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Foreign Policy- Cuba—Mr. Marshall.
320 Cong....20 Sess.
Ho. OF Reps.
whose independence we have, on great considerations and miliating subserviency to Europe we would have || to sovereignty had been advanced by any Euroon just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any in
insensibly gone, I forbear to conjecture. We have pean Power for more than twenty years. They terposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or control ling in any other inanner their destiny, by a European Power gone far enough, however, to prove that the only had, driven by a tyranny unexampled, thrown off in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly safety is in the rigid observance of the Monroe the connection, forced in the first place with Hayti, disposition towards the United States. In the war between doctrine which is contained in one line: Non-in and were in fact and of right independent. The those new governments and Spain, we declared our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this we have
terference on the part of European Powers with leading ground of difference between them and adhered, and shall continue to adhere, provided no change
the independent governments of the New World. Hayti, white immigration, should have commandshall occur, which, in the judgment of the competent all That this doctrine should have been enforced with ed our sympathies; and the doom of extermination thorities of this Governipent, shall make a corresponding
| jealous precision against France and England in pronounced against them, gave them a right to change, on the part of the United States, indispensable to
The Island of Hayti by the United States is made their security.
protection on the grounds of common humanity. " The late events in Spain and Portugal show that Europe more apparent by the fact that each of these Pow On the arrival of these commissioners, Mr. Calhoun is still unsettled. Of this important fact no stronger proof ers has guarded against interference by the other, was in the Department of State. The large and can be adduced than that the allied Powers should have
and that the United States alone has been indiffer comprehensive mind of that great statesman, apthought it proper, on any principle satisfactory to themselves, to have interposed by force in the internal concerns of Spain.
ent to she progress of either in the island. The preciated at once the importance of the interests To what extent such interposition may be carried, on the joint mediation met the views of both those Pow involved, and he sent out a special agent to examsame principle, is a question in which all independent ers, as it gave to them a controlling majority in any ine carefully and report on the affairs of the island. Powers whose Governments differ from theirs are interested;
negotiations which might be entered into. And Before the report was made, or at least before it even those most remote, and surely none more so than the United States. Our policy in regard to Europe, which was
that there could have existed no adequate motive was acted on, Mr. Calhoun retired from the Deadopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long for accepting or tolerating the joint interference of partment of State. Mr. Buchanan, who succeeded agitated that quarter of the globe, nevertheless remains the those Powers is demonstrated by the fact, that that Mr. Calhoun, sent another special agent, Lieutensame, which is, not to interfere in the internal concerns of
connection with us did not influence Soulouque in ant Porter, who made a long, and I think, an able any of its Powers; to consider the Government de facto as the legitimate Government for us; to cultivate friendly re
any degree, but that the joint mediation was as report, which was never acted upon, owing to the lations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, ludicrously impotent as our sole attempt could by excitement and absorbing interest of the Mexican firm, and manly policy; meeting, in all instances, the just possibility have been.
war, which was just then being commenced, and claims of every Power; submitting to injuries from none.
By the treaty of Ryswick, 1697, Spain ceded to the events which followed it. But, in regard to those continents, circumstances are emi.
This is, however, nently and conspicuously different. It is impossible that
France the western one third of the Island of San but an imperfect excuse for a most serious fault. the allied Powers should extend their political system to any Domingo, retaining the eastern two thirds: The In 1849, just at the accession of General Taylor, portion of either continent without endangering our peace
black population of the western or French portion Soulouque made the most formidable attack upon and liappiness ; nor can any one believe that our southern
of the island in 1790 massacred the whites, and brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own
Dominica which it had sustained. He reached accord. It is equally impossible, therefore, that we should
became independent of France. The blacks of within two days' march of Santo Domingo city, behold such interposition, in any form, with indifference, the east or Spanish division did not join in this re- | and with a force apparently irresistible. The inIf we look to the comparative strength and resources of
bellion. In the same year the Spanish part of the difference and neglect of the United States had exSpain and those new governments, and their distance from
island was ceded by Spain to France, and remained || tinguished all hope of interposition on our part, each other, it must be obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy of the United States to leave in her possession till 1808, when the English aided and in despair the Dominicans applied for a French the parties to themselves, in the hope that other Powers will the Creoles to throw off the control of France, and protectorate. This would have been accepted by pursue the same course."
the territory was confirmed to Spain in 1815 by France at once, and the Bay of Samaná (a point In the subsequent or eighth annual message of the treaty of Paris, and was governed as a Spanish of more importance than Havana, and which, it is the same President, (Mr. Monroe,) he again al province till 1821. In 1822, Dominica, with a view rumored, she has at last taken possession of) ceded luded to the contest between Spain and her colo io connect herself with the Colombian republic, to her-the island, in fact, would have become her nies; said that the latter had fully achieved their in revolted from Spain. This purpose was never property, but for the interference of the British dependence, and that said independence had been carried into effeci; but Spain was unable to attempt Minister, who gave notice that Great Britain would recognized by the United States. He then ad even its subjugation, and has never to this day re not consent to it. The correspondence on this verted to the European Powers; said that it was asserted her claim. On the contrary, she has subject, copied from the archives in Santo Do" the interest of the United States to preserve the openly acknowledged their independence by de mingo, is now in this city, and in possession of most friendly relations with them, but that with manding, in 1830, from Hayti an indemnity for its the gentleman afterwards sent out by Mr. Clayton regard to our neighbors, the republics of South loss, and also by receiving and treating with the as special agent to Dominica. Whether this would • America, our situation was different. It was Dominican commissioner in 1847 for the acknowl. | have been submitted to or not by the United States, . impossible for the European Governments to in edgment of the republic then established in the it is impossible to say; but it was by no action on terfere in their concerns without affecting us. east.
the part of our representative at home or abroad • Indeed, the motive which might induce such in In February, 1822, Boyer, the chief of the west that it was prevented. "terference would appear to be equally applicable to or negro pari of the island, the now Empire of || After the invasion of Soulouque, which was us;" and he added that “it was gratifying to | Hayti, invaded the east with a force which was defeated by the exertions of the Dominicans, know that some of the Powers with whom we en | irresistible by the Dominicans. The provisional | though made more formidable by domestic treason *joyed a very friendly intercourse, and to whom authorities were compelled to submit, and the ter- | and foreign intrigue, Mr. Clayton, then Secretary
these views had been communicated, had ap ritory was incorporated with the Haytian repub- of State, sent, as had grown to be a habit, a spepeared to acquiesce in them.”
