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also of persons distinguished in the early history of the Christian Church. The literary biographies, in particular, will, it is conceived, be found both attractive and useful to the student, since we have no work at present in the English language in which a full view is given of Grecian and Roman literature. The sketches of ancient mathematicians, and of other individuals eminent for their attainments in science, will not be found without interest even in our own day. Nor will the medical man depart altogether unrewarded from a perusal of those biographies which treat of persons distinguished of old in the healing art. In the accounts, moreover, that are given of the philosophers and philosophic systems of antiquity, although half-learned sciolists have passed upon these topics so sweeping a sentence of condemnation, much curious information may nevertheless be obtained, and much food for speculation, too, on what the mind can effect by its own unaided powers in relation to subjects that are of the utmost importance to us all. The ecclesiastical biographies will also be found numerous, and, it is hoped, not uninteresting. None of them fall properly, it is true, within the sphere of a Classical Dictionary, yet they could not well have been omitted, since many of the matters discussed in them have reference more immediately to classical times. The subject of Mythology has supplied, next to that of Ancient Geography, the largest number of articles to the present work. In the treatment of these, it has been the chief aim of the author to lay before the student the most important speculations of the two great schools (the Mystic and anti-Mystic) which now divide the learned of Europe. At the head of the former stands Creuzer, whose elaborate work (Symbolik und JMythologie der alten Volker) has reappeared under so attractive a form through the taste and learning of Guigniaut. The champion of the anti-Mystic school appears to be Lobeck, although many eminent names are also marshalled on the same side. It has been the aim of the author to give a fair and impartial view of both systems, although he cannot doubt but that the forIner will appear to the student by far the more attractive one of the two. In the discussion of mythological topics, very valuable materials have been obtained from the excellent work of Keightley, who deserves the praise of having first laid open to the English reader the stores of German erudition in the department of Mythology. The author will, he trusts, be pardoned for having intruded some theories of his own on several topics of a mythological character, more particularly under the articles .Amazones, .1si, Io, Odinus, and Orpheus. It is a difficult matter, in so attractive a field of inquiry as this, to resist the temptation of inflicting one's own crude speculations upon the patience of the reader. In preparing the mythological articles, the greatest care has been also taken to exclude from them everything offensive, either in language or detail, and to present such a view of the several topics connected with this department of inquiry as may satisfy the most scrupulous, and make the present work a safe guide, in a moral point of view, to the young of either sex. The department of the Fine Arts forms an entirely new feature in the present work. The biographies of Artists have been prepared with great care, and criticisms upon their known productions have been given from the most approved authorities, both ancient and modern. The information contained under this head will, it is conceived, prove not unacceptable either to the modern artist or the general reader. In a work like the present, the materials for which have been drawn from so many sources, it would be a difficult task to specify, within the limits of an ordinary preface, the different quarters to which obligations are due. The author has preferred, therefore, appending to the volume a formal catalogue of authorities, at the risk of being thought vain in so doing. A few works, however, to which he has been particularly indebted, deserve to be also mentioned here. These are the volumes of Cramer on Ancient Geography; the historical researches of Thirlwall; and the work of Keightley already referred to. From the Encyclopædia also, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, numerous excellent articles have been obtained, which contribute in no small degree to the value of the present publication. In every instance care has been taken to give at the end of each article the main authority from which the materials have been drawn, a plan generally pursued in works of a similar nature, and which was followed by the author in all the editions of Lempriere prepared by him for the press. A fairer mode of proceeding cannot well be imagined. And yet complaint has been made in a certain quarter, that the articles taken from the Encyclopædia just mentioned are not duly credited to that work, and that the title of the work itself has been studiously changed. Of the fallacy of the first charge, any one can satisfy himself by referring to the pages of the present volume where those articles appear; while, with regard to the second, the author has merely to remark, that in
substituting the title of “Encyclopædia of Useful Knowledge” for the more vulgar one of “Penny Cyclopædia,” he always conceived that he was doing a service to that very publication itself. At all events, the change of title, if it were indeed such, appears to have been a very proper one, since it met with the tacit approbation of certain so-called critics, who would never have allowed this opportunity of gratifying personal animosity to have passed unheeded, had they conceived it capable of furnishing any ground of attack. The account of Coins, Weights, and Measures, which accompanied the edition of Lempriere in two volumes, has been appended to the present work in a more condensed and convenient form. It is from the pen of Abraham B. Conger, Esq., formerly one of the fathematical instructers in Columbia College, but at present a member of the New-York bar. The very great clearness and ability which characterize this Essay have been fully acknowledged by its republication abroad in the Edinburgh edition of Potter's Grecian Antiquities, and it will be found far superior to the labours of Arbuthnot, as given in the Dictionary of Lempriere. Before concluding, the author must express his grateful obligations to his friend, Francis Adams, Esq., of Banchory Ternan, near Aberdeen (Scotland), for the valuable contributions furnished by him under the articles .7etius, .11erander of Tralles, ...?retarus, Celsus, Dioscarides, Galenus, Hippocrates, .N'icander, Oribasius, Paulus ...Bgineta, and many other medical biographies scattered throughout the present work. Mr. Adams is well known abroad as the learned author of “Hermes Philologicus,” and the English translator of “Paul of AEgina.” Whatever comes from his pen, therefore, carries with it the double recom mendation of professional talent and sound and accurate scholarship. With regard to the typographical execution of the present volume, the author need say but little. The whole speaks for itself, and for the unsparing liberality of the publishers. In point of accuracy, the author is sure that no work of its size has ever surpassed it; and for this accuracy he is mainly indebted to the unremitting care of his talented young friend, Mr. Henry Drisler, a graduate of Columbia College, and one of the Instructers in the College-school, of whose valuable services he has had occasion to speak in the preface to a previous work. Columbia College, August 1, 1842.
