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« PARATED from the Church.” By which, and the other Monuments of that Age, it is evident, they held, that even Bishops, and all other lawful Ministers, lost their VERY AU. THORITY to do any thing more in the Ministerial Functions, when they either Schismatically or Heretically separated themselves from the Church of Christ. Hence doubtless it came to pass that St. Cyprian and his Collegues esteemed all their Ministerial Acts, done while in Schism or Heresy, to be Null and Void, and consequently that the supposed Sacraments administred by them, and those whom they ordained, were no true Christian Sacraments, and therefore Invalid and Ineffectual. This, I say, appears to me to be the true Foundation of that great Dispute concerning the Validity of Heretical and Schisma, tical Baptisms, and which “ St. Cyprian mana“ ged with so much Christian Humility and “ Charity, that tho' Stephen Bishop of Rome
was so far from agreeing to the Reasons of « the Africans (whether because he imagin'd “ they had a Design to condemn the Roman “ Church, or because he thought this Que“ ftion was of too great consequence) that
he was enrag'd against St. Cyprian and his « Collegues, and used their Deputies ill; nay, • he prohibited all Christians belonging to “ his Church to receive or lodge them, de. “ priving them not only of Ecclesiastical “ Communion, but also refusing them the
common Civilities of Hospitality ; yet he [i. e. St. Cyprian] could not think of breaking Peace with them, of giving up Communion with them, of Abstaining or Ex
communicating them; notwithstanding Ste4. phen had taken
upon him to excommunicate those who oppos'd the Ratification of Here“ tical and Schismatical Baptisms. Upon the "whole, the Persecution of the Church by • Valerian, Anno 257. put an end to this «
Controversy. St. Cyprian NEVER alter'd « his Opinion ; the Greek Churches were, for
a long time after him, divided upon this “ Question: The Council of Arles first de“ cided it in the West; St. Austin followed its
Decision; the Western Church has embrac'd " this Opinion ; viz. That Baptism by Here« ticks, in the Name of the Trinity, is Valid : " And tho’ the Eastern Churches have not a. “ greed with her absolutely in this point, yet
they always made a Distinction between 06
Hereticks, and differently receiv'd them,
In the Canons that are call'd Apostolical, we have these Remarkable Canons, according to the Division of Cotelerius.
Canon 38. “ We order, that a Bishop,
tism, &c. from an Heretick, be depo“ sed; or, as the Learned Author of the Clergy-man's Vade-Mecum observes, “ The BiShop, Priest or Deacon, who allows the Baptism, &c, of Hereticks.
39. “ If a Bishop or Priest do again “ Baptize one who HAS REALLY receiv'd “ Baptism before; or if he do not Baptize one $ that has been polluted by Wicked Men (i. e. Baptized by Hereticks, See Canon 38.) " Let him be depos’d, as one that makes NO “ DISTINCTION betwixt PRIESTS and 6 PRETENDERS.
“ In the 4th Century, St. Athanafius re"jects the Baptism of Hereticks. Pacianus " says, That Baptism purifies from Sins, and “Unation brings down the Holy Spirit, and “ both the One and the Other are apply'd by the
Hand and the Mouth of the Bishop. Optatus, “ That the Donatifts (who, by the way, were
Schismaticks) “ committed a great Crime “ in Reiterating Baptism: (Where 'tis to be noted, That they Re-baptized the very Catholicks who came over to them.)“ That’tis not he Fc who gives this Sacrament of Baptism, that © confers the Graces ; but the Faith of him
that receives it, and the Virtue of the Tri6 nity. We ask (says he) if it be Lawful to
repeat Baptism given in the Name of the “ Trinity ? Ye maintain that it is Lawful ; “ We say that it is forbidden : The People
are in Suspence. Let us therefore search after “ the Will of our Father, in the Gospel; which ♡ will inform us, That he who hath been
once washed, needs not to be washed ay “ gain; Wherefore (adds he ) We do not Re-baptize those who have been Baptized,
when they return again to us. He against the Donatifts, 56 That the Holiness of the Minister does not contribute to the
Validity of the Sacrament of Baptism; and " that, because the Effect of the Sacrament " is owing to God only; and in short, be“ cause the Sacraments are Holy, and do “ San&tify by themselves. Yet he seems to think, “ That we ought to Re-baptize those
who were Baptized by Hereticks; but does not make the same Determination concerning those who were Baptized by Schifmaticks.
“ The Council of Eliberis, Anno 305, Ca
non 38, declares, That a Christian who is “ neither Penitent, (i. e. not under Penance, ) nor a Bigamist, may Baptize in a “ Case of NECESSITY, those who are on a
Journey, being at a great distance from a “ Church, upon Condition that he present “ him to the Bishop, if he survive, to be
PERFECTED by Imposition of Hands.
Here it ought to be observ'd, that this Ancient Council was not a General one; and so its Canon could not thus authorize all LayChristians; it extended no farther than to the Subjects of thole Bishops there assembled. And therefore our Lay-Baptizers cannot act by virtue of this Canon ; especially considering further, that this Canon was not made as Declarative of any Proper Inherent Right or Authority that Lay-Christians, AS SUCH, had
to Baptize: It only appointed Some to do this, who had not Authority to do it before of them selves. Besides, it is plainly restrain'd to such as were in Communion with, and Subjection to their Bishops ; they were not to be under PENANCE, ESC. And therefore if this had been a General Council, as it certainly was not, our Lay-Baptizers who act in Opposition to Episcopacy, could have receiv'd no Authority from this Canon.
« The Council of Arles, call'd by the Em
peror Anno 314, consisting of Thirty three Go Western Bishops, Canon 8. determines the “famous QUESTION about the Re bapti6 zation of Hereticks, and ordains concerning “ the Africans, who had ALWAYS Re-bap“ tiz'd them, That if any one leave a Heresy, "and return to the Church, he shall be ask'd
concerning the Creed; and if it be known “ that he was Baptiz’d in the Name of the Faf6 ther, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Im“ position of Hands only, shall be given him, “ that he may receive the Holy Spirit: But if “ he does not acknowledge the Trinity,” I fippose ʼtis meant, if while a Heretick he did not acknowledge the Trinity, or if the Heretick who Baptiz’d him did not acknowledge the Trinity, (the latter is the most likely)" he $6 shall be Re-baptiz’d.
By the way, in this Canon there is not one Word about LAY-BAPTISM: And as for the Hereticks whọ then Baptiz’d, they had al