lic. It is not necessary to my present purpose to cial agent to Dominica. I have had access to the In this statement it will be observed that all in recount all the atrocities practiced by Boyer on reports and papers of this gentleman, so far as tervention between the Governments of this hemis the Dominicans. It is enough that his adminis they could with propriety be communicated. phere by the Powers of Europe, for whatever tration was so intolerable, not only to the Domi Upon his arrival petitions and addresses from all purpose, whether " oppressing them or controlling nicans, but to the Haytians, that he was driven parts of the Republic came to General Santa in any other manner their destiny,” is declared to be || from power and from the country in the year 1843. || Anna and the President of the Republic, urging a “the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition to Riviere, who overthrew and succeeded Boyer, was retraction of the offers to France and opposing wards the United States.” The purpose for which more ferocious toward the Dominicans than his the French connection, and advocating annexathe intervention might be made does not change predecessor. It is true that Dominica sent her tion to or protection from the United States. An the dangerous and hostile character of the act; and representative to the convention held at Port au application was made to the agent, and by him the reason is obvious, and our late experience Prince, in 1843, to remodel the constitution. In forwarded to the Government here, praying for gives it additional force. If once they are permitted the first business before the convention, the diffi intervention by the United States for the pacificato interfere, protectorates, and consequent acquisi. culty arose which led to the establishment of a tion of the country. This application was fortions and fortifications of strong points, for the separate republic in Dominica. This was the warded by him along with a report, which set effectual protection of such wards, would render basis on which the union (if any union was to be forth additional reasons, of the most conclusive the State so protected and occupied, the mere crea between the west and the east) should be estab- ; character, why it should be favorably considered, ture and victim of the stronger power, and would lished. The Dominican delegates insisted, as a l and then, if not before, the authorities here should lead by a thousand pretexts which everybody but fundamental provision, upon the protection and have become fully aware of the intrigues which Mr. Fillmore can see at once, to the introduction encouragement of white immigration. It was re- | both France and England (the joint mediators) of the European system into the continent, which fused by the Haytian representatives. Upon this had kept on foot for the acquisition of some hold is inconsistent with our safety. How dangerous the Dominicans declared themselves independent in the island, and of the most fatal effect upon our every infraction of this principle is, may be seen of Hayti, in a manifesto published 16th of Janu- l, interest. I shall give a short synopsis of the reby the late overtures for a tripartite treaty, which ary, 1844 In the war which immediately fol. port, and then a short history of the diplomacy would have bound us in all time from the acquisi. | lowed, the Dominicans beat the Haytians in sev- || of those Powers in Hayti. And I think it must tion of Cuba, and which has even awakened the eral actions, and have maintained themselves in be clear to every mind, that whatever might have Executive. This offer, so promptly rejected, was, this independence ever since. In November, been decided as to our own intervention, or the however, a corollary, a necessary consequence of 1844, the constitution, modeled after our own, extent and character of it, nothing but criminal the tripartite mediation in Hayri, and the admis. was proclaimed.
carelessness or infatuated and predestinated stusion in Honduras, and along the Mosquito coast, The two successors of Riviere-- Guerrier and pidity could fail to recognize the necessity for exof the claims of England.
Riché-made no serious attempt against Dominica. li cluding France and England from any share in The offer on the part of France and England to But Soulouque who succeeded, has exhausted every | the matter or any the least control over our free make a treaty stipulating for the eternal separation means in his power to annoy or to reconquer the action. of Cuba from the United States does not equal in country, and has publicly declared his intention to The report urges that the duty and interest of insolence either of the two encroachments which exterminate the whites from the island. Shortly the United States was to intervene, for the reasons we have not only submitted to but invited. To after the establishment of the Dominican republic, which I have before given, and which were subwhat depth of degradation to what sacrifice of commissioners were sent to this place to ask its rec- sequently assigned as the causes of the joint mepride, honor, and power—to what extreme of hu- ll ognition. Had they not a right to ask it? No claim Il viation, and goes on to urge further, that the war
was one of extermination and for conquest, and the majority of them could have been acting in "The United States is the natural protector of all the rethat it involved the very existence of the white good faith. This Administration, however, replied
publican States of the continent, the center of the hopes of
the American cause. Nicaragua, who derived its first imrace in the island; that the Haytian constitution to Mr. Bulwer, by the appointment of Mr. Walsh;
pulses from you, and is animated by your exaniple, doubts declared as a first principle “ that no white of any the joint mediation was entered into. Everything not that her representations will be received on a subject nation should place his foot upon the soil with the which our interest and duty dictated failed, and which threatens her institutions and independence, and title of proprietor," and that the Dominicans in the two Powers had the triumph of leaving matters
affects the interests of all the American republics." vited white immigration by grants of land and the open for their future action, with this incalculable Mr. Buchanan, to whom this letter was adprivileges of citizenship; that our commerce suf advantage gained, an admission by the United dressed, did not reply to it at all; but subsequently, fered from the war, and that our citizens were en States of the right of European Powers to interfere after the same application was repeated, and the dangered, and our property lawlessly seized by in the affairs of independent Governments in this English had actually seized the port of San Juan, the barbarians of Haytí in the prosecution of the hemisphere, and a thorough and well-merited con he sent out Mr. Hise to negotiate. Mr. Hise did war; that acts of plunder and piracy to the amount tempt felt for us and our arms and diplomacy in not return till after General Taylor was inauguof many hundreds of thousands of dollars had | those Governments, which should trust us as im rated, when he came with a treaty, the leading been committed against our citizens, as is proven plicitly as they should profoundly respect us. I features of which I shall give by extracting its by Mr. Webster's Report, House Doc., 3d Sess. shall leave this branch of the subject, with this most important provisions. I 27th Congress. The report further urged the fact extract from the official organ of the Dominican The instructions of Mr. Buchanan to Mr. Hise upon our Government, that England and France government. I take it from the New York Her assert in bold and true terms the rights of the coveted Samaná, and that the Dominicans would ald, February 26th, which translates from the United States and the motives of England; and be forced to cede it to one or the other, in consid- || Gaceta de Gobierno, of January 25th:
for their most lame and impotent conclusion, I eration of protection which they had vainly sought "We were surprised,” says the Dominican official or confess myself at a loss to account. I give those from us. It was urged that France had never re gan,“ when we read, in the message of the President of clauses which contain the substance and meaning
the United States to Congress, of the settlement of peace linquished her designs to recover the island, and
of the whole. He says: between the Dominican republic and that part of the west that England had always been, and was then, called the Haytian empire. This false report, communica
“The object of Great Britain in this seizure is evident engaged in efforts to acquire the control of the ted to that Government by an unfaithful person, precisely
froin the policy which she has uniformly pursued throughwhen Soulouque was calling under arms a numerous army
out her history, of seizing upon every valuable commercial island. The Government was by this report put at Juana Mendez, in order to invade our territory, is highly
point in the world, whenever circumstances have placed it in the possession of this additional fact-that the alarming, for these falsehoods can affect us in other coun
in her power. Her purpose, probably, is to obtain the conConsul General and Minister Plenipotentiary, tries which are friendly to our republic. They wish to di
trol of the route for a railroad and canal between the Atlantic Sir R. Schomburgh, as soon as he discovered that vert the attention of other nations from the unrighteous
and Pacific oceans by way of Lake Nicaragua." an application was made for the mediation of the
machinations against our independence. For that reason, l! He also insists on the policy “ of excluding all
we positively repeat, that till now the Powers who wished United States, had offered and urged the mediato settle that question, with the desire of avoiding blood
interference on the part of European governments tion of England, which was not accepted. The shed in a disastrous war, have not agreed on the aflair." in the domestic affairs of the American republics." Dominicans did not trust the English Government, The same spirit which has conducted our nego- He asserts the wrong of Britain, and denies their but better informed, and consequently more pru tiations in Hayti has guided our policy in Nicara-1
claims, but says, in conclusion, that “the Governdent than the United States, feared the known gua, and to the same or even worse results. The l, ment of the United States has not yet determined policy of Great Britain on the great question be- || state of things existing at the present moment, what course it will pursue in regard to the entween the races, and did not believe that she
produced by the sagacity and courage of this Ad. croachments of the British Government." So would support them in good faith against the
ministration, and the one which immediately pre- || instructed, Mr. Ilise, not perhaps pursuant to double claim of Soulouque to sympathy-both as
ceded, may be stated in a few words. The terri- instructions, but under the impulse of genuine negro and as emperor. Dominica had been taught torial rights of the republic of Nicaragua are in American feelings, and impressed with the danby many years of observation, that it was no part fact sacrificed by the construction of the treaty.