In preparing the present edition for the press, the greatest care has been taken to correct any typographical errors that may hitherto have escaped notice, and to introduce such other alterations as the additional reading of the author, and new materials, furnished by works of a similar nature, have enabled him to make. In furtherance of this view, he has appended a Supplement to the present volume, containing all that appeared to him important in the first number of the new Classical Dictionary, now in a course of publication from the London press, as well as in the numbers, which have thus far appeared, of Pauly’s “Real-Encyclopädie der Classischen Alterthumsuissenschaft,” which constitutes, in fact, the principal source of supply from which the authors of the new Classical Dictionary have drawn their materials. The articles contained in the Supplement will be found referred to in the body of the work under their respective heads, thus enabling the reader to ascertain, at a glance,
what additions have been actually made. Columbia College, March 1, 1843.
roRMING PART of the Author's private COLLECTION, AND WHICH HAVE BEEN CONSULTED Fog
——, Mithridates, oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde,
Alphabetum Brammhanicum, seu Indostanum, Univer-
zimmer einer reichen Röinerin, 12mo, 2 vols., 1806.
Bohlen, Das alte Indien, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf
Bonucci, Pompei descritta, 8vo, Napoli, 1827.
Brunet, Manuel du Libraire, 4 vols. 8vo, Bruxelles, 1838.
Bryant, New System of Mythology, 6 vols. 8vo, London, 1807
Bucke, Ruins of Ancient Cities, 2 vols. 18mo, Lond, 1840. Buckingham's Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia, 8vo, 2 vols., London, 1830. Budaeus, De Asse, Venet, ap Aldum, 1522. Buffon, Histoire Naturelle, 18mo, 70 vols., Paris. Bulenger, De Conviviis, Lugdunu, 1627. Bulwer's Athens, &c., 2 vols. 12mo, New-York, 1837. Bunsen, De jure hereditario Atheniensium, 4to, Gotting., 1813. Burgess, Description of the Circus on the Via Appia, &c., 12mo, London, 1828. —-, Topography and Antiquities of Rome, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1831. Burney. History of Music, 4to, 4 vols., Lond., 1776–89. Burnouff, Essai sur le Pali, 8vo, Paris, 1826. Buttmann, Mythologus, 8vo, 2 vols., Berlin, 1828.
