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FOR THE CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE.

ON THE ADVANTAGES OF THE LITURGY. TUMEROUS are the advantages of our Liturgy, and it well becomes the

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Not only intellectual and moral imperfections are guarded against, but those infirmities of our nature which can hardly be said to originate in depravity, are, by this excellent form of supplication, so managed, controlled, and directed, as to be rendered even amiable and useful.

A person of a warm constitution, and lively imagination, in addresses where the attections are so deeply concerned, as in those which are offered up to the Supreme Being, especially when in an assembly who are professedly engaged in the same interesting service, is liable to lose the reins of reason, and to wan.. der into impropriety, unless attended with some restraints upon the lasty and almost irresistible impulses of his mind. This evil is delicately guarded against

by the correct sentiments, and the elegant and sublime language of our Liturgy; ed

whereby suitable scope is given to the affections; and the imagination is gently restrained from the wanderings into which it would otherwise deviate; and he who, unrestrained by a prescript form, would probably be the most dangerous suitor for 2. congregation, becomes a safe and agreeable one; diffusing the warmth of his affections through the whole assembly; and presenting them be. fore the Almighty, in a language becoming the humility of penitents and the majesty of the Hearer of Prayers. Thus secured, every person who attends Church may enter upor his devotion, without the least fear of offering an unbecoming thoughtor expression; solicitous only to be excited by the sincere and affectionate manner of the reader, in order to render the feelings of his heart conformable to the sentiments and language of his petitions.

The Liturgy has likewise a tendency to check the mischievous propensity of the human heart to novelty and change. This is an imperfection of our nature which it becomes us to overrule and controul; because when indulged it. not only leads individuals into errors in faith and practice, but even exposes to destruction the peace and safety of society, and the most sacred institutions of church and state. By the constant use of a Liturgy, the mind finds'a place of rest ; it fixes upon a foundation, from whence no alteration in circumstances can give occasion for a removal ; it finds a channel in which all its affections may safely and agreeably flow into that boundless ocean of divine goodness, to which they ought always to be directed: And by the standard of faith which it exhibits in its creeds and offices, it not only secures the mind against errors arising from its own misunderstanding of the scriptures, but also guards it against those seducers who lie in wait to deceive; and secures us in the profession and belief of the faith ouce delivered to the saints ; agreeably to the observation of an inspired Apostle, that the Church is the ground and pillar of the truth.

Another advantage of the Liturgy, is, that it very much contributes, not only to unity in faith among the members of the Church, but to harmonize

them in their affections towards one another. To unite in offering up the same e prayers and praises to " our Father who is in heaven,” strongly affects us, not

only with the idea of our relation to him, but towards each other. The same sentiments and expressions, will operate nearly alike upon all who attend to them; and a sort of sympathy, that can no otherwise be excited, pervades the whole congregation ; each voice brings into unison the atfections of all; and a united AMEN, in the strongest manner, expresses our assent to what has gone before, and loudly proclaims our love to God and to one another.

C. [To be continued.]

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AN ADDRESS TO YOUTH.
ET not the season of youth he neglected or unprofitably spent. Now is

shall reap.#naterer impulse you now give to your desires and pussions, the direction is likely to continue. It will form the channel in which your life is to run ; nay, it may

deterinine its everlasting issue. Consider then the time of youth as a high trust committed to you, in which you are to sow the seeds of temporal

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Heathen evidences of Christianly. and eternal happiness. As, in the succession of the seasons, each, by the in variable laws of nature, affects the productions of what is next in course; so, in human life, every period of our age, according as it is well or ill spent, influences the happiness of that which is to follow. Virtuous and well edụcated youth gradually brings forward accomplished and flourishing inaphood; and 1 for such manhood naturally progresses into respectable and tranquil old age. But when nature is turned out of its regular course, disorder takes place in the veget able world. If the spring put forth no blossoms, in the summer there will be no beruty, and in the autumn there will be no fruit. So, if youth be trifled way without improvement, manhood will be conteinptible, and old age miserable. If the beginnings of life have been vanity, its latter end can be no bet ter than vexation of spirit. Therefore, remember thy Creator in the days of it thy youth.

