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“My opinion, if your lordship will allow me to express it, Upon the ratification of the treaty, (the Clayton and Bul. wise have had, to turn against us those very acts as regards this comtry, for the present is, that it will be wer treaty,) Great Britain will no longer have any interest overrun by American adventurers, and consequently bring to deny this principle, which she has recognized in every

of Mr. Clayton, which, if unwise in the last deon her Majesty's Government disagreeable communica- other case in common with us. Her protectorate will be gree, wanted yet the action of Mr. Fillmore and tions with the United States, which possibly Inight be reduced to a shadow,“ Slat nominis umbra,” for she can his Cabinet, to become altogether disgraceful. avoided by an immediate negotiation with Mr. Castellon for neither occupy, foruty, or colonize, nor exercise dominion

Mr. Clayton, pending the negotiations above a protectorate and transit favorable to British interests. or control in any part of the Mosquito coast, or Central The welfare of my country, and the desire of its obtaining America. To atteinpt to do either of these things, after the

alluded to with Nicaragua, and no doubt, as he the control of so desirable a spot in the commercial world, exchange of ratifications, would inevitably produce a rup

has often declared, for the purpose of concluding and free it from the competition of so adventurous a race as ture with the United States. By the terms of the treaty forever the British claims, of whatever character, the North Americans, induce me to address your lordship neither party can protect to occupy, nor occupy to protect.” ll which came in conflict with the rights of Nicarwith such freedom."

Mr. Clayton further instructs Mr. Squier: agua, committed the fatal error of treating with And Lord Palmerston, in a letter addressed to

“We are willing to enter into treaty stipulations with the England in an affair in which she had no right. all the British agents in Central America, asking government of Nicaragua that both Governments shall pro- He intended, by the very terms of the treaty, to information as to the boundaries of the Mosquito tect and defend the proprietors who may succeed in cutting

declare that she had no rights. Why, then, in kingdom, says: "You will also report what in

the canal, and opening water communications between the

two Oceans. All apprehensions may, and will be removed the name of common sense, should he have treated your opinion is the line of boundary which her

by the solemn pledge of protection given by the United about those rights as if they existed ? But here Majesty's Government should insist upon as abso- states, and especially when it is known that our object in is the article of the treaty on which all the outlutely essential for the security and well-being of

giving it, is not to acquire for ourselves any exclusive or the Mosquito shore;” and without waiting for a partial advantage over other nations. Nicaragua will be at

rageous claims of England are based, and by liberty to enter into the same treaty stipulations with any

which, under the construction of this Administrareply, says, in a circular letter to the representa- other nation that may claim to enjoy the same benefits, and tion, we are made to yield the whole question oritives of his Government, that “ the right of the will agree to be bound by the same conditions."

ginally in dispute, and to stultify ourselves before • King of Mosquito should be maintained as ex- And yet again Mr. Clayton says as to bound- | the world: *tending from Cape Honduras down to the mouth | aries--and in utter exclusion of the English Mos- “ Art. 1. The Governments of the United States and of the river San Juan.” The answer of Chat- | quito claim:

Great Britain hereby declare that neither the one nor the field, the English factotum in Central America, im

“ Against the aggressions on her territory, Nicaragua has

other will ever obtain or maintain for itself any exclusive

control over the said ship canal; agreeing that neither will proves on Lord Palmerston's exaggerated claim, firmly struggled--and protested without ceasing, and the and says that the Mosquito boundary should pass feelings other people may be judged from the impassioned

ever erect or maintain any fortifications commanding the the river San Juan and reacheven to Chagres; belanguage of the proclamation of her Supreme Dictator, No.

same, or in the vicinity thereof, or occupy or fortify, or colvember 12th, 1848. The moment (says he] has arrived for

onize, or assume, or exercise any dominion over Nicarcause, he says, “ looking to the probable destilosing a country with ignominy, or for sacrificing the

agua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Cen• nies of these countries, considerable advantages dearest treasures to preserve it. As regards myself, it the

tral America; nor will either make use of any protection "might accrue in aster times by reserving the rights power which menaces sets aside justice, I am firmly re

which either affords, or may afford, or any alliance which . of Mosquito beyond the river San Juan,” and solved to be entombed in the remains of Nicaragua, rather

either has, or may have, to or with any State or people, for than survive its ruin."

the purpose of maintaining or erecting any such fortificasuggests, as Manning had done, an“ early asser

tions, or of occupying, fortifying, or colonizing Nicaragua, tion" of these claims.