gerous character of the intrigues of the agents and of the policy of Great Britain to support a free made to protect those very rights, and this Ad-] representatives of Great Britain, particularly at white republic on the island, but that her designs ministration has become a party to the dismem
and about San Juan, concluded a convention with were to acquire rights for herself in that territory. berment of that republic. The aboriginal tribe Commissioners of Nicaragua, with the following The mediation of England was, however, pressed
of Mosquitos are recognized as having the sov- ll provisions: by Schomburgh with such earnestness, that the ereignty over an indefinite extent of territory
Ist. That the United States should enjoy the Dominicans dared no longer refuse it peremptorily, which has belonged to Spain since the discovery Il perpetual right of way through the territories of and the American agent was consulted by the au of the continent, or to the States which have been || Nicaragua by any means of conveyance then thorities on the subject. The Dominicans would formed from her colonies. Islands in the Bay of existing, or which thereafter might be devised. not, however, agree to it, unless it was distinctly Honduras, which belonged to that republic, have
2d. That the United States, or a company charunderstood that the United States and France passed, without protest or objection, into the ab- || tered by it, might construct a railroad or canal were to be joint mediators, and with the further | solute possession of Great Britain, in direct viola- | from one ocean to the other, and occupy such distinct avowal that the call for joint mediation tion of treaty stipulations, and the principle which
lands, and use such natural materials and prodwas in the alternative, and should be made only binds us to the protection from European aggres
ucts of the country as might be necessary for the on condition that the United States refused to in sion of all the independent States of this conti- |
purpose. tervene alone. This report, and these offers on nent. All this has happened, too, in violation of
33. That the United States should have the the part of Dominica, were met by General Tay repeated pledges made by this Government. It is || right to erect such forts on the line or at the exlor's administration, so far as to instruct their not necessary to trace minutely the history of our
tremities of the proposed work as might be deemed agent to give notice to Soulou que that this Govern relations with Central America-political Central
necessary or proper for its protection. ment would not view with indifference any aggres America-before the year 1848. In that year, the
4th. That the vessels and citizens of all nations sion on Dominica, at least while Soulouque was subject of inter-oceanic communication became of at peace with both contracting Powers might pass indebted to the United States. This notice had
vital and immediate importance; and from that || freely through the canal. the effect to suspend for a time an invasion which
time the series of measures which have terminated
1 5th. That a section of land two leagues square Soulouque was preparing in 1850.
in the disgrace of the American name began.
1 at either termination should be set apart to serve Mr. Bulwer now gave notice of the readiness of Much earlier, however, as early as 1825, the sub as the sites of two free cities under the protection his Government to enter into the joint mediation, ject was agitated, and correspondence was had be. of both Governments, the inhabitants of which and the Administration replied, that upon the re tween the governments of Central America and should enjoy complete municipal and religious turn of their special agent, they would give a de the United States on the subject, which is instruct freedom, trial by jury, exemption from all milifinitive answer. The reputation of Mr. Clayton ive. The Minister of that Government wrote to tary duty, and from taxation, &c., &c. is, however, free from the stain of this disgrace. Henry Clay, then Secretary of State, asking the
In consideration of these privileges the United Nothing was, in fact, done by him. General coöperation of the United States in a treaty for the States were to be bound to defend and protect the Taylor died while the affair was pending, and Mr. secure establishment of a transit route, and giving territorial rights of Nicaragua, to preserve Webster took charge of the Department of State. the United States preference over other Powers, on peace and neutrality of her coasts, and some other It is worth remark, and should be borne in mind, the ground that its " noble conduct had been al provisions not relevant to the matter in hand. Bethat after the departure of this special agent from model and protection to all the Americas." In- fore Mr. Hise had concluded this convention the Santo Domingo, no treaty being concluded for the structions were accordingly given to our Chargé li Administration which sent him had gone out, and safety of Dominica, but everything left as it had d'Affaires to assure the Government of our deep
General Taylor was inaugurated. Mr. Hise was always been, and still is, open and unsettled, the interest in the subject, and to investigate the matter
recalled, and Mr. Squier sent in his stead, with agents of France, and also of England, endorsed and report upon it. This was not done; but the instructions from Mr. Clayton, which I shall lay the propositions of Soulouque to that Republic, and same efforts were renewed in many instances by
before the committee. This treaty of Mr. Hise, endeavored to induce its authorities to submit to his Central America, and afterwards by the separate
which certainly contains matter worth considerdemands. This is conclusive evidence that neither States which had composed it.
ation, was suppressed by the Taylor administraof those Powers were acting in good faith with us, I shall pass, however, over all that, and come tion, on the ground that it was completed after the or Dominica, and, taken in connection with the l as hastily as possible to the negotiations which date of his letter of recall, and that it exceeded his fact that the mediation wholly and shamefully immediately preceded the Clayton and Bulwer
instructions. The very truth is, it was suppressed failed of its purpose, and that the threats of the treaty, and which are necessary to a full compre
because it took the American ground, and would three greatest Powers of the earth did not alarm nsion of the present established policy. In 1847. I have brought us by possibility in contact with a barbarian who was unable to have resisted, for the republic of Nicaragua, feeling itself endangered | England, which was then asserting new and most one moment, the attack of either of them and that by the aggressions of the British, and alarmed at extraordinary propositions. We will see what those threats were not carried out by either against the fatal doctrines asserted by that Government l those propositions were, and how they were met him, when he met fully the very contingency on || in regard to the rights of the Mosquito kingdom, by Mr. Clayton, and by his successor. Mr. Manwhich they were uttered-it is monstrous—wholly || appealed to the United States for protection, on || ning, Vice Consul at Nicaragua, writes to Lord incredible, on any principle of human action, that ll these grounds:
|| Palmerston in April, 1849:
320 Cong....20 Sess.
Foreign Policy— Cuba-Mr. Marshall.
Ho. OF Reps.
