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and this happiness will be general too. Thus all the spiritual part of the Millennium will be produced. You have -only to add the extraordinary effusion of the grace of the Holy Ghost, which is promised in the latter days, and the whole of the noblest portion of the Millennium I plead for is obtained." pp. 630-632.
We shall not have room to say much on those accompanying wonders that belong to the downfal of anti-Christ, the annihilation of infidelity, the destruction of Maho-metanism, the conversion of the heathen, and the calling in of the Jews; on all which, as before ob-served, the author bestows a separate attention. It may suffice to -state, that he uniformly interprets anti-Christ of the Papacy, and ima gines, that the conversion of Israel, which, in his view, needs not include the Ten Tribes, will succeed the fulfilment of the times of the Gentiles, or general conversion of the heathen, and that the whole work will be carried on by the gradual progression of the Protestant churches in all knowledge and pu rity. In regard to the time when this glorious state of the church will commence, after some discussion of the memorable period of 1260 years, Mr. Bogue remarks:
"Without taking upon me to name the precise year of the commencement of anti-Christ's reign, shall I suppose it will have ceased, and the Millennium commence about the two thousandth year of the Christian era? Should I say there appears a greater probability that the longed-for event will take place about that time, than at the second period which has been mentioned; and the seventh thousand of the years of the world's existence prove a glorious sabbatic day of rest, and peace, and joyperhaps it would disappoint the ardent hope of its earlier approach, which some fondly entertain; and I think I can perceive the disappointment expressed in your sorrowful looks. But, if you view the subject with attention, there will be no cause either for disappointment or for grief, but infinitely much for gladness and rejoicing. You have not even the shadow of a reason
for ceasing from your benevolent exertions in despondency; but the best and most forcible of reasons for proceeding in your endeavours to hasten on the glory of the latter days, with all the ardour of the most lively hope, and with the fullest assurance of seeing greater things in the success of the Gospel than the world has yet beheld.
"Let it be granted that nearly two hundred years must yet revolve before the Millennium begin, immense is the mass of labour which must, during that whole space, without intermission, be employed, in order to bring it into existence. Eighteen centuries have already elapsed since the coming of the
Saviour into the world; but in the two that are yet to come, more remains to be done than has been done in all the eighteen which are past. The religion of Jesus, in its purity, is not yet even professed by a twentieth part of the inhabitants of the earth. Judge then what a Herculean labour it must be, in the space of two hundred years, to convert the other nineteen parts to the faith of Christ. Were we to be told that, for a long course of time, four millions of souls were annually brought to the knowledge of the truth, what a wonderful, as well as what a delightful, event we should conceive it to be. But, on an average, for near two centuries to come, more than this number must be converted every year before the whole world can be brought into subjection to
"To convince you of the magnitude of the work, the mere statement alone is sufficient; for this inconceivably exceeds any success with which the Gospel has ever yet been crowned in any age. Let it be remembered too, that it is not merely the converson of the whole world to the faith of Christ which constitutes the Millennium. No-the existence of the Millennium demands the existence of a far more extensive measure of Divine knowledge;-and far more exalted degrees of sanctity;-and a far greater portion of consolation and joy than have ever been experienced on earth. These superior heights of goodness and felicity, you must consider, are to take place, not only in countries like this in which we dwell, where Christianity has long been professed, but to be spread over the face of the whole earth, and to be as deeply rooted and extensively diffused through those lands which are now shrouded under
the dark mantle of pagan ignorance, idolatry, superstition, and vice. "Instead, therefore, of feeling disappointment at the remoteness of the felicity of the latter days, and being dejected at the prospect I have presented to you, think what a rich feast the Christians of this and the following century will enjoy in the continually brightening scenes of spiritual glory, from the increasing purity of the church, and from the propagation of the Gospel in the world, among Mahometans and Heathens, as well as among the superstitious votaries of anti-Christ. What delight must they feel while they behold mankind growing wiser, better, and happier, in consequence of their exertions! With unutterable joy will each generation perceive the enrapturing progress visible from year to year, till that highly-favoured race be called into existence, during whose life the Millennium shall commence, and the Sun of that glorious day shed his hallowed beams upon the world in all their splendour." pp. 608-611.
This naturally leads to a consideration of those exertions by which we may hope to promote, through the Divine blessing, that triumphant state of the Church, the prospect of which cheers us under its comparative depression. Our author conceives that the happy scene which he describes will result simply from an increase of piety and exertion in the Christian church, accompanied, of course, by the powerful but not peculiar influences of the Holy Spirit. We are inclined to think, that, in his anxiety to discourage illusory expectations of miraculous interference, Mr. Bogue is sometimes led to banish, unnecessarily, every thing that is extraordinary from his view of the millennian glory, and to lower the import of scriptural promises, as though there
were not a
"Dignus vindice nodus" for the Divine interference. But we leave these points, being more anxious to impress the minds of our readers with the importance of contemplating the several particulars, which make up the complete
ness of millennian excellence, than to determine before-hand, what perhaps is purposely concealed from our view, the historical order and particular description of those great works, which are essential to the accomplishment of the several prophecies which relate to this new and exalted state.