The eloquent appeal of the Minister of Nicar- Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central The actual seizure with armed force of the port king than impressive of the disposition of an inagua to his government, is evidence not less stri. America, or of assuming or exercising dominion over the

same; nor will the United States or Great Britain take adof San Juan, the only terminus of the inter-oceanic jured people to resist what they believe to be in

vantage of any intimacy, or use any alliance, connection, or influence that either may possess with any state or Gov.

ernment through whose territory the said canal may pass, of the right of the Mosquito King, and the knowl justice and oppression. Will other nations interedge of the schemes and designs revealed by the

ested in a free passage to and from the Pacific ocean for the purpose of acquiring or holding, directly or indi

by the way of the river San Juan and Lake Nicar- rectly, for the citizens or the subjects of the one, any rights above extracts, prompted Mr. Hise to make the

or advantages in regard to commerce or navigation ihrougii effort to conclude his proposed treaty. In the fear agua, tamely allow that interest to be thwarted by

the said canal, which shall not be offered on the same terms of England, but under the pretexts of want of

such pretensions ? Meaning of the Mosquito pro- to the citizens or the subjects of the other."

tectorate of Great Britain ! " As it regards the authority, the administration of General Taylor

Now, no doubt this appeared clear to Mr. ClayUnited States, this question may be confidently anwould not even submit the convention to the Sen

ton, and no doubt he thought that by no greater suered in the negative. ate, and with held it from the Senate on a call for it,

sacrifice than the great principle of

non interNow, if all this means anything, it means to as appears from Senaie Journal, February 13th,

vention by the Powers of Europe in the domestic 1850. However, General Taylor did what Mr.

say that Nicaragua has a right to the line of pro- || affairs of the independent States of this continent,'

posed inter-oceanic communication, including the swered to the applications which the Nicaraguan port of San Juan; and that we will protect this with England. On the contrary, England has so republic had addressed to this for protection

-. construed the treaty as to make it an acknowl

The mere fact of treating with her about the matter, edgment of all her most extravagant demands. against English encroachment, and says, after a recognition of the correctness of the positions Squier, provide that Nicaragua shall only “enter acknowledges her right. The instructions to Mr.

Mr. Bulwer says, in a letter to Mr. Webster, that taken by the Nicaraguan government, that “ the

the agreement was not designed to affect the position into trealy stipulations wilh other nalions that may representations of Nicaragua had been received

of Great Britain as to the Mosquito kingdom--and with lively and painful interest,” and that the claim to enjoy the same benefit, and will agree to be

argues that the mere reference to protection conUnited States would coöperate to “ vindicate her bound by the same conditions.

tained in the treaty recognizes the right and the just territorial rights, and secure her peace and

This very condition of the treaty with Nicar

fact, and that England only meant to say that she prosperity.” Assurances to the same purpose agua, forces England either to be bound by the

would not exercise this protectorate so as to inwere made by Mr. Clayton. How have they been

same conditions,”an acknowledgment of the right || terfere with the proposed canal. Under this con

of Nicaragua to the port of San Juan, or it cuts her struction, England now occupies San Juan—now redeemed by him or his successor? Mr. Squier received instructions from Mr. Clay of the transit route. Pursuant to these instruc

off from the equal enjoyment of the same benefits” | oppresses Nicaragua, and noio sustains the very ton, from which may be gathered his intention to

protectorate under which she had perpetrated all tions, Mr. Squier made a treaty with Nicaragua, | the wrongs we have pledged ourselves to redress. make a treaty with Nicaragua, not wholly inconsistent with our interests and the promises we had

carrying out their spirit and intention, fully and || In further evidence of the construction put on this made. Unfortunately, however, the treaty made | fairly. I cannot give the treaty in full, but the

treaty by England, and also her mode of dealing pursuant to those instructions was suppressed by following clause shows its character:

with refractory republics, see this letter from the Mr. Webster. And more unfortunately still, Mr.