Calmet, Dictionary of the Bible, 4to, 5 vols., Charlestown, 1812. Cambden, Britannia, 4to, London, 1600. Cardwell, Lectures on Coins, 8vo, Oxford, 1832. Carion-Nisas, Histoire de l'Art Militaire, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1824. Carll, Lettres Américanes, 8vo, 2 vols, Paris, 1788. Carus, Ideen zur Geschichte der Menscheit, 8vo, Leipz., 1800. —--, Ideen zur Geschichte der Philosophie, 8vo, Leipz., 1809. —, Geschichte der Psychologie, 8vo, Leipz, 1809. Casaubon, De Poesi Satyrica, 8vo, Hal., 1774. Cavriani, Delle Scienze, &c., del Romani, 8vo, 2 vols., Mantova, 1822. Cellarius, Notitia Orbis Antiqui, ed. Schwartz, 4to, 2 vols, Lips., 1773. ————, Historia Universalis, 12mo, 2 vols, Jenae, 1702. Champollion, Précis du Système Hiéroglyphique, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1824. Chardin, Voyage en Perse, &c., 11 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1811. Chesnow, Introduction à l'étude de l'histoire du Moyen Age, 8vo, Bayeux, 1827. Clarke, E. D., Travels, 8vo, ll vols., London, 1816–24 (4th edition). , A., Bibliographical Dictionary, 12mo, 8 vols., Liverpool, 1802. Classical Journal, 8vo, 40 vols, London, 1810–29. ———— Manual, 8vo, London, 1827. Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, 4to, 2 vols., Oxford, 1827–30. Cluverius, Introductio in Universam Geographiam, 8vo, Amst., 1682. Coleridge, Introduction to the Study of the Greek Classic Poets, 12mo, pt. 1, Philad., 1821. - Collectio Dissertationum rarissimarum, cura Graevii, 4to, Traj. Batav., 1716. Constant, De la Religion, 8vo, 5 vols., Paris, 1826–31. ––––. Melanges de Littérature et de Politique, 8vo, Paris, 1829. Conversations. Lexicon, 12mo, 14 vols., Leipz., 1824–26. Court de Gebelin, Monde Primitif, 4to, 9 vols., Paris, 1787. Crabb, Historical Dictionary, 4to, 2 vols, London, 1825. Cramer, J. A., Description of Ancient Greece, 8vo, 3 vols., Oxford, 1828. –––-, Description of Ancient Italy, 8vo, 2 vols., Oxford, 1826. Tiso." Description of Asia Minor, 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 832. ----- and Wickham, Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Aips. 8vo, London, 1828. -----, Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts im. Alterthume, 8vo, 2 vols., Elberfeld, 1832–8. Creuzer, o: und Mythologie der alten Völker, 8vo, 4 vols., Leipz., 1819. -----, Abriss der Römischen Antiquitäten, 8vo, Leipz, 1829. ... -——, Dionysus, sive Commentationes Academica, de Rerum Bacchicarum Orphicarumque Originibus et Causis, 4to, Heidelb., 1809. ––––. Commentationes Herodoteae, 8vo, pt. 1, Lips, 1819. ——--—, Symbolik, im Auszuge von Moser, 8vo, Leipz, 1822
Dankovsky, Die Griechen als Stamm und Sprachver. wandte der Slaven, 8vo, Presburg, 1828. D'Anville, Ancient Geography, 2 vols. 8vo, N. York, 1814. -Ho- Antiquité Geographique de l'Inde, 8vo, Paris, i i o). D'Arc, Histoire des Conquêtes des Normands en Italie, &c., Paris, 1830. Davies, Celtic Researches, 8vo, London, 1804. Dean, J. B., On the Worship of the Serpent, 8vo, Lor:don, 1830. De Ballu, Histoire Antique de l'Eloquence chez les Grecques, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1813. De Chazelle, Etudes sur l'histoire des Arts, 8vo, Paris, 1834. Degerando, Histoire comparée des Systèmes de Philoso. phie, 4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1823. De la Bergerie, Histoire de l'Agriculture Ancienne des Grecs, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1830. Della Vallé, Voyages dans la Turquie, &c., 7 vols. 8vo, Rouen, 1745. Delambre, Histoire de l'Astronomie Ancienne, 2 vols. 4to, Paris, 1817. Demosthenes als Staatsmann und Redner, von A. G. Becker, 8vo, Halle und Leipz., 1815. De Marles, Histoire generale de l'Inde, 8vo, 6 vols., Paris, 1828. De Pauw, Recherches Philosophiques, 7 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1795. Derham, Physico-Theology, 12mo, 2 vols, Lond, 1749. Descrizione di Roma Antica, 12mo, l'om., 1697. Deuber, Geschichte der Schiffahrt in Atlantischen Ocean, 12mo, Bamberg 1814. D'Hancarville, Antiquités Etrusques, Grecques et Ro maines, 4to, 5 vols., Paris, 1787. Dibdin, Introduction to the Greek and Latin Classics, 8vo, 2 vols., 1827, 4th edition. Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, 17 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1822–31. ------ Historique des Cultes Religieux, 8vo, 4 vols., Versailles, 1820. Diderot, Essai sur les regnes de Claude et de Néron, ou Vie de Seneque le Philosophe, 8vo, 2 vols, Paris, 1823. Dillon, Wiscount, the Tactics of Ælian, containing the Military System of the Grecians, 4to, London, 1814. Dodwell, Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece, 4to, 2 vols., London, 1819. Donkin, Dissertation on the Course, &c., of the Niger, 8vo, London, 1829. Drummond, Origines, 8vo, 2 vols., London, 1826. Dubois, Description of the Character, Manners, and Customs of the People of India (Eng. trans.), 8vo, 2 vols., Philad., 1818. Ducaurroy, Institutes de Justinien, 4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1836. Du Choul, Discours de la Religion des Anciens Romains, 8vo, Lyon, 1580. Dulaure, Histoire des Cultes, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1825. Dumbeck, Geographia pagorum German. Cis-Rhenan, 8vo, Berol., 1818. Dunbar, Inquiry into the Structure and Affinity of the Greek and Latin Languages, 8vo, Edinburgh, 1827. . Dunlop, History of Roman Literature, Svo, 3 vols., Lon don, 1823–28. Dupuis, Origine detous les Cultes, 7 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1822. Dureau de la Malle, Géographie Physique de la Mer Noire, &c., 8vo, Paris, 1807. ———-, Recherches sur la topographie de Carthage, 8vo, Paris, 1835. Dutens, Origine des decouvertes attribuées aux modernes, 3me edit, a Londres, 1796, 4to.