“My opinion, if your lordship will allow me to express it, Upon the ratification of the treaty, (the Clayton and Bul wise have had, to turn against us those very acts as regards this country, for the present is, that it will be wer treaty,) Great Britain will no longer have any interest
of Mr. Clayton, which, if unwise in the last deoverrun by American adventurers, and consequently bring to deny this principle, which she has recognized in every on her Majesty's Government disagreeable coinmunica other case in common with us. Her protectorate will be gree, wanted yet the action of Mr. Fillmore and tions with the United States, which possibly might be reduced to a shadow, “Stat nominis umbra," for she can his Cabinet, to become altogether disgraceful. avoided by an immediate negotiation with Mr. Castellon for neither occupy, fortify, or colonize, nor exercise dominion Mr. Clayton, pending the negotiations above a protectorate and transit favorable to British interests. or control in any part of the Mosquito coast, or Central The welfare of my country, and the desire of its obtaining America. To attempt to do either of these things, after the
alluded to with Nicaragua, and no doubt, as he the control of so desirable a spot in the commercial world, exchange of ratifications, would inevitably produce a rup
has often declared, for the purpose of concluding and free it from the competition of so adventurous a race as ture with the United States. By the terms of the treaty forever the British claims, of whatever character, the North Americans, induce me to address your lordship neither party can protect to occupy, nor occupy to protect. which came in conflict with the rights of Nicarwith such freedom."
Mr. Clayton further instructs Mr. Squier: agua, committed the fatal error of treating with And Lord Palmerston, in a letter addressed to “We are willing to enter into treaty stipulations with the England in an affair in which she had no right. all the British agents in Central America, asking | government of Nicaragua that both Governments shall pro He intended, by the very terms of the treaty, to information as to the boundaries of the Mosquito tect and defend the proprietors who may succeed in cutting the canal, and opening water communications between the
declare that she had no rights. Why, then, in kingdom, says: “You will also report what in two oceans. All apprehensions may, and will be removed
the name of common sense, should he have treated your opinion is the line of boundary which her by the solemn pledge of protection given by the United about those rights as if they existed? But here • Majesty's Government should insist upon as abso States, and especially when it is known that our object in
is the article of the treaty on which all the outlutely essential for the security and well-being of
giving it, is not to acquire for ourselves any exclusive or
rageous claims of England are based, and by the Mosquito shore;" and without waiting for a
Jiberty to enter into the same treaty stipulations with any which, under the construction of this Administrareply, says, in a circular letter to the representa other nation that may claim to enjoy the same benefits, and tion, we are made to yield the whole question oritives of his Government, that “the right of the will agree to be bound by the same conditions."
ginally in dispute, and to stultify ourselves before King of Mosquito should be maintained as ex- || And yet again Mr. Clayton says as to bound the world: tending from Cape Honduras down to the mouth || aries--and in utter exclusion of the English Mos I "ART. 1. The Governments of the United States and of the river San Juan." The answer of Chat quito claim:
Great Britain hereby declare that neither the one nor the field, the English factotum in Central America, im
other will ever obtain or maintain for itself any exclusive
“ Against the aggressions on her territory, Nicaragua has proves on Lord Palmerston's exaggerated claim,
control over the said ship canal; agreeing that neither will firmly struggled--and protested without ceasing, and the
ever erect or maintain any fortifications commanding the and says that the Mosquito boundary should pass feelings of her people may be judged from the impassioned
same, or in the vicinity thereof, or occupy or fortify, or colthe river San Juan and reacheven to Chagres; be
language of the proclamation of her Supreme Dictator, No.
onize, or assume, or exercise any dominion over Nicarcause, he says, “ looking to the probable desti
agua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Cen. losing a country with ignominy, or for sacrificing the nies of these countries, considerable advantages dearest treasures to preserve it. As regards myself, if the
tral America; nor will either make use of any protection
which either affords, or may afford, or any alliance which "might accrue in after times by reserving the rights power which menaces sets aside justice, I am firmly re
either has, or may have, to or with any State or people, for solved to be entombed in the remains of Nicaragua, rather 6 of Mosquito beyond the river San Juan,” and than survive its ruin.”
the purpose of maintaining or erecting any such fortificasuggests, as Manning had done, an " early asser
tions, or of occupying, fortifying, or colonizing Nicaragua,
The eloquent appeal of the Minister of Nicartion" of these claims.
Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central agua to his government, is evidence not less stri America, or of assuming or exercising dominion over the The actual seizure with armed force of the port king than impressive of the disposition of an in
game; nor will the United States or Great Britain take adof San Juan, the only terminus of the inter-oceanic
vantage of any intimacy, or use any alliance, connection, communication on the Atlantic side, under pretext jured people to resist what they believe to be in
or influence that either may possess with any state or Gov. justice and oppression. Will other nations inter ernment through whose territory the said canal may pass, of the right of the Mosquito King, and the knowl
ested in a free passage to and from the Pacific ocean for the purpose of acqniring or holding, directly or indiedge of the schemes and designs revealed by the by the way of the river San Juan and Lake Nicar
rectly, for the citizens or the subjects of the one, any rights above extracts, prompted Mr. Hise to make the
or advantages in regard to commerce or navigation through I agua, tamely allow that interest to be thwarted by effort to conclude his proposed treaty. In the fear
the said capal, which shall not be offered on the same terms such pretensions ? Meaning of the Mosquito pro to the citizens or the subjects of the other." of England, but under the pretexts of want of
tectorate of Great Britain ! "As it regards the authority, the administration of General Taylor
Now, no doubt this appeared clear to Mr. ClayUnited States, this question may be confidently anwould not even submit the convention to the Sen
ton, and no doubt he thought that by no greater suered in the negative." ate, and withheld it from the Senate on a call for it,
sacrifice than the great principle of " non-inter
Now, if all this means anything, it means to as appears from Senate Journal, February 13th,
vention by the Powers of Europe in the domestic say that Nicaragua has a right to the line of pro1850. However, General Taylor did what Mr.
affairs of the independent States of this continent," posed inter-oceanic communication, including the Buchanan had so singularly omitted to do. He an
he had attained his object and avoided any collision port of San Juan; and that we will protect this swered to the applications which the Nicaraguan i
with England. On the contrary, England has so right, if she gives us the right of way-every line. republic had addressed to this for protection
construed the treaty as to make it an acknowlThe mere fact of treating with her about the matter, against English encroachment, and says, after a
edgment of all her most extravagant demands. acknowledges her right. The instructions to Mr. recognition of the correctness of the positions
Mr. Bulwer says, in a letter to Mr. Webster, that Squier, provide that Nicaragua shall only “enter taken by the Nicaraguan government, that “ the
the agreement was not designed to affect the position representations of Nicaragua had been received
inio treaty stipulations with other nations that may of Great Britain as to the Mosquito kingdom--and with lively and painful interest," and that the
claim to enjoy the same benefit, and will agree to be argues that the mere reference to protection con
bound by the same conditions." United States would coöperate to vindicate her
tained in the treaty recognizes the right and the
This very condition of the treaty with Nicarjust territorial rights, and secure her peace and
fact, and that England only meant to say that she agua, forces England either “ to be bound by the prosperity.” Assurances to the same purpose
would not exercise this protectorate so as to insame conditions, "an acknowledgment of the right || terfere with the proposed canal. Under this conwere made by Mr. Clayton. How have they been
of Nicaragua to the port of San Juan, or it cuts her redeemed by him or his successor?
