Obrazy na stronie

unendowed alike by church and state, the danger arising from it to Christianity cannot be great." pp. 447, 448.

This statement is not only false in some of its facts, but in its spirit is worthy almost of Voltaire himself, Various instances occur in this volume of that mode of interpretation which presses a scriptural phrase beyond its immediate design and purport, and thus endangers that soundness of mind with which the Bible should be studied. We might also add other blemishes; such, for instance, as fancifulness, which, we fear, is the characteristic quality of the work. Mr. Bogue enters as fully and as minutely into the manners and customs of the inhabitants whom he professes to describe, as if he had actually been long resident among them. The details are sometimes so minute as to be almost ludicrous. We shall give but one short specimen :

"In the Millennium, the printer's employment will continue, while the craft of the armourer ceases; and will be very considerably enlarged, while many others decrease. Dare we attempt the catalogue of a Millennium Library?* P. 198.

Dogmatism is also, we apprehend, too prominent a feature of this volume. Mr. Bogue very frequently lays down his conjectures as indisputable facts: a few more modify ing expressions, such as "doubttess"-" it is possible"-" it is probable" would have greatly

tended to counteract this effect. The

manner of Sir Thomas More, or Harrison, or Lord Erskine, or, we might add, of Emanuel Swedenborgt, ought not to have been

We fear, if Mr. Bogue should be appointed librarian, our humble lucubrations will find no place.

Our readers will be aware to which of the works of these authors we allude. We, of course, do not intend to compare the sublime scriptural views of the Millennium with the creative fancies of these or similar writers; though it may be Somewhat Utopian to expand those geperal allusions into the minute details which a lively imagination may see fit to

adopted in a work really professing to detail facts of so serious aud important a nature. But the unsparing, and what we consider the unjust, reflections against existing institutions, which are supported not by law only, but by the sober judgment of a majority of thinking persons in the country, form our principal ground of objection to the spirit and management of the work; and so serious is that objection in our minds, that we are compelled to hesitate respecting the propriety of recommending it for general perusal. Our readers will recollect that we had occasion to find similar fault with an historical work by the present author and Mr. Bennett, where, perhaps, it prevailed to a somewhat greater degree; though, indeed, very many instances of it are even here to be found which we have not produced, as particularly in the sermons on the judgments of God on the kingdoms of the world, introductory to the Millennium, and on the progress of the Protestant churches to millennian glory.

Still, however, though the author has introduced into his work much which we must utterly condema, at least done well in taking a prac we cheerfully allow that he has tical view, if we may so call it, of the Millennium, and, by ex eiting a holy emulation, to antedate in some measure, if, indeed, such an effect were possible, its commencement. This mode of examining the subject is calculated to impart to it an interest, which no merely speculative inquiries can possess; and we hope the number of those will increase, who, omitting all curious and unprofit able discussions, and leaving darker prophecies to be illustrated by the

conjecture or invent. That "knowledge shall be increased" is the scriptural text; but the additions of the printinghouse (p. 198), the school-roont (passim), the post-office (p. 200), the parlour circle (passim), &c. adds human littleness to what in itself is great and imposing.

event, will fasten their attention on those plain promises which are the very aliment of faith, and will direct their understandings to perceive the nature of those advancing glories which will gradually become more distinct as they approach their consummation. We need not be too anxious about forming systems and reconciling difficulties. These will all fall into their appointed place and order, when the seals, which are doubtless now unfolding, shall lay open their long-concealed contents, and the anticipation of Christian faith give place to reality. In the mean time, he who shall endeavour to assign to every text of Scripture its apropriate force and meaning will penetrate farther within the veil, and comprehend more of the mystery to be revealed, than he, who, being tenacious of preconceived opinions,

and perplexing himself by a vain ambition to render all parts of his theory consistent, is tempted to sacrifice truth to arrangement, and to construct a regular scheme by bending the plain words of Scripture to accommodate them to the

visionary fancies of an interpreter. Unaccomplished prophecy is a language which we are only begin. ping to learn; and it does not become us to dogmatize on the meaning of every word in each sentence, while our vocabulary is incomplete. We might, indeed, by such a mode of procedure, form ingenious conjectures and plausible translations; but when the language shall be at length fully understood, we shall doubtless be surprised at the errors which we once defended as truths, and the wide guesses which we asserted as indisputable conclusions.