Ebn-Haukal, Oriental Geography, translated by Sir W Ouseley, 4to, London, 1800.
Fdinburgh Review, 8vo, 72 vols. Edwards's and Park's Selections from German Literature, 8vo, Andover, 1839. Eichhoff, Vergleichung der Sprachen von Europa und Indien übers. von Kaltschmidt, 8vo, Leipzig, 1840. –––-, Parallèle des langues de l'Europe et de l'Inde, 4to, Paris, 18.36. Eichhorn, Weltgeschichte, 8vo, 5 vols., Göttingen, 1817. Eichwald, Alte Geographie des Kaspischen Meeres, &c., 8vo, Berlin, 1838. Fisendecher, Bürgerrecht im alten Rom, 8vo, Hamburg, 1829. Elgin Marbles, 2 vols. 12mo, London, 1833. Elmes, Dictionary of the Fine Arts, 8vo, London, 1826. Elton, History of the Roman Emperors, 12mo, London, 1833. Encyclopedia of Useful Knowledge, 17 vols. 8vo, Lon. don, 1833–40. Encyclopædia Americana, 8vo, 13 vols., Philadelphia, 1830–3. Enfield, History of Philosophy, 8vo, 2 vols, Lond, 1819. Ephémérides Universelles, 8vo, 7 vols., Paris, 1828–30. Erasmus, Adagiorum Chiliades, fol., Paris, 1558. Eschenberg, Handbuch der Classischen Literatur, 8vo, Berlin, 1816 Essais sur l'Allegoire, &c., 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1798. Ftudes sur les poètes Latins de la decadence, par Nisard, 3 vols., Bruxelles, 1834. Eusebii Chronica, ed. Maius et Zohrabus, 4to, Mediol., 1818 –––. Demonstratio Evangelica, fol, Colon., 1688. –––. Praeparatio Evangelica, fol., Colon., 1688. Eustace, Classical Tour through Italy, 8vo, 4 vols., London, 1815 (3d edition).
Faber, Origin of Pagan Idolatry, 4to, 3 vols., Lond., 1816. -—, l)issertation on the Mysteries of the Cabiri, 8vo, 2 vols., Oxford, 1803. Fabricius, Menologium, sive Libellus de Mensibus centum circiter populorum, &c., 12mo, Hamburg, 1712. Fariner, Essay on the Demoniacs of the New Testament, 12mo, London, 1818. Fauriel, Histoire de la Gaule Meridionale, 4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1836. Fée, Flore de Virgile, 8vo, Paris, 1822. Fellows, Tour in Asia Minor, 4to, London, 1839. Felton, Dissertation on the Classics, 12tno, Lond, 1718. Fêtes et Courtisanes de la Grèce, 4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1821. Flaxman, Lectures on Sculpture, 8vo, London, 1829. Folard, Histoire de Polybe, 4to, 6 vols, Paris, 1727. Foreign Quarterly Review, 8vo, 25 vols, Lond., 1827–40. Foreign Review, 8vo, 5 vols., London, 1828–30. Fraser, Journal of a Tour to the Hināla Mountains, 4to, London, 1820. Fuhrmann, Handbuch der Classischen Literatur, 8vo, 2 vols, Rudolstadt, 1809. - Funceius, De Origine, &c., Linguae Latinae, 4to, Marburg, 1735. Fuss, Roman Antiquities, translated by Street, Oxford, 1840, 8vo.
| Hase, Public and Private Life of the Ancient Greeks,