struction, England 'now occupies San Juan-now Mr. Squier received instructions from Mr. Clayoff from the equal enjoyment " of the same benefits"
oppresses Nicaragua, and now sustains the very ton, from which may be gathered his intention to of the transit route. Pursuant to these instruc
protectorate under which she had perpetrated all tions, Mr. Squier made a treaty with Nicaragua, make a treaty with Nicaragua, not wholly incon
ll the wrongs we have pledged ourselves to redress. sistent with our interests and the promises we had
carrying out their spirit and intention, fully and In further evidence of the construction put on this
fairly. I cannot give the treaty in full, but the made. Unfortunately, however, the treaty made
treaty by England, and also her mode of dealing following clause shows its character: pursuant to those instructions was suppressed by
with refractory republics, see this letter from the
ART. 36. “It is expressly stipulated that the citizens, Mr. Webster. And more unfortunately still, Mr.
representative of England in Central America to vessels, products, and manufactures of all nations, shall be Clayton made a treaty with England, which, un permitted to pass upon the proposed canal, through the terri
the government of Nicaragua, 15th August, 1850: der the construction given by his successor, sur tories of Nicaragua, subject to no other, nor higher duties,
"Instead of insisting on its supposed right to the Moscharges or taxes, than shall be imposed upon those of the quito shore, Nicaragua would best consult her interest by rendered the very rights it was intended to protect,
United States: Provided always, That such nations shall at once making good terms with England--for resistance in and was fatal to the treaty negotiated by his own first enter into the same treaty stipulations and guarantees
this matter will be of no surther avail. It is impossible agent, under his own instructions. Mr. Clayton respecting said canal, as may be entered into between the
that Nicaragua should be ignorant of her Britannic Majes
ty's relation to the Mosquito question, as it has before it State of Nicaragua and the United States." says, after a masterly and conclusive argument
the letter of Viscount Palmerston, of the date 15th April against the right of the English under the Mos The same provision is made in the treaty of
last, in which he declares, in the most clear and direct quito King: commerce, negotiated at the same time. The
terms, the utter impossibility of acceding to the preten“ It is manifest, indeed, that the rights claimed by Great right of way was granted by Nicaragua to Amer sions of Nicaragua. On the other hand, the treaty of Messrs.
Clayton and Bulwer, about which you have so much to say, Britain nominally in behalf of the Mosquito King, but really as her own, are founded in repeated usurpations, which
and in which you express so much confidence, expressly
recognizes the Mosquito kingdom, and sets aside the rights usurpations were repeatedly and solemnly acknowledged
she refused to make the same. Had this treaty and relinguished by her during the domination of Spain on
which you pretend Nicaragua has on that coast. The true
policy is for Nicaragua to undeceive herself in this respect. been adopted, Nicaragua would have been secured the American continent. Since that domination has ceased, those claims could have had no other foundation for renewal
and to put no further confidence in the protestations and according to her prayer to us, and our solemn
assurances of pretended friends, (viz. Americans.) It than the supposed weakness or indifference of the govern
pledges to her, against the encroachments of Eng will be far better for lier to come to an understanding, with. ments invested with the rights of Spain in that quarter."
out delay, with Great Britain, on which nation depends Instructions of John M. Clayton, Secretary of State, to
not only the welfare and commerce of the State, but also Mr. Squier, Er. Doc. 75, 31st Cong., 1st Sess.
the probability of accomplishing anything positive concernAnd again, giving his own views of the Clayagua, by every art, which I have not space here to
ing inter-oceanic communication through her territories, beexpose. She failed; and as far as Nicaragua was cause it is only in London that the necessary capital for ton and Bulwer treaty:
concerned, the treaty was made 23 September, such an enterprise can be found.” “We have never acknowledged, AND NEVER CAN AC
1849. It was sent home, approved by General I will not now argue the question if this be the KNOWLEDGE the existence of any claim of sovereignty in the Mosquito King, or any other Indian in America. To
Taylor, and submitted to the Senate. It was true construction; it is or it is not. If it is, we do so would be to deny the title of the United States to her never acted upon. The death of General Taylor have surrendered the Monroe doctrine wholly; we own territory. Having always regarded the Indian title as
placed our foreign relations in other hands than have violated our pledged word willfully, and we a mere right of occupancy, we can never agree that such a title should ever be treated otherwise than as a thing to be
those of Mr. Clayton, and gave the English Gov- || have, by acknowledging the Mosquito king, subextinguished at the will of the discoverer of the country. Il ernment the power it would probably not other- || verted the very principle on which all territorial
Ho. or Reps.
32D CONG.....20 Sess.
Foreign Policy-Cuba-Mr. Marshall.
right in the New World rests, viz: that ţhe abori into the State-the period of three years to commence on however, attempted to exercise sovereignty over gines had only a possessory right, and no sovthe day when Nicaragua shall formally take possession of
part of the Mosquito shore in the mean time; but and enter into the nccupancy of said town. The said net ereignty or eminent domain over any part of it.
receipts to be payable quarterly to such agent as may be ap
|| by a treaty of the above date she recognizes the If it is not the true construction, we are permitting pointed to receive them.
title of Spain, and withdraws her protection from England to violate her treaty obligations with us
Nicaragua is required not to molest or interfere with the such of her subjects as may "be so daring" as to most injuriously every day, and by this same vioMosquito Indians within the territory reserved to them.
settle on the territory belonging to Spain. The lation of faith with us, to inflict the deepest wrong The first thing which strikes one on examining terms of this treaty are recognized and renewed by on the sister republic which had claimed, and to this projet is the recognition of the Mosquito the treaty of Madrid, dated August 28th, 1814. which we had promised our protection.
kingdom. This it not only does expressly by The history of the time from 1814 to 1824 exhibits This would be our position if no further action setting forth its boundaries, but by stipulating for abundant proof of occupancy by Spain of this had been taken by this Administration after Mr. the cession (“' ceded" is the term used) of the port coast; and when the confederation of Central Clayton left the Department of State. But, sir, I || of San Juan on certain oppressive conditions, by America declared its independence, England her. grieve to say that the most intolerable part of the the Mosquitoes to Nicaragua. Now, as to this self recognized it with the boundaries settled in record remains to be completed. And here, sir, I Mosquito kingdom, in the extracts already made the constitution as reaching from "sea to sea.” wish to bring a most significant fact before the from Mr. Clayton's instructions to Mr. Squier, the And on the dissolution of that confederation Engcommittee and the country. On the 26th of Feb argument against any title in them is complete. land also recognized the boundary of the State of ruary, 1851, the following letter was addressed by But I will add a few considerations and author Nicaragua, which was declared to run from sea to the Minister of Nicaragua to the Secretary of State, ities to the same purpose:
sea. By two treaties with Spain, one in 1836, the (Mr. Webster.) I give a translation as literal as "The Mosquito Indians are sunk in the lowest state of other in 1850, the title of Nicaragua is recognized possible:
ignorance and barbarism. Their number (including the over the Mosquito coast and “from sea to sea." The
Woolwas, Ramas, Towkas, and others not recognizing the
port of San Juan, which this projet would make sovereignty of the Moscos) does not exceed five thousand." The undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister --Mr. Hise, United States Chargé d'Affaires, to Mr. Buch
Nicaragua purchase from the Mosquitos, was forPlenipotentiary of the republic of Nicaragua, has the anan, February, 1849.
tified by Spain as early as 1665, and the defenses honor to address Mr. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State of the American Union, to submit to him a few remarks
The Mosquitos are inferior to the Indians of the United renewed in 1727, and her occupation of it uninterconcerning the interpretation that Great Britain has be
States in personal appearance, and infinitely below them rupted till 1824, when the troops of Nicaragua exlieved necessary to give to the treaty concluded between in the mental scale. They are squalid and miserable be
pelled the Spanish garrison. In 1842, and also in this last Power and the Government of the United States,
yond description. From the best of my information the the 19th April, 1850.