TO THE ED-ET O-RS OF THE CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE. Gentlemen, Your perionical labours, I trust, will be productive of much good, by disser

inating proper principles of religon and virtue among all classes of people,
cu!io maa be wisposed to peruse ther.-In the present üge, when faith is sus-
pended fill overawed by evidence, erery thing that stands up as a witness for
the truths of God, merits our attention ; I hate therefore sent you a col-
bection of heathen testimonies concerning our Saviour, which if approved
shall be succeeded by others of a similar nature. I am in sincerity your.
friend and one of the many advocates for your Magazine.

B. B.
HEATHEN EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY.-No. 1.

A

iniracles, the following heathen testimonies are worthy of the Chritian's attention, because their dates coincide with the time of our Saviour, or the days of the Apostles.

That “ Augustus Cæsar had ordered the whole empire to be taxed," which brought our Saviour's reputed parents to Bethlehem, is mentioned by several Roman historians, as Tacitus, Suetonius, and Dion.“ That a great light or new star appeared in the East, which directed the wise men to our Saviour," is recorded by Chalcidius. “ That Herod, the king of Palestine, so often inentioned in the Roman history, made a great slaughter of innocent chil

drea :" that jealous of his successor, he put to death his own sons, is inentioned Lbs Macrobius and several historiads. 1. That our Saviour had been in Egypt,"

Celsus is an evidence, for he impiously writes, that our Saviour learned the arts of magic in that country. That Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, that our Saviour was brought before him to be judged,” is recorded by Tacitus. “ That many cures and works, out of the ordinary course of nature, were performed by him,” is confessed by Juifan, Porphyry, and Hierocles, professed enemies, and persecutors of Christianity. " That our Saviour foretold several things which came to pass according to his predictions,” is attested by Phelegon in his annals, as we are informed, by Origen in his book against Celsus, That, at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion, there was a miraculous darkness, and a great earthquake,” is recorded by the same Phelegon, the Trallian, who was a Pagan, and a freeman of Adrian the emperor. We may hierę observe, that a native of Trallium, which was no great distance from Palestine, might very probably be informed of such remarkable events as had passed amongst the Jews in the age immediately preceding his own time, since geveral of his countrymen with whom he had conversed, might have received many reports concerning our Saviour before his crucifixion, and probably lived within the shake of the earthquake, and the shadow of the eclipse, which are recorded by this author.

" That Christ was worshipped as a God amongst the Christians; that they would rather sufter death than blaspheme him; that they received a sacrament, and by it entered into a vow of abstaining from sin and wickedness; that they assembled privately for religious purposes, to avoid persecution ; that they used forins, and responses both in prayer, and praise, is the account which

Explanation of Joshùa, chap. a. ver. 12.

75 Tiny the younger gives of Christianity in his dảys, about seventy years after the Passion. That they had a form of sound words ;* that they lifted up their coice with one accord; t that they said Amen, at the giring of thunks; and * that St. Peter did many wonderful works,” is owned by Julian, who, therefore, represents him as a great magician, and one who had in his possession a book of magical secrets left by our Saviour. “ That the devils, or evil spirits wéré subject to the Apostles," we may learn from Porphyry, who objects to Christianity, that since the worship of Jésus commenced, Esculapius and trie other deities did no more converse with men: Celsus also says, that the power which seemed to reside in Christians proceeded from the use of certain names, and the invocating of certain demons.” Origen remarks on this passage, that the author doubtless hints at those Christians who put to flight evil spirits, and healed those who were possessed with them; a fact which had been often scea by numbers, and which he himself had seen, as he informs us in another part of his discourse against Celsus; at the same time he declares that this was done by virtue of no other name but that of Jesus.

Despising every account of our Saviour's miracles, and the many testimonies which to an unprejudiced mind

would have settled their authenticity, Celsus continued to boast of his disbelieving their divine sanction, and endeavdired to maintain that our Saviour was a magician. Thus, he compares the feeding so many thousands at two different times, with a few loaves and fishes, to the magical feasts of those Egyptian impostors, who would present their spectators with visionary entertainments, that had in them neither substance ner reality ; which, by ihe way, is to suppose, that an hungry and fainting multitude were filled by an apparition, or strengthened and refreshed withi shadows.

[To be continued.] * 2 Tim. i. 13. † Acts iv. 24.