We might here close our review, were it not that Mr. Bogue has occasionally, we might have said studiously and systematically, of millennian blessedness reflec intermingled with his descriptions tions on the present order of things, which, in some instances, we think inconsistent with truth and candour, and in others calculated to give an erroneous view of the du ties of a Christian subject and the good order of a Christian church. Individual citations will scarcely exhibit the extent to which Mr. Bogue has carried this practice: it must, in fact, be gathered from a general perusal of the work, which, under the idea of describing a millennian state of perfection, conveys throughout a broad sneer against existing institutions. We will select a few passages illustrative of our remark. The present unequal division of labour and of property constitutes a prevailing feature of animadversion; and the author generally takes care to insinuate that it arises from the faults of governments. The whole of his reasonings on this and similar questions is of a most injurious tendency, and such as appears directly calculated to render the poor envious and discontented with that station which, after all the labours of policy and philanthropy, they must inevitably Occupy: "The poor shall never cease out of the land." We give an example:
"The frame of society will be greatly altered, as to the condition of the memcountries the land had become the inbers of the community. In too many heritance of a few; and the mass of the people, though they laboured hard, were unable to earn more than a scanty
Review of Bogue's Discourses on the Millennium.
meal of the coarsest fare, which they greedily devoured in their damp and foul hovel, with their ragged and meagre children. While they dragged out their days in this state of misery, the others could hardly contrive, with all their ingennity, to consume their immense revenues. The moral effect of this order of things is worse than the physical inequality: the former class is undone by ignorance, despair, and wretchedness; the latter sinks into the deepest mire of luxurious indulgence, and all the filth of those odious vices which spring up so rapidly in such a soil, As God has determined to shew mercy to mankind, an end must be put to a state of the world so injurious both to high and low; and it will be accomplished by these fearful judgments, when he cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquities.' The result of this awful dispen--it was to fight." p. 146. sation will be a system of social institutions more favourable to the improvement of the human character, and more congenial to the principles, as well as more propitious to the increase, of Christian piety. By these judgments of Heaven the pride of men, especially of those in exalted stations, will be humbled." pp. 296, 297.
hearers had proceeded from his lecture to effect a consummation which he had represented as so desirable?
Kings are another favourite and constant topic of Mr. Bogue's animadversion. For. instance:
"In that volume of history which extruth, we early find several rulers of cels all others, both in antiquity and nations assembled together. And what meeting of kings, which is recorded in think you, was the design of this first the annals of the world? Was it to consult together how they might best promote the happiness of their subjects? of kings, that their government might or was it to unite in prayer to the King be like his,-wise, upright, beneficent, but it was for a very different purpose, and merciful?-No: I wish it had been:
"The gradual improvement of the
"The spirit of the laws, and the
Could Mr. Bogue have been sur-
If a fact be demanded to disprove the correctness of Mr. these and similar remarks, we would Bogue's intended inferences from record, for the information of all who, like our author, find satisfaction in railing at kings, that at writing, a congress of powerful the very moment in which we are sovereigns is assembled, expressly for the purpose of promoting mutually effecting what Mr. Bogue tual peace and concord; thus achimself professes to wish, but seems to despair of, when he says, "Why could not a council of modern Amphyctyons be established in Europe, to settle national disputes? Surely the benign spirit of the Gospel should long adopt an institution, of which the pagan ere now have taught Christendom to
wisdom of ancient Greece set them so
charming and instructive an example."
the happiness of the Millennium
nevolent mind view the prosperity of
indulgence and the gratification of every wish, multitudes, countless multitudes are the cruel victims of poverty, in her most disgusting form: Let the huudreds of thousands of paupers, huddled together within the hated walls of her thousands of work-houses; and an equal number without, in their ragged: garments, at their scanty meals, in their mean and almost empty houses (if houses they may be called):-let all these proclaim what is the state of society in England, one of the richest and most fertile countries on the face of the earth; and which boasts of laws and, institutions the most favourable to human happiness. From the loathsome spectacle, let us turn our eyes to the glory of the latter days, and refresh them with the altered state of society, and the improved condition of its members. Nothing of the superb splendour which now dazzles the eyes of the ignorant and the vain, may we indeed be able then to discern; but we see what is unspeakably more delightful,— along with the sober dignity of the great, abundance, peace, contentment, and every evidence of comfort spread widely through the whole mass of the people,-and sufficiency the lot of all."
pp. 135, 126.
We think our readers will agree with us, that although there is much poverty and distress in England, it is unfair to call these irregularities, which it is doubtful if any human policy could effectually cure, the state of society, and that there is something not very philanthropic in drawing a ludicrous description of misery in rags, and then calling it a motley group.
Indeed, Mr. Bogue has on some other occasions indulged in the creation of ludicrous images to an extent not altogether suitable to the gravity of the pulpit. The idea of millennian saints laughing human folly to scorn, in the following passage, appears to us to mar the effect of a sentiment otherwise edifying and impressive.