1844, San Juan was blockaded by England as a nation' does not exceed one thousand or fifteen hundred, It is notorious to all that the said treaty has for object to give the most complete security
and it is not probable that one tenth of those have any idea port of Nicaragua, to recover claims brought for the execution of the maritime canal through the Isthof a national character. It should be understood that a
against Nicaragua. And England n ver in any mus of Nicaragua and to guaranty the neutrality of this
number of Indian tribes in the interior are claimed by the important way of inter oceanic communication. With
way, till 1847, disputed the title of Nicaragua, at English to be under Mosquito jurisdiction, but I cannot learn that they admit any such authority. On the contrary,
least to this point; and never in any manner asout any doubt to attain this object, and in order to avoid difficulties of any kind to the lawful execution of said
they actually prohibit, under penalty of death, any inter serted the Mosquito title south of Blewfield's Bay treaty, both Governments have thought necessary to insert mixture with the Mosquitos."- Mr. Squier, United States
before that year, when, as I have before shown, in the articles, the nomenclature of the States, districts, Chargé d'Affaires, to Mr. Clayton, June, 1849.
she determined to control the terminus of the and localities adjoining the place through which the canal - They do not appear to bave any idea of a Supreme Beis going to run, among others the coast and the Mosquito ing."-Young's Mosquito Shore, p. 72.
inter-oceanic communication, and under this amcountry which forin and constitute, and that have constitu « Chastity is not considered a virtue; polygamy is com
bulatory Mosquito claim seized with an armed ted and formed an essential and integral part always of the mon amongst them."-Ib. p. 73.
force the port of San Juan, driving out the troops republic of Nicaragua.
“A plurality of mistresses is no disgrace, and it is not of Nicaragua, and holding it herself, as she still Hence arose that Great Britain, wishing to take advan.
uncommon for a British subject to have one or more of tage of the same test and the clauses of the treaty, bas di
holds it, under the affectation of a Mosquito prothese native women at different parts of the coast. They rected all her agents in Central America, and principaliy in have acquired great influence through ther._Macgreg
tectorate. Nicaragua, new instructions and communications in which or's Report to British Parliament.
The projet also contemplates a robbery of Niexpressly is stated that the Government of the American Union recognizes the existence of the pretended Mosquito
"I have never known a marriage celebrated amongst
caragua in favor of Costa Rica, which is so clearly kingdom, and the usurpation of the port of San Juan, and
them. The children are, in general, baptized by the cap. and concisely exposed in the following extract, that, far from debilitating the rights of the savage chief, the
tains of trading vessels from Jamaica, who perform the cer that with it I may finish this part of the subject: treaty confirms them in full.
emony with anything but reverence on all who have been The undersigned, although fully persuaded of the error
"Upon the independence of Central America, the variborn during their absence. Many of them are indebted to
ous provinces of the old Captain Generalcy, corresponding them for more than baptism. I could enumerate more than of the British Government, cannot help, on this account, to
a dozen children of two of these captains. address Mr. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State, with the
to our thirteen colonies, took the rank of independent
By this licenview of ascertaining if the Goverument of the Union really
States, and, as such, subsequently entered into the confedtious and immoral conduct, they have identified theinselves
with the natives. intends to recognize the existence of a territory separated,
eration of Central America. Each State assumed the boundTheir arrival is hailed with joy, as the
aries which it had possessed as a province. From this covering, and independent of the republic of Nicaragua, season of festivity, revelry, christening, and debauchery."
arrangement there was no dissent. -Robert's Mosquito Shore, p. 109. generally known under the name of the coast and Mosquito
As provinces, the
boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua had been rekingdom, and if the actual Administration which directs And the Secretary of State of Nicaragua to peatedly defined by royal decrees, by the historians of the the destinies of the American people so wisely and pru. Lord Palmerston, says:
country, and by the official maps. This was a right line, dently, abounds in the ideas and principles expressed in the
running from the lower or Colorado mouth of the San Juan dispatch of his honorable antecessor of ihe 7th of May, 1850, " You know, sir, very well, that the established practice
river, to the mouth of the Rio Salto de Nicoya, or Alvarado, directed to the Chargé d'Affaires of the republic of Nicara for a society which considers itself capable of assuming the
on the Pacific. All the Spanish maps, from the earliest gua. The undersigned avails bimself of this opportunity, rank of a nation, to obtain its recognition as such, is, to so
periods to that of the disruption of the Spanish Empire in &c., &c. licit through its chief, his ministers, or direct accredited
America, all lay down this line as a boundary. But upon agents, the recognition of established States. But this rule To which letter no answer has yet been returned.
this point the best evidence is that furnished by Costa Rica of international law has in no way been complied with by
herself. In her first constitution, (art. 15, chap. ii,) dated Perhaps this silence, apparently unaccountable, the pretended King of Mosquito, who, it is alleged, now as.
January, 1825, she defines her boundary on the north to be will be made intelligible by considering carefully sumes to raise the question of boundary with Nicaragua.
precisely what we have stated, i. e., the mouth of the San the projet of a convention signed by the Secretary This government has not recognized, and will never recog
Juan on the Atlantic, and that of the Alvarado on the Panize such a kingdom as Mosquito, much less the territoof State for the United States, and the British Min
cific. Were any further evidence necessary, it is afforded rial pretensions of which you speak. No such king has ex
by the map attached to Thompson's Guatemala, which was ister, (Mr. Crampton,) and presented to the gove isted, or now exists. It is preposterous, sir, that a few
furnished to the author of that work, officially, by the Government of Nicaragua. The projet should be in. savages, wandering in the forests and wastes on the coasts
ernment of the republic of Central America, of which of Honduras and Nicaragua, living by the chase and fishing, seried entire, but its length forbids. I give its
Costa Rica formed a part. There was neither misunderwithout houses, without a known language, without writ
standing nor dispute upon the subject." substance, under all the responsibilities for any ten characters, arts, laws, or religion, without any of the
"So things remained up to the 9th of December, 1826, misrepresentation : elements which, according to received principles, are neces
when the Federal Congress, from causes in no way consary to a national existence that such a horde of savages 1. That the entire southern bank of the river San Juan
nected with any question of territorial right, passed a decree should profess to constitute a regular society, or what is and Lake Nicaragua, including the department of Nicoya,
as follows: "For the present, and until the boundaries of more, a kingdom !" or Guanucaste, on the Pacific, shall be definitely conceded
the several States shall be fixed in accordance with act to Costa Rica.
Chief Justice Marshall says-and the opinion seven of the constitution, the department of Nicoya (or II. That the Mosquito kingdom shall comprise the ter has never been contradicted or questioned-in re
Guanucaste) shall be separated from Nicaragua and atritory lying between the inouths of the rivers Rama and Se
tached to Costa Rica.' Although this decree was provisgard to all Indian title: govia, on the eastern coast of Central America, and shall
ional, Nicaragua did not submit to it without an earnest extend inward to the meridian of 83° 30/ west longitude.
« While the different nations of Europe respected the protest, in which the inhabitants of the district also joined. INI. That the port of San Juan de Nicaragua shall be
rights of the natives as occupants, they asserted the ulti The Congress, however, never proceeded to define the " ceded" 1o Nicaragua by bis august Majesty, subject to a mate dominion to be in themselves."
limits of the respective Siates, and in 1838, the confederavariety of conditions, amongst whieh is a recognition of all
tion was dissolved. By the dissolution, the original rights
And again: Mosquito grants, and the surrender, for three years, of all
of the States, territorial as well as all others, reverted to duties collected there, at a rate of ten per cent. annually,
“The United States maintain, as all others have main them again in their sovereign capacity. The temporary to this august potentate.
tained, that discovery gave the exclusive right to extinguish alienation of Nicoya ceased, and it reverted to its true proThe Mosquito Indians do reserve to themselves, out of the Indian title to occupancy, either by purchase or con prietor, whose rights, at the most, had only been suspended. the territory heretofore claimed and occupied, on the east quest, and also gave a right to such a degree of sovereignty, Yet, it is upon this temporary concession of the Federal ern coast of Central America, a district of country to be as the circumstances of the people would allow thein to Congress that any claim of Costa Rica must rest; but no bounded as follows: Beginning on the shore of the Ca exercise."
claim thus founded can for a moment receive the sanction ribbean Sea, at the mouth of the river Rama, which is 11° But, sir, not only are the Mosquitos incapable
of reason. 341 north latitude, and 83° 46' west longitude, running thence of the righis asserted for them in this treaty, but
"Still, admitting it to its full extent, and admitting that due west to the meridian of 84° 30/ west longitude from
Congress not only had the right of separating Nicoya from Greenwich, thence due north on said meridian to the river the republic of Nicaragua has a title to the port
Nicaragua, and supposing that it had exercised the power Segovia, thence down said river to the Caribbean Sea, of San Juan and ihe whole of the territory to be with a view to permanency, and that the whole transaction thence southerly along the shore of said sea to the place of " ceded” by this projet as clear and indisputable had been concurred in by Nicaragua, yet, even then, Costa beginning, and all the rest and remainder of the territory as the United States to the District of Columbia.
Riea could not claim a foot beyond the actual limit of the and lands lying southerly and westerly of said reservation,
department of Nicoya, which constitutes less than one heretofore occupied or claimed by the said Mosquitoes, In 1502, Columbus sailed from Cape Honduras to
third of the vast territory which Mr. Webster proposes to including Greytown, they shall relinquish and cede to the Isthmus of Panama, and took possession in surrender to her! Nicoya is comprised between the souththe republic of Nicaragua, together with the jurisdiction the name of Spain. There are grants made in
western shore of Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific, and emover the same, in consideration of the net receipts for three
braces no portion of the territory south of Lake Nicaragua, years from all duties levied and collected at Greytown. at l close and constant succession of different parts of la
and below the San Juan river, a territory over which The rate of ten per cent. ad valorem on all goods imported ll this coast by Spain down to 1786. England had, Il Nicaragua has always maintained jurisdiction, where she
Were anched to Thompspork, officially:
Acquisition of Cuba—Mr. Howard.
32p CONG.....20 Sess.
Ho OF REPs.
has had forts for centuries, and which she still occupies. one that these islands were only held by the Eng to the State of Honduras, and were acknowledged As late as 1846, Costa Rica negotiated with Nicaragua for
lish themselves to be dependencies of British as her territory by Great Britain herself in 1830, the privilege of passing through this territory, and in 1848 made overtures for the purchase of it."
Honduras in August, 1851, more than a year after when England disavowed in plain terms the act of This plan for the partition of Nicaragua was
the treaty was concluded; consequently, they the superintendent of the Balize in seizing the presented to her Minister here. He resisted and
could not have been " the dependencies" spoken island of Roatan. The treaty of 1814 refers to and
of in the secret conditions of the treaty. But it expostulated, but in vain; it was sent to Nicara
revives the treaty of 1786 with all the boundaries gua, and, after being considered by the Govern is perfectly clear that, under existing treaties, (from and rights which it contained, and that treaty is ment, was replied to by the following decree:
which I have already cited paragraphs for other the law of the case at the present day. And
purposes,) in unbroken series from 1763 to 1814, England has so recognized it to be by acts of ParThe Director of the State of Nicaragua to its Inhabitants: Inasmuch as the Legislative Assembly has decreed the
and now governing the relations between England liament as late as 1819, and now in force, which following:
and Spain, and from laws passed by the English amends an act passed in 1817, in which these The Senate and Chamber of Representatives of the State Parliament, and now in force, that England had words occur : of Nicaragua, in Assembly convoked
no such right even in the Balize or British Hondu “Whereas, grievous murders and manslaughters have DECREES: Art. 1. The State of Nicaragua does not accept the proras, as is asserted over these islands.
been committed at the settlement in the Bay of Honduras, ject of convention or recommendatory basis, adjusted on
Under these treaties, the Balize itself belongs to
the same being a settlement for certain purposes in the
possession, and under the protection of his Majesty, but the 30th of April last, between his Excellency Daniel Web the State of Guatemala, and the islands now in
not within the territory and dominions of his Majesty," ster, Secretary of State of the United States, and his Excel
dispute as clearly to Honduras. By the seven &c. lency J. F. Crampton, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of her Britannic Majesty, in respect to the
teenth article of the treaty of peace, of 1763, it was As to the part we should take in any dispute territorial boundaries between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, ll provided that “His Britannic Majesty shall cause between Guatemala and Great Britain, in regard and the separation of the Mosquito coast.
to be demolished all the fortifications which his to the Balize, I have said enough before to indiART. 2. The State of Nicaragua is disposed to have the
subjects have erected in the Bay of Honduras, cate my opinion; but upon the much clearer quesquestion started, in connection with the points mentioned, discussed before imperial arbitrators.
and other places of the territory of Spain, in tion arising from the seizure of these islands, which ART. 3. The State of Nicaragua protests solemnly against * that part of the world, within four months.' were not dependencies of the Balize, but of the State all foreign interference in the affairs of its government, and The English did demolish some of their forts, | of Honduras, and which were not claimed as deagainst the use of force to coerce its will or violate its wghts.
but retained some of their establishments, which pendencies of Balize for a year after the Clayton Given in the Hall of Sessions of the House of Represent
violation of the treaty of 1763 led to another war. and Bulwer treaty, and which therefore could not atives, Managua, July 14, 1852.