1 Cor. xis. 16.

TO THE EDITORS OF THE CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE. Gentlemen, The despisers of God and his Church, are glad of proposing to us Christians

any difficulty in Scripture, which they think unintelligible, or unphilosophical. -I am a plain furmer, and little acquainted wiih any thing beyond ihe line of my farm, ny family and my religion, and ruould be inucn obliged to you, if you would, in your next, furour me with such an answer to the case of Joshua's stopping the sun and moon, mentioned in the 10th chap. rer., 12, of his history, such, I say, as may stop the mouth of an infidel neighbour of mine, who is proud of this difficulty ; for he has the impudence to say, that he defies the editors of the Churchnian's Magazine to gire any tolerüble úccount of that transaction.1 an anxious, gentlemen, to hear from you or this subject. The voice of blasphemy increases daily-send over your word, and come and help us. Wishing all success to your rery taluable Magazine, I am, &c.

A, M. EXPLANATION OF JOSHUA, CHAP. X. ver. 12.

and his zeal for the honour of God's word, prompts him to apply to us for assistance, we will readily employ a page or two of the present number for his gratification, knowing that“ hope delerred inaketh tlie heart sick.”-Alid as the subject has been exceedingly agitated, and we apprehend to very little purpose, we hope that the following solution, will be read with unprejudiced attention.

Joshua, chap. x. ver. 12.-Sun stand thou still upon Gibeon ; and thor Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until, $c. So the sun stood still in the midst of hearen and husted not to go down about a whole day.

The Hebrew word which is here rendered stand still, signifies also, to remain equable, eten, level. The text then may be read thus-sun or solar light, be thou, or remain equable, eren, level upon Gibeon. The sun was novy setting to Gibeon, and consequently Gibeon was in the circle of inter-ectio:

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A succinct history of baptism. or division between the light and darkness. Had this circle of intersection

continued to shift further westward, or more philosophically speaking, had - the solar light at the evening or western edge of the earth given way, as usual,

to the impulse of the darkened or gross air, the motion of the earth must have continued. But by the solar light's being arrested, and commanded to remain equable or level upon Gibeon, it became as it were a wall of adamant against the inrushing of the nocturnal or gross air, consequently the motion of the earth was stopped, and the circle of intersection between light and darkness remained exactly where it was, or in other words, as at verse 13, the solur light stayed in the horizon or extremity of the heavens, and husted not to go off, as it was just about to do, and that, for a whole day. In the Alexandrian M. S. of Eccles. chap. xlvi. ver. 5-where the Greek is ouchi en, &c. the English translation is - Was not the sun stopped by his (Joshua's) means, and one day made equal to two :".

See Parkhurst's Heb. Lex. on the word JIDEM and Spearman's Enquiry ale ter Philosophy and Theology, chap. iv.--And let the enquirer farther observe, that the word which we render sun, does not always imply the mass or body of that luminary, but the solar fluxės of light and heat issuing continually from him. 'Thus, Ezekiel chap. xxxii. ver. 7. “ I will cover the heaven (saith the Lord) “ and make the stars dark;

I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light.Distinct mention is here made of the steller, solar, and lunar fures of light, as being under the immediate controul of the power of God; and where is the dilliculty in believing the miraculous stoppage of the solar flux of light, so as to retard the diurnal motion of his earth for a whole day; when that sovereign power is the Agent, who spake und all things were made, who commanded, and they stood fust.--His solar fl'ures irradiate every part of heaven and earth ;-they issue from the orb of the sun, as from a tent, and their circuit is from the one end of heaven to the other, and nothing is hidden from their genial warinih.-Psalm xix. rer. *i &c,

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A SUCCINCT HISTORY OF BAPTISM,

AS CELEBRATED BY THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH.
CHAP. Ist.Of the names and appellations nf baptism, occasioned by its effects,
FROM one of its effects, baptism was agtiently called the sacrament of

grace, the sacrament of absolution. But because those effects might not always attend baptism, through some default in the administrator or the receiver ; wheuever the ancients call baptism the sacrament of grace or absolution, they mean that it is such to the worthy receiver when authoratively ad, ministered. Hence we may observe, that the antient meaning of grace or absolution, is God's pardoning siu through the ministerial application of his sacraments, which are the seals of his covenant in Christ Jesus ; and because baptism introduceth men into thaç covenant of grace and pardon of six, it was dignified with that name of the sacrament of absolution.