"For a person to consume the whole vigour of his mind and strength of his body in acquiring riches, is certainly not answering the purposes of Him who sent us into this world to prepare
for another, who gave us existence in this transitory state, that we might be made meet for eternal felicity in heaven. To account for such a course of conduct the people of the Millennium will be altogether at a loss; they will laugh at the egregious folly; but they will recol.. lect themselves amidst their mirth, and, perceiving the serious injury that the man did, both to God and to himself, their hearts will be filled with pity for his misery, and they will weep. How was it possible,' they will say,' that one who had a competency of the com forts of life for his own use, and for his household, could deprive himself of his seasons of secret devotion, of family prayer, and of public worship,-and the rational pleasures of social conver sation and intercourse,-and hours of improvement by reading and reflection, in order to give himself wholly in mind and body to toil for the acquisition of unnecessary wealth? Was he really possessed of a competent understand. ing and sound judgment? Was there not a fatuity in his mind?"" pp. 136, 137.
There is no subject to which Mr. Bogue directs his satire more keenly than when allusion is made to the lawfulness of war. Is it kind or candid, to say,
"I doubt not, but the Christians of the millennial age will look with perfect maxims which are now acted upon by horror at the worldly, proud, savage,
some of the most illustrious names in
the religious world?” pp. 35, 36.
The following is Mr. Bogue's specific for the evil :
"As we live in an age of societies to combine individual effects for public benefit, why should not one be formed for promoting peace among the nations of the earth? If such a society were becoming activity, in ten years' time, formed, and were to exert itself with the pacific principle would be so widely diffused through every rank in the com munity, that it would be no easy matter (the expression is too cold)—it would be inconceivably difficult-nay, almost im possible, to prevail on the people of Great Britain to engage in war. The subject, every one will allow, merits all the attention that can be given it. We want a man wise, good, benevolent, and zealous, to lay the foundation-stone of this temple of peace, and aid in demos
fishing the capitol of war, that its stones may be taken to build the walls of this
"O that He who raised up a Howard, to visit the prisons of Europe, and con vert dungeons of extreme wretchedness into a tolerable confinement;-who inspired a Clarkson to devote his life to the destruction of African slavery, and crowned his zeal with success;-0 that He would call forth some wise, pious, enlightened, ardent philanthro⚫ pist, who shall form this determination in his heart, and carry it into execution." pp. 178, 179.
This quotation brings the matter to a point, and exempts us from the necessity of doing more than refer to the controversy which has lately taken place between some of our correspondents relative to the Peace Society. We are assuredly no advocates for war. But we think we may venture to say, that had the soldiers asked Mr. Bogue, as they asked John the Baptist, "What shall we do?" he would bardly have contented himself with answering them, "Do violence to no man. Exact no more than that which is appointed you. And be content with your wages." It may, indeed, be but just to add, that there is much unfairness in representing the mere destruction of human life as a subject of praise with pious men, when it must be generally understood that they praise God, not for the numbers slain, but for the protection thereby afforded to their lives, their liberties, and their religion, much in the same spirit in which our author himself says;
"Amidst these shakings of the king. doms of the world, a principle has sprung up that liberty of conscience and of worship is the inalienable birth right of man as a member of the social body,'-a principle not paid for too dear by all the temporal misery which has been endured, because it lies as the grand foundation of the propagation of the Gospel among mankind." p. 305.
With regard to our author's an
Why did not the author add a Wilberforce or a Thornton? Was it because they were churchmen?
CHRIST. OBSERV, No. 208.
tipathy to ecclesiastical establish ments, it is scarcely necessary to ready given of his sweeping censay much, after the instances al
sures on those of a civil kind. deed, Deism itself seems to lose all its evil complexion in his view, when placed by the side of Christian establishments, or when it can be employed to cast a shade upon them.
"It would be unfair," remarks the author," to Deists, were we to conceal the truth." p. 438.
"Are men blind? Do they not per ceive, and do they not reason, on these things?-and what is the result of their reasoning? With many the conclusion is, that the office of the ministry is as much a trade as the butcher's and
the pawnbroker's? that the clergy do not believe what they preach, and, there fore, that Christianity is not true."-Ib.
"No sword of an infidel magistrate was ever wet with the blood of the saints: in no fires, kindled by the wrath of infidels, were the disciples of Jesus ever consumed for his name's sake. Nor could infidelity ever boast of a hierarchy of mitred heads, or a convocation of shaven crowns, or princely revenues, or even the most moderate stipend drawn from the sweat of the people's brows. No priests and monks, no bishops and archbishops, no patriarchs and popes have been hired to defend her cause. Never has there been found any one to whom a person could present a petition with this request: Put me, I pray ces, that I may eat a piece of bread." thee, into one of the infidel priest's offiNor is there any class of secular individuals which depends on Deism for its livelihood. Demetrius, the silversmith, and a considerable body of men of like occupation, gained their support from the worship of the great goddess Diana. A numerous progeny has descended from his loins, and, wherever there is an ecclesiastical establishment richly endowed, are to be found zealous for its support; because when, like their progenitor, they durst tell the truth, it was in his words: By this craft we have our living. But Deism is a poor religionit feeds none-it clothes none: it has neither a palace for its hierophants, nor an almshouse for its beggars. When a false system has none of these things to recommend it to acceptance, when if i 6 E