This war was concluded by a treaty of peace in come within the doubtful reservations, secretly AUGUSTIN AVILEZ, Rep. Pres't. 1783, by which the English were allowed the priv- | made by Messrs. Clayton and Bulwer explanaJOAQUIN CHADRAS, Rep. Sects.
ilege of cutting logwood in the district "lying be- || tory, I do not see how Americans can differ. The In the Executive Hall of the Senate, Managua, July 16,
'tween the rivers Hondo and Balize, provided that treaty of 1814 is plainly violated; the Clayton and 1852.
'the stipulation shall not be considered as deroga- | Bulwer treaty is as openly broken in the clause MIGUEL R. MORALES, Senate Pres't. ting in anywise from the rights of sovereignty which provides, "that neither Great Britain nor J. de J. ROBLETO, Senate Sects.
of the King of Spain.” It also provides that all the United States shall occupy, fortify, or assume, T. GUERRA,
English subjects, " whether on the Spanish conti nor exercise dominion over any part of Central Therefore, let it be executed. J. L. PINEDA,
nent, or in any of the islands whatever depend- || America." Supreme Director of the Government of Nicaragua.
ent upon it,” shall retire within the district above We should take such action as would enforce MANAGUA, July 19, 1852. A true copy: CASTILLON, Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
defined. As the conditions of this treaty were the treaty, let the result be what it may. It would The following decree had been passed before
violated by the English, another was entered into, be no war for conquest, but for the maintenance of
in 1786. The first article of this treaty is this: national honor and good faith. It would result in (viz: in October, 1849) by the same authority:
“His Britannic Majesty's subjects, and the other colonist, placing us in our natural position, as the protector “The Legislative Chambers of the Republic of Nicara who have enjoyed the protection of England, shall evacu of those republics which have been created by the gua, in view of past events and existing circumstances, in ate the country of the Mosquitos, as well as the continent conformity with the settled sentiments of the people which in general, and the islands adjacent, without exceptions
force of our example, and which have a right to it represents, solemnly declare : situated beyond the line hereafter described as what ought
look to us for aid in those emergencies in which "]. Their adhesion to the principle of the total exclusion to be the frontier of the extent of territory granted by his we are as deeply compromised as they. I believe of European interference from the domestic and interna Catholic Majesty to the English, for the uses specified in such a war-even if there should be a war from tional affairs of the republican American States, as neces the thi article of the present convention. sary to their peace and independence.
" The English line, beginning from the sea, shall take
the assertion of our manifest rights—would ter"2. That the extension of monarchical institutions by the center of the river Libun, or Jabou, and continue up to
minate with extended territory, augmented power, conquest, colonization, or by a support of savage chiefs to the source of said river; from thence it shall cross in a and increased influence in the world. If, in its resovereignty, or savage tribes to national existence, or by straight line the intermediate land till it intersects the river sults, the ties which would exist between ourselves other means upon the American continent, is in opposition Wallace, (Babize,) and by the center of the same river the to the interests of the republican American States, danger line shall descend to a point where it will meet the line
and the States of Central America, as guardian ous to their peace and safety, and an encroachment upon already settled and marked out by the commissaries of the
and ward—if the sympathy of a common repubtheir individual and collective rights." two Crowns in 1783."
licanism should be drawn yet closer ever to a poAnd thus the affair was suspended; and nothing The third article provides that the English may
litical union-I can see nothing of evil augury in but the firmness and decision of the Nicaracut certain woods, and “gather such fruits of the
the prospect. Not that I would desire to see war guan government has saved us from the deep earth as are purely natural or uncultivated.” And
for this or any other purpose, but to avert inguilt involved in the projet just discussed. When further:
jury and disgrace; but I believe that such a war, it was discovered that this plan would be opposed
“But it is expressly agreed that this stipulation is never
and for such a purpose, is as sound in policy as by the Minister of Nicaragua, application was to be used as a pretext for establishing in that country any
right in morals.
chines whatsover, (this restriction, however, does not re.
ACQUISITION OF CUBA. asked for; they were not given, but after the death
the wood,) since all the lands in question being indisputaof the then Secretary of State, as lately as the bly acknowledged to belong to the Crown of Spain, no set SPEECH OF HON. V. E. HOWARD, 30th of December, 1852, only the other day, the tlement of that kind, or the population which would follow,
could be allowed." present Secretary of State addressed a note to the
OF TEXAS, Minister of Nicaragua, refusing to recognize him In this settlement of boundaries, it will be ob IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, in his official character: ihus proving the persist- || served that no islands are included; but as if to
January 6, 1853, ence of this Administration in the same policy exclude all doubt upon that subject, the fourth arwhich had dictated the refusal to answer the in- | ticle of the same treaty provides that the English In the Committee of the Whole on the state of the quiry contained in the letter to Mr. Webster, shall use for certain purposes the island of Casina,
Union, on the duty of the United States to take inserted above, and making the present Secretary of St. George's Key, but that no fortifications
possession of and hold the Island of Cuba. of State a sort of administrator, de bonis non, of shall be erected, or troops established there." Ar Mr. HOWARD said: the unexecuted vengeance of his predecessor. ticle fifth also provides that some small islands, Mr. CHAIRMAN: I have risen to address some
The last point to which I shall ask the attention (not, however, those now in dispute,) may be remarks to the committee in reply to the observaof the committee, is the seizure by England of used by the English for the same purposes, and tions of the honorable gentleman from New York, the islands of Roatan, Bonacca, &c., &c., in the with the same restrictions as St. George's Key. ! (Mr. Brooks,) the other day, touching the course Bay of Honduras. This has been completed in “ Spanish sovereignty over the country," and the of the Administration in relation to the subject of two acts; on the 10th of August, 1851, the super exclusion of any “system of government, either Cuba. I think he has done great injustice both to intendent of the Balize took possession of, and military or civil,” by any other_Power, are ex the law and to the facts connected with the course attached these islands as a dependency of the pressly provided for in article sixth. It is obvious, of conduct pursued by the Administration, and that Balize.
therefore, that the British claim to the Balize is a he has also done injustice to the American citizens In July, 1852, they were regularly organized mere possessory right guarantied and limited by who were the victims of Spanish cruelty connectunder the name of the “Colony of the Bay of Isl treaty, and for certain specific purposes, and it is ed with this affair. It is manifest that the subject ands." That this is a manifest violation of the equally obvious that the islands in dispute are not of Cuba is becoming one of great and growing Clayton and Bulwer treaty, in the sense which it under the treaties, or in any sense dependencies of national interest in this country. Its importance bears on its face, does not admit of contradiction. the Balize.
to my own State consists in this, that if Cuba was But it is contended by the agents of England, that The limits laid down for the English in the in the hands of an adverse or unfriendly maritime under the explanations and exceptions and con treaty of 1786, were within the territory claimed Power of any great strength, it would be imposditions between Mr. Clayton and Mr. Bulwer, by and recognized by Spain, as belonging to Gua sible for the States bordering on the Gulf of Mexthat British Honduras was not within the scope temala, and that State has the undoubied right, de- ico to get their products io market; our great of that treaty, or its dependencies. Now, admit rived direct from Spain, to sovereignty over it. i staples must rot upon the wharves of our southern ting this proposition, it is a fact known to every li By the same title the islands in dispute belonged li commercial cities. It is, therefore, a subject to