Space Debris: Hazard Evaluation and Debris
When the first sputnik was launched and the space era began, few gave thought to the possible negative impact of putting satellites into orbit. In fact, man's space activity has led to the formation of a new media named "space debris," i.e. man-made objects and their fragments launched into space, currently inactive and no longer serving any useful purpose. Space Debris: Hazard Evaluation and Mitigation will appeal to readers unfamiliar with the issues, as well as experts and designers. It introduces concepts behind the problems of space ecology. The volume features actual data on the space debris environment; new mathematical models for space debris evolution, production and self-production; description of the existing software and concepts for shield design. The author also reviews methods of collision risk assessment, including the attitudes and inclinations of orbits, collision hazard evaluation and suggestions for preventative measures.
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European Space Agency Activities on Orbital Debris
Mathematical Model for Space Debris Evolution Production
The Solution of Applied Problems Using the Space Debris
Geostationary Orbit Pollution and Its LongTerm Evolution
AreaMass and Mass Distributions of Orbital Debris
Space Debris Production in Different Types of Orbital Breakups
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altitude altitude distribution approach area-to-mass ratio atmospheric drag axis ballistic coefficients breakup models calculated catalogued objects characteristic Chobotov coefficient collision probabilities component containment d d d d debris cloud debris evolution debris objects debris particles debris population deflagration determined detonation diameter droplets eccentricities elastic energy energy release equation estimate flux forecasts formula function gas phase geostationary orbit Geosynchronous Orbit graveyard orbit groups hazard hypergolic hypervelocity hypervelocity impact inclination initial internal loading Kiselev Kosmos launches low Earth orbits mass distribution mathematical models meteoroid number density number of collisions number of fragments number of objects orbital debris parameters perigee perigee altitude Poisson distribution polydispersed possible pressure probability of collision radar range re-orbit reaction relative velocity scenario shell sizes Smirnov space debris space objects spacecraft spatial density tank technogeneous temperature total number turbulent values velocity vector wall zone