Art. 36. “It is expressly stipulated that the citizens, representative of England in Central America to

vessels, products, and manufactures of all nations, shall be Clayton made a treaty with England, which, un- permitted to pass upon the proposed canal, through the terri

the government of Nicaragua, 15th August, 1850: der the construction given by his successor, sur- tories of Nicaragua, subject to no other, nor higher duties,

" Instead of insisting on its supposed right to the Mog. rendered the very rights it was intended to protect,

charges or taxes, than shall be imposed upon those of the quito shore, Nicaragua would best consult hier interest by

United States: Provided always, That such nations shall at once making good terms with England--for resistance in and was fatal to the treaty negotiated by his own first enter into the same treaty stipulations and guarantees this matter will be of no further avail. It is impossible agent, under his own instructions. Mr. Clayton respecting said canal, as may be entered into between the that Nicaragua should be ignorant of her Britannic Majessays, after a masterly and conclusive argument State of Nicaragua and the United States."

ty's relation to the Mosquito question, as it has before it

the letter of Viscount Palmerston, of the date 15th April against the right of the English under the Mos- The same provision is made in the treaty of

last, in which he declares, in the most clear and direct quito King: commerce, negotiated at the same time. The

terms, the utter impossibility of acceding to the preten“ It is manifest, indeed, that the rights claimed by Great right of way was granted by Nicaragua to Amersions of Nicaragua. On the other hand, the treaty of Messrs. Britain nominally in behalf of the Mosquito King, but really ican citizens; and this treaty, as is obvious, would

Clayton and Bulwer, about which you have so much to say, as her own, are founded in repeated usurpations, which bring all nations into league against England, if recognizes the Mosquito kingdom, and sets aside the rights

and in which you express so much confidence, expressly usurpations were repeatedly and solemnly acknowledged

she refused to make the same. Had this treaty. and relinquished by her during the domination of Spain on

which you pretend Nicaragua has on that coast. The true the American continent. Since that domination has ceased, been adopted, Nicaragua would have been secured policy is for Nicaragua to undeceive herself in this respect, those claims could have had no other foundation for renewal | according to her prayer to us, and our solemn

and to put no further confidence in the protestations and than the supposed weakness or indifference of the govern

assurances of pretended friends, (viz. Americans.) Tt pledges to her, against the encroachments of Eng

will be far better for lier to come to an understanding, with ments invested with the rights of Spain in that quarter.".

land. Instructions of John M. Clayton, Secretary of State, to

out delay, with Great Britain, on which nation depends Mr. Squier, Er. Doc. 75, 31st Cong., 1st Sess.

Of course England opposed this treaty in Nicar- not only the welfare and cominerce of the State, but also

the probability of accomplishing anything positive concernAnd again, giving his own views of the Clay- | agua, by every art, which I have not space here to

ing inter-oceanic communication through her territories, beton and Bulwer treaty:

expose.

She failed; and as far as Nicaragua was cause it is only in London that the necessary capital for

concerned, the treaty was made 23d September, such an enterprise can be found." “We have never acknowledged, AND NEVER CAN ACKNOWLEDGE the existence of any claim of sovereignty in

1849. It was sent home, approved by General I will not now argue the question if this be the the Mosquito King, or any other Indian in America. Taylor, and submitted to the Senate. It was true construction; it is or it is not. If it is, we do so would be to deny the title of the United States to her never acted upon. The death of General Taylor have surrendered the Monroe doctrine wholly; we own territory. Having always regarded the Indian title as

placed our foreign relations in other hands than have violated our pledged word willfully, and we a mere right of occupancy, we can never agree that such a title should ever be treated otherwise than as a thing to be

those of Mr. Clayton, and gave the English Gov- have, by acknowledging the Mosquito king, subextinguished at the will of the discoverer of the country, ernment the power it would probably not other- / verted the very principle on which all territorial

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right in the New World rests, viz: that the abori- into the State-the period of three years to commence on however, attempted to exercise sovereignty over gines had only a possessory right, and no sovthe day when Nicaragua shall formally take possession of

part of the Mosquito shore in the mean time; but and enter into the nccupancy of said town. The said net ereignty or eminent domain over any part of it. receipts to be payable quarterly to such agent as may be ap

by a treaty of the above date she recognizes the If it is not the true construction, we are permitting pointed to receive them.

tiile of Spain, and withdraws her protection from England to violate her treaty obligations with us Nicaragua is required not to molest or interfere with the such of her subjects as may be so daringas to most injuriously every day, and by this same vioMosquito Indians within the territory reserved to them.

settle on the territory belonging to Spain. The lation of faith with us, to inflict the deepest wrong

The first thing which strikes one on examining | terms of this treaty are recognized and renewed by on the sister republic which had claimed, and to this projet is the recognition of the Mosquito the treaty of Madrid, dated August 28th, 1814. which we had promised our protection.

kingdom. This it not only does expressly by || The history of the time from 1814 to 1824 exhibits This would be our position if no further action setting forth its boundaries, but by stipulating for abundant proof of occupancy by. Spain of this had been taken by this Administration after Mr. the cession (“' ceded" is the term used) of the port coast; and when the confederation of Central Clayton left the Department of State. But, sir, I of San Juan on certain oppressive conditions, by America declared its independence, England hergrieve to say that the most intolerable part of the the Mosquitoes to Nicaragua. Now, as to this self recognized it with the boundaries settled in record remains to be completed. And here, sir, I Mosquito kingdom, in the extracts already made the constitution as reaching from “sea to sea. wish to bring a most significant fact before the from Mr. Clayton's instructions to Mr. Squier, the | And on the dissolution of that confederation Eng. committee and the country. On the 26th of Feb- argument against any title in them is complete. land also recognized the boundary of the State of ruary, 1851, the following letter was addressed by But I will add a few considerations and author- Nicaragua, which was declared to run from sea to the Minister of Nicaragua to the Secretary of State, ities to the same purpose:

sea. By two treaties with Spain, one in 1836, the (Mr. Webster.) I give a translation as literal as “The Mosquito Indians are sunk in the lowest state of other in 1850, the title of Nicaragua is recognized possible:

ignorance and barbarism. Their number (including the over the Mosquito coast and from sea to sea." The WASHINGTON, February 24, 1851. Woolwas, Ramas, Towkas, and others not recognizing the

port of San Juan, which this projet would make The undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister

sovereignty of the Moscos) does not exceed five thousand.” Plenipotentiary of the republic of Nicaragua, has the --Mr. Hise, United Stales Chargé d'Affaires, to Mr. Buch

Nicaragua purchase from the Mosquitos, was foranan, February, 1849.

tified by Spain as early as 1665, and the defenses honor to address Mr. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State of the American Union, to submit to him a few remarks

“ The Mosquitos are inferior to the Indians of the United renewed in 1727, and her occupation of it uninterconcerning the interpretation that Great Britain has be- States in personal appearance, and infinitely below them rupted till 1824, when the troops of Nicaragua exlieved necessary to give to the treaty concluded between

in the mental scale. They are squalid and miserable bethis last Power and the Government of the United States, yond description. From the best of my information the

pelled the Spanish garrison. In 1842, and also in the 19th April, 1850. It is notorious to all that the said

nation' does not exceed one thousand or fifteen hundred,

1844, San Juan was blockaded by England as a treaty has for 'object to gwe the most complete security

and it is not probable that one tenth of those have any idea port of Nicaragua, to recover claims brought for the execution of the maritime canal through the Isthof a national character. It should be understood that a

against Nicaragua. And England növer in any mus of Nicaragua and to guaranty the neutrality of this

number of Indian tribes in the interior are claimed by the important way of inter oceanic communication.

way, till 1847, disputed the title of Nicaragua, at With

English to be under Mosquito jurisdiction, but I cannot out any doubt to attain this object, and in order to avoid learn that they admit any such authority. On the contrary,

least to this point; and never in any manner asdifficulties of any kind to the lawful execution of said

they actually prohibit, under penalty of death, any inter- serted the Mosquito title south of Blewfield's Bay treaty, both Governments have thought necessary to insert

mixture with the Mosquitos."- Mr. Squier, United States in the articles, the nomenclature of the States, districts, Chargé d'Affaires, to Mr. Clayton, June, 1849.

before that year, when, as I have before shown,

she determined to control the terminus of the and localities adjoining the place through which the canal 66 They do not appear to bave any idea of a Supreme Beis going to run, among others the coast and the Mosquito ing."-Young's Mosquito Shore, p. 72.

inter-oceanic communication, and under this amcountry which forin and constitute, and that have constitu * Chastity is not considered a virtue; polygamy is com

bulatory Mosquito claim seized with an armed ted and formed an essential and integral part always of the mon amongst them."-Ib. p. 73.

force the port of San Juan, driving out the troops republic of Nicaragua. Hence arose thai Great Britain, wishing to take advan.

“ A plurality of mistresses is no disgrace, and it is not of Nicaragua, and holding it herself, as she still

uncommon for a British subject to have one or more of holds it, under the affectation of a Mosquito protage of the same test and the clauses of the treaty, has di

these native women at different parts of the coast. They rected all her agents in Central America, and principaliy in

tectorate. Nicaragua, new instructions and communications in which

have acquired great influence through them.”-Macgreg-
or's Report to British Parliament.

The projet also contemplates a robbery of Niexpressly is stated that the Government of the American Union recognizes the existence of the pretended Mosquito

“I have never known a marriage celebrated amongst caragua in favor of Costa Rica, which is so clearly kingdoin, and the usurpation of the port of San Juan, and

them. The children are, in general, baptized by the cap- and concisely exposed in the following extract, that, far from debilitating the rights of the savage chief, the

tains of trading vessels from Jamaica, who perform the cer- that with it I may finish this part of the subject: treaty confirms them in full.

emony with anything but reverence on all who have been The undersigned, although fully persuaded of the error born during their absence. Many of them are indebted to

“Upon the independence of Central America, the variof the British Government, cannot help, on this account, to them for more than baptism. I could enumerate more than

ous provinces of the old Captain Generalcy, corresponding address Mr. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State, with the a dozen cbildren of two of these captains. By this licen

to our thirteen colonies, iook the rank of independent view of ascertaining if the Goverument of the Union really tious and immoral conduct, they have identified themselves

States, and, as such, subsequently entered into the confedintends to recognize the existence of a territory separated, with the natives. Their arrival is hailed with joy, as the

eration of Central America. Each State assumed the boundcovering, and independent of the republic of Nicaragua, season of festivity, revelry, christening, and debauchery."

aries which it had possessed as a province. From this -Robert's Mosquito Shore, p. 109.

arrangement there was no dissent. generally known under the name of the coast and Mosquito

As provinces, the

boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua had been rekingdom, and if the actual Administration which directs And the Secretary of State of Nicaragua to the destinies of the American people so wisely and pru

peatedly defined by royal decrees, by the historians of the Lord Palmerston, says:

country, and by the official maps. This was a right line, dently, abounds in the ideas and principles expressed in the

running from the lower or Colorado mouth of the San Juan dispatch of his honorable antecessor of ihe 7th of May, 1850, “ You know, sir, very well, that the established practice

river, to the mouth of the Rio Salto de Nicoya, or Alvarado, directed to the Chargé d'Affaires of the republic of Nicara- for a society which considers itself capable of assuming the

on the Pacific. All the Spanish maps, from the earliest gua. The undersigned avails bimself of this opportunity, rank of a nation, to obtain its recognition as such, is, 10 50&c., &c. liçit through its chief, his ministers, or direct accredited

periods to that of the disruption of the Spanish Empire in agents, the recognition of established States. But this rule

America, all lay down this line as a boundary. But upon To which letter no answer has yet been returned.

this point the best evidence is that furnished by Costa Rica of international law has in no way been complied with by

herself. In her first constitution, (art. 15, chap. ii,) dated Perhaps this silence, apparently unaccountable, the pretended King of Mosquito, who, it is alleged, now as. will be made intelligible by considering carefully sumes to raise the question or boundary with Nicaragua.

January, 1825, she defines her boundary on the north to be

precisely what we have stated, i. e., the mouth of the San the projet of a convention signed by the Secretary This government has not recognized, and will never recog

Juan on the Atlantic, and that of the Alvarado on the Panize such a kingdom as · Mosquito,' much less the territoof State for the United States, and the British Min

cific. Were any further evidence necessary, it is afforded rial pretensions of which you speak. No such king has exister, (Mr. Crampton,) and presented to the gove isted, or now exists. It is preposterous, sir, that a few

by the map attached to Thompson's Guatemala, which was

furnished to the author of that work, officially, by the Government of Nicaragua. The projet should be in- savages, wandering in the forests and wastes on the coasts

ernment of the republic of Central America, of which of Honduras and Nicaragua, living by the chase and fishing, serted entire, but its length forbids. I give its without houses, without a known language, without writ

Costa Rica formed a part. There was neither misunder

standing nor dispute upon the subject." substance, under all the responsibilities for any ten characters, arts, laws, or religion, without any of the

“So things remained up to the 9th of December, 1828, misrepresentation :

elements which, according to received principles, are neces.
sary to a national existence that such a horde of savages

when the Federal Congress, from causes in no way con1. That the entire southern bank of the river San Juan should profess to constitute a regular society, or what is

nected with any question of territorial right, passed a decree and Lake Nicaragua, including the department of Nicoya,

as follows: "For the present, and until the boundaries of more, a kingdom!" or Guanucaste, on the Pacific, shall be definitely conceded

the several States shall be fixed in accordance with act to Costa Rica.

Chief Justice Marshall says—and the opinion seven of the constitution, the department of Nicoya (or II. That the Mosquito kingdom shall comprise the ter- has never been contradicted or questioned-in re- Guanucaste) shall be separated from Nicaragua and at

ta ritory lying between the inouths of the rivers Raina and Se

to Costa Rica.' Although this ee was provisgard to all Indian title: govia, on the eastern coast of Central America, and shall

ional, Nicaragua did not submit to it without an earnest extend inward to the meridian of 83° 30' west longitude.

“ While the different nations of Europe respected the protest, in which the inhabitants of the district also joined. III. That the port of San Juan de Nicaragua shall be

rights of the natives as occupants, they asserted the ulti- The Congress, however, never proceeded to define the " ceded" 10 Nicaragua by bis august Majesty, subject to a mate dominion to be in themselves.”

limits of the respective Siates, and in 1838, the confederavariety of conditions, amongst which is a recognition of all And again:

tion was dissolved. By the dissolution, the original rights Mosquito grants, and the surrender, for three years, of all

of the States, territorial as well as all others, reverted to duties collected there, at a rate of ten per cent. annually,

“The United States maintain, as all others have main- them again in their sovereign capacity. The temporary to this august potentate.

tained, that discovery gave the exclusive right to extinguish alienation of Nicoya ceased, and it reverted to its true proThe Mosquito Indians do reserve to themselves, out of the Indian title to occupancy, either by purchase or con- prietor, whose rights, at the most, had only been suspended. the territory heretofore claimed and occupied, on the east- quest, and also gave a right to such a degree of sovereignty, Yet, it is upon this temporary concession of the Federal em coast of Central America, a district of country to be as the circumstances of the people would allow thein to Congress that any claim of Costa Rica must rest; but no bounded as follows: Beginning on the shore of the Ca- exercise."

claim thus founded can for a moment receive the sanction ribbean Sea, at the mouth of the river Rama, which is 11°

of reason

But, sir, not only are the Mosquitos incapable 31/ north latitude, and 83° 46' west longitude, running thence due west to the meridian of 84° 30/ west longitude from of the rights asserted for them in this treaