal peripatetic, after the founder of this school, who adopted the system of the latter in all its purity, without intermingling along with it, as Alexander of Æge and his disciples did, the precepts of other schools. He was surnamed, by way of compliment, 'Eonymormo, Eregetes (“the interpreter,” or “expounder”), and became the head of a particular class of Aristotelian commentators, styled “Alexandreans.” He wrote, 1. A treatise on Destiny and Free Agency (IIept Euapuéumc kai Toi to huiv), a work held in high estimation, and which the author addressed to the emperors Septimius Severus and Antoninus Caracalla. In it he combats the Stoic dogma, as hostile to free agency, and destructive, in consequence, of all morality. The best edition of this work is that printed at London, in 1658, 12mo. It is inserted also, with new corrections, in the 3d vol. of Grotius's Theological Works, Amst., 1679, fol. 2. A commentary on the first book of the first Analytics of Aristotle, Gr., foll, Venet., 1489, and 4to, Florent., 1521. Translated into Latin by Felicianus, fol., Venet., 1542, 1546, and 1560. 3. A commentary on the eight books of the Topica, fol, Venet., 1513 and 1526. A Latin translation by Dorotheus, which appeared for the first time in 1524, foll, Venet., has been often reprinted. In 1563, a translation by Rasarius appeared, fol, Venet., which is preferable to the other. 4. Commentaries on the Elenchi sophistici of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1520, and 4to, Florent., 1552. Translated into Latin by Rasarius, Venet., 1557. 5. A commentary on the twelve books of the metaphysics of Aristotle. The Greek text has never been printed, although there are many MS. copies in the Royal Library at Paris, and other libraries. A Latin translation, however, by Sepulveda, appeared at Rome, 1527, in fol., and has been often reprinted. 6. A commentary on Aristotle's work De Sensu, &c., Gr, at the end of Simplicius's commentary on the work of Aristotle respecting the Soul, foll, Venet., 1527. 7. A commentary on the Meteorologica of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1527, and in the Latin of Alex. Picolomini, fol., 1540, 1548, 1575. 8. A treatise Tepi uíčeoc (De Mistione), directed against the dogma of the Stoics respecting the penetrability of bodies, Gr., with the preceding. Two Latin translations have appeared, one by Caninius, Venet., 1555, fol, and the other by Schegk, Tulling, 1540, 4to. 9. A treatise on the Soul, in two books, or, more correctly speaking, two treatises on this subject, since there is little if any connexion between these books. Gr., at the end of Themistius; and in Latin by Donati, Venet., 1502, fol. 10. Physica Scholia, &c. (ovaków axoŽíov, & Toptów, kai žičasov, Bu6%ta 6’), Gr., fol., Venet., 1536, and in Latin by Bagolinus, Venet., 1541, 1549, 1555, 1589. 11. Problemata Medica, &c., the best Greek edition of which is in Sylburgius's works of Aristotle; this is attributed by some to Alexander Trallianus. 12. A treatise on Fevers; never published in Greek, but translated by Walla, and inserted in a collection of various works, Venet., 1488. For medical works Vid. Supplement. —XV. A native of Myndus, quoted by Athenaeus. (Compare Meurs., Bibl., in Thes. Gronov., vol. 10, p. 1208, seqq.) He is supposed by some to be the same with the writer mentioned by Athenæus under the name of Alexon. (Schweigh., Inder Auct. ad Athen.—Op., vol. 9, p. 24, seqq.)—XVI. A native of Tralles, who lived in the sixth century, and distinguished himself as a physician. He wrote several treatises on medicine,

Principes,” fol., Paris, 1567, &c. Alexander Trallianus is a most judicious, elegant, and original author. No medical writer, whether of ancient or modern times, has treated of diseases more methodically than he has done; for, after all the Nosological systems which have been proposed and tried, we can name none more advantageous to the student than the method adopted by him, of treating of diseases according to the part of the body which they affect, beginning with the head and proceeding downward. The same plan is pursued in the third book of Paulus AEgineta, who has copied freely from Alexander. Of the ancient medical writers subsequent to Galen, Alexander shows the least of that blind deference to his authority for which all have been censured: nay, in many instances he ventures to differ from him; not, however, apparently from a spirit of rivalship, but from a commendable love of truth. In his eleventh book, he has given the fullest account of the causes, symptoms, and treat ment of gout which is to be met with in any ancient writer; and as it contains many things not to be met with elsewhere, it deserves to be carefully studied. He judiciously suits the treatment to the circumstances of the case, but his general plan of cure appears to have consisted in the administration of purgative medicines, either cathartic salts or drastic purgatives, such as scammony, aloes, and hermodactylus. The last-mentioned medicine was most probably a species of Colchicum Autumnale, which forms the active in§. of a French patent medicine called L'Eau edicinale d'Hyssop, much celebrated some years ago for the cure of gout and rheumatismo Dr. Haden lately published a small pamphlet, wherein Colchicum was strongly recommended as an antiphlogistic remedy of great powers. The writers, both Greek and Arabian, subsequent to Alexander Trallianus, repeat the praises bestowed by him upon the virtues of hermodactylus. Demetrius Pepagomenos has written a prosessed treatise to recommend this medicine in gout.— The style of Alexander, although less pointed than that of Celsus, and less brilliant than that of Aretaeus, is remarkable for o and elegance. It must be mentioned with regret, however, as a lamentable instance of a sound judgment being blinded by superstition, that our author had great confidence in charms and amulets. Such weakness is to be bewailed, but need not be wondered at, when we recollect that Wiseman, one of the best English authorities on surgery, had great confidence in the royal touch for the cure of Scrofula. —XVII. Isius. (Vid. Supplement.)— XVIII. Lychnus. (Wid. Supplement.)—XIX. Myndius. (Wid. Supplement.)—XX. Noumenius. (Wid. Supplement.)—XXI. A Greek rhetorician. (Wid. Supplement.) – XXII. Philalethes. (Vid. Supplement)—XXIII. A Roman usurper. (Vid. Supplement.)—XXIV. Tiberius. (Vid. Supplement.) AlexandríA (less correctly Alexandria, Burmann, ad Propert., 3, 9, 33–Ursin, ad Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 4, 2, 10.-Fea, ad Horat., Od., 4, 14, 35), the name of eighteen cities, founded by Alexander during his conquests in Asia, among which the most deserving of mention are the following: I. The capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, built B.C. 332. It was situate about 12 miles to the west of the Canopic mouth of the Nile, between the Lake Mareotis and the beautiful harbour formed by the Isle of Pharos. It was the intention of its founder to make Alexandrea at once the seat of empire and the first commercial city in the world. The latter of these plans completely succeeded; and for a long period of years, from the time of the Ptolemies to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, the capital of Egypt was the link of connexion between the commerce of the east and west. The

sone of which are extant, and have been published goods and other articles of traffic were brought up the at different times; namely, a Greek edition, fol., Paris, Red Sea, and landed at one of three different points

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