Because men were born again of water and of the Holy Ghost by baptism, it was called the redemption of the soul;"_" the water of lite ;''--and the deviire fountain ;"-from which comes the word font. It was also cailed the spiritual birth by which God in a peculiar sense became the Father of men, and the holy Churçli their mother, "These Gregory Nazianzen enuine raies several titles of honour given to baptism,“ We call it, (says he) the gift, the grace, buptism, unction, illumination, the garment of immortality, the iarer of regeneration, the seul or character, and whatever else is precious and honourable ;" and he remarks on the word unction, that baptism was sy denominated, because it made us "kings and priests unto God." Jerome also styles baptism the (sacerdotium laici) lay man's priesthood, in contradistinction to the clerica), which was conferred only by ordination.

Eterval salvation being another effect of baptism, (as St. Augustin informs
us) the African Coristians commonly called it salcation, as they did the eu-
charist by the name of life.

From its nature and substance, baptism had the names of mystery, sacrament,
Start of Me Lord. - The Clouens de mandrinus, epiaking of a newly baptized

A short vocabulary. convert, says, “they gave him the seal of the Lord.” There is an evident propriety in calling baptism the seal of the Lord, because on the forehead, the sign of the cross is inade, and to the inner man is given the earnest of the spirit. As a mark, says St. Chrysostom, is set upon soldiers, so the spirit is put upon true believers :, and as the Jews had circumcision for their char“ acter, so we have the earnest of the spirit.”—And this distinction between the internal and external seal at baptisın was necessary to be made, because many received the external seal, who, through their own default, received not the seal of the spirit.-Thus Sinion Nagus received the seal of the Lord; that is, the outward form of baptism, but whoever said or imagined that he received the internal seal and grace of the Holy Spirit ? and this remark will apply to all heretical and scismatical baptisms, which, though they may have " the form of godliness,” are nevertheless destitute of “ the power thereof.".

St. Augustin commonly uses the names, character regius and character dominicus, for the external form of baptism, common to all who liave been baptized in the nanie of the Holy Trinity. And this character, says he, is so *s indelible, that an apostatizing Christian, though he turn Jew or Pagan, can never need a second baptism, but only repertance and absolution to rein"state him in the Christian Church."

[To be continued.)

Hell.

A SHORT VOCABULARY, GIVING THE SIGNIFICATION OF SOME OLD ENGLISH WORDS, continued.

TOT

ed spirits, or what we commonly call the other world. The word comes from halan, to cover, hide, or conceal ;-and signities an unknown place-the hidden or invisible world. Hell sometimes signifies only death, as Psalın xviii. ver. 4. and Psalın cxyi. ver. 3. Hence the meaning of that article in our Creeds, “ He descended into Hell," is, He went into the regions of departed spirits.

Host. Army. Imagine. "Io contrive, plot, design, Psalm ii. ver. 1. and elsewhere. INSTANTLY. That is, importunately, or zealously, Psalm iv. ver. 18.We still say that a thing was done at the instance, that is, at the earnest request of another. The adjective instant signifies importunule in our last translation, Luke xxiii. ver. 23.

LEASING. Lying, cheating, dissembling.

LUST. Not only carnal desires, but any eagerness of appetite, or violent : irregular inclination, Psalm X. ver. 2. So to lust or list siguilics the same in : this translation, Psalm lxxiii. ver. 7.

MALICIOUS. Very bad or evil; but we now understand it to imply, spiteful or entious.

NETHERMOST. Lowest, Psalm lxxxvi. ver. 13. Nether is used for lower by our last translators, Déut. xxiv. ver. 6. &c. PEAGUE. Any stroke of God's correcting or punishing hand, Ps. xxxviii. yer. 17, not the pestilence or plague only:--To plague, in common lauguage, signifies to use severe proceedings against une.

PORT. Gate;" from the Latin porta; and we still call himn who keeps the gate, Porter.

PREACHER. Not only he who discourseth publicly on religious subjects, but one who publisheth or declareth any thing, by a delegated authority.

Prevent. To gò before, from the Latin prævenio. There are two designs which one may have in going before another, either to guide or help; or to ler or stop him; and accordingly this word signifies two contrary things, viz. to guide, help forward, or to oppose, hinder, &c. In the Scrip ture and Liturgy it is for the most part taken in the good sense, namely, lo guide, help forward, assist, or to anticipate with kindness, as Psalm xxi. ver. z: sometimes in a bad sense, viz. to hinder, stand in one's tay, 8:0. as Psalın cxix. part 19. ver. 4. and 1 Thess, chap. iv. ver. 15.

Quick. Alite-and so to quicken, is to give or restore life, to revive, or lisen, Psal. cxxiv. ver. 2. ' Psalm dä, ver, J. [To it coilsinücd1

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