&c. &c.

GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication:-Sermons, by Dr. Chalmers;-Geographical and Statistical Account of Scotland, in 2vols. by Professor Playfair;-Chronological History of Arctic Voyages, by Mr. Barrow; The Life of Antar, a Bedouin Chief, from the Arabic, by T. Hamilton;

History of Kensington, by T. Faulk ner;-An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, by F. Hamilton;-The Conchology of Great Britain and Ireland, by T. Brown;-Elements of Zoology, by the same; Science and Scientific Institutions in France, by Dr. Granville;-Narrative of the Expedition to Algiers, by Abraham Salame;-Life of Andrew Melville, by Dr. M'Crie; Narrative of an Expedition which sailed from England, in 1817, to join the South American Patriots, by Lieut. J. Hackett; Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States of America, by D. B. Warden, Esq.;-Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Asia, by Hugh Murray.

the same;

In the Press:-Journey up the Nile, by J. L. Burckhardt;-Letters from the North of Italy, by W. S. Rose ;-Sermons, by the Rev. R. C. Marturin;-A Manual of Chemistry, by W. T. Brande;' -Beauties of Affection, a Poem, by G. H. Toulmin;-Description of Java, Bali, and the Celebes, by J. Crawford; Elements of Geology, by Professor Jameson;-Manual of Mineralogy, by -The Anglo- Cambrian, a Poem, by Miss Mary Linwood;-Elements of Chemistry, by Mr. Accum;— Political and Literary Anecdotes of his Own Times, by Dr. King;-The Evidence in Favour of the Miracles Recorded in the Gospels, by the Rev. W. Faulkner; - The Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay;-An improved edition, in 2 vols. 8vo. of Schmidius's Concordance to the Greek New Testament, from the Glasgow University Press.

Memoranda of the Summer of 1818.The late remarkably mild and open and

tumn having, at length, given way to a less genial season, it may not be uninteresting to our readers (in perpetuam rei memoriam) to collect a few particulars relative to the extraordinary summer to which it so appropriately succeeded. The summer of 1818 will, pro bably, be long remembered throughout Europe, as one of the dryest and most sultry ever known. This unusual heat commenced towards the latter end of May, and lasted, without material alteration, till the 8th of September. During this period of about 108 days there was rain, in London, but twenty-five times; and for the most part, the atmosphere was cloudless. The thermometer averaged, in the last eight days of May, 57.5o; throughout June, 66.04°; July, 68.81°; August, 63.84, and the first eight days of September, 62.56°; giving an average for the whole of the hot season of 61.35. The most sultry days were June 12 and 13, thermometer at 850; July 24, at 91.50; August 5 and 6, at 88.5°. For the sake of comparison we annex the average heat of the same number of days for the following years.

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The effects of such a summer may be readily conjectured. The quality of the wheat was more than ordinarily good; hops were unusually fine and abundaut: while grass and culinary vegetables of almost every description, suffered in the extreme.-Potatoes, in some parts, rose to nearly five times the price of the preceding summer, and to double the price of apples; which, after so many years scarcity and American blight, have begun to appear again, in England, in even more than their long-celebrated quality and abundance. Cattle were actually foddered, in many places, in the parched fields in the middle of summer, and ash trees were lopped for their food -a custom very unusual in this country, The want of water for the cattle was, in many districts, most distressing.

The insect tribes felt the effects of the season in an extraordinary degree. The pulverized surface of the ground has been fatal to myriads of the suail and sing species, worms, and caterpillars; while, on the other hand, the butterflies and winged insects, which deposit the eggs of devouring larvæ, were far more numerous and fecund than in common years. The white butterfly almost resembled a snow-shower, in gardens where the attraction was great.

Ornithologists say, that the Nightingale never emigrates north of the Trent; but in the memorabilia of the summer of 1818, it has been reported that two of these much-famed musicians were heard channting their vespers on the banks of the Forth.

This must surely have afforded a high gratification to the native bards of Scotland, who delight in singing the praises of the Mavis, the Lark, and the Linnet --but who, till now, have never heard, in their own country, the still superior straius of the Nightingale.

The future effects of such a summer, upon the soil, may, probably, be consi derable, especially by putting into good heart (as agriculturists express it) the cultivated lands which had been diluted and weakened by several wet seasons.

thermometer blackened, 122. The observations in different places greatly vary, on account of the different circumstances under which they were made. A respectable journal gives the thermometer July 24, at 98, which was proba bly never equalled in the memory of man, except, perhaps, on the 16th of July, 1793.


The unusual warmth and genial rains of the autumn, have prevented many of the inconveniences anticipated from the preceding drought; especially by supplying more prolific after-crops than have, perhaps, ever been remembered. The extensive destruction of the insect tribes opens a favourable prospect to the labours of the agriculturist.

This excessive heat was not confined to Great Britain. A remarkable circumstance was, that it rose to about the same average height throughout Europe, in very different latitudes. At Rome, Berlin, Madrid, Vienna, Marseilles, and London, the thermometer indicated little difference. Throughout the continent there was a higher and longer continued degree of heat than had been experienced for forty years. At the Royal Observatory of Paris, on the 31st of July, the thermometer was at 27.4 Reaumur,or about 92.30 Fabrenheit. Accounts from various parts of North America, and we believe from Asia, concur in similar representations.

It has been mentioned as a singular coincidence, that in 1718, at the distance of precisely 100 years from the present, the weather was extremely hot and dry all over Europe. The air felt so oppressive, that all the theatres were shut in Paris. Scarcely any rain fell for the space of nine months, and the springs and rivers were dried up. The grass and corn were quite parched. In some places the fruit-trees are said to have blossomed two or three times. The thermometer (Fahrenheit's) rose to 98 degrees, at Paris.

A very extraordinary discovery of cu riosities, literary, political, and historical, is stated to have been lately made at Rome, by Dr. R. Watson, author of the Lives of Fletcher and Gordon. This gentleman, it seems, went to Italy to search for any manuscripts or reliques of the House of Stuart, which might have been left in the hands of strangers by the last survivors of the family. After much trouble, he discovered that the executor of the executor of the Cardinal York was in possession of a vast collection of papers, on which he placed so lit tle value, that he suffered them to remain in an upper room without windows, exposed to every shower of rain. He, there fore, readily sold the whole to Dr. W. who took possession of them, and removed them in carts to his own apartments,

where they were seen by many distin guished English visitors in Rome. They consisted of nearly 400,000 separate articles: of which, about 250,000 were possessed of various degrees of interest. Among these were nearly 100 original letters of Fenelon, many letters of Bolingbroke, Pope, Swift, Atterbury, and other English writers; and a series of letters, continued through a period of pearly 100 years, of almost every potentate and statesman in Europe, and of most of the English nobility. The contents of many of these documents are said to be of the most extraordinary character, developing the plans which were adopted at different times for the restoration of the Stuarts, and the names of the promoters and partisans in Britain and abroad. The contents excited much interest in Rome, and the papal government took alarm in regard to the exposure of its own projects and policy. Dr. W. was, in consequence, sent for by the Papal Secretary of State, who, from overtures to re-purchase, adopted threats; and, finally, took forcible possession of the whole, and put the owner under arrest. He appealed, it is added, in vain, to the British resident and ministers; and it appears that, after the Pope's ministers had duly examined the whole, they caused a tender to be made of them to the Regent of England; and a British frigate was actually sent to convey them to England! Accordingly, they are now in Carlton-house: and Dr. W. who, on being enlarged, at Rome, set off for England to reclaim them, has obtained some temporary recompence. A commission, it is added, has been appointed to investigate his further claims.

The United States of America are beginning to be powerful rivals to Europe in the book trade, as well as in many other species of manufacture. An edition of Cicero, 23 vols. 12mo. has just appeared from a press at Boston: the text is that of Ernestus, whose notes and claris are added. The title announces this as the first American printed edition of this author. It will, doubtless, be followed by other classical reprints.

Artists' Devices.-A Dictionary of the monograms, cyphers, initial letters, and figured marks, under which the most celebrated painters, designers, and engravers, have indicated their names:

augmented with a great number of marks, unknown till the present time, is in a course of publication at Munich, by Francis Brulliot, who is employed in the Cabinet of Prints, belonging to his Majesty the King of Bavaria. The use of such a work to collectors must be very considerable.

Savings Banks.-Up to the 31st July, the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt, had received, on account of Banks for Savings, 1,254,0217. 3s. 6d. with which has been purchased 1,569,4241. 3 per cents.

New Parish Vestry Bill.-By 58 Geo. III. cap. 69, intituled," An Act for the Regulation of Parish Vestries," it is enacted, that from and after July 1,1818, no Vestry Meeting of any parish shall be holden until three days' public notice shall have been given thereof, by the publication of such notice in the parish church on Sunday, during Divine Service, and also by affixing such notice, fairly written or printed, against the church-door. Sec. 1.-That in case the Rector or Vicar, or perpetual Curate, shall not be present, the persons in vestry assembled shall elect one of the inhabitants of the parish chairman of such vestry, who shall have a casting vote (in addition to his own proper vote or votes) on all questions in the said vestry; and minutes of the proceedings shall be fairly made in a book, to be provided by the churchwardens and overseers, which minutes shall be signed by the chairman, and such other inhabitants as may think proper to sign the same. Sec. 2. That in such Vestries every inhabitant present, who is assessed to the poor-rates under 501. per annum, shall have one vote for every 251. per annum, for which he is so assessed, but so that no inhabitant shall have more than six votes. Inhabitants jointly rated, to vote according to their several proportious; but, if only one of such jointly assessed inhabitants be present, he shall have vote in respect of the whole charge. Sec. 3.-Any person coming into a parish since the last rate may vote, in respect of the property for which he is liable to be rated. Sec. 4.Inhabitants who have refused or neglected to pay their poor-rates, after demand made, are not entitled to vote, or

be present at any vestry, until they shall have paid the same. Sec. 5.-Parish books, papers, accounts, &c. are to be kept as the inhabitants in vestry shall direct; and any person in whose custody any such books, papers, &c. may be, who shall destroy or injure the same, or shall refuse to give them up, after due notice of an order of vestry, shall, on conviction, forfeit not exceeding 50%. nor

less than 40s. to be recovered before two justices. Sec.6.

Cod Fishery in Shetland Islands.An immense bank covered with Cod has been discovered, extending from Papa Westra, in Orkney, along the west coast of the Shetland Islands. Already, the fishing has been great; and next season it is expected that this hitherto concealed treasure will afford Incrative employment to several hundred sail of fishing vessels. The fishermen report, that from 150 to 200 sail of vessels can fish on it, and out of sight of each other.

New Crown Pieces.-A small issue of new crown pieces has recently taken place, completing the series of the new silver coins. The obverse is the effigies of his Majesty; the reverse, George and the Dragon. The head of the King is" modelled in a pure and classical manner, in the Greek style; and the figures on the reverse are graceful studies, after the finest models, instead of being drawn in the old manner, with the stiff heraldic trappings of the fourteenth century. The national device of George and the Dragon is no unapt symbolical representation of our late triumphs over the demon of anarchy and despotism; to which the raised inscription on the edge of the coin (Decus et Tutamen) is an appropriate motto. The design and engraving are by an Italian of the name of Pistrucci, in the service of the Mint. Considerable skill has been employed in overcoming several technical difficulties, in the execution of the coin, particularly in the management of the inscription on the edge, which is the first example of a national coinage with raised letters on the edge, struck in the collar. The crown pieces of former monarchs have the raised letters; but they were struck out of the collar, and consequently, are neither perfect in the circles nor uniform in size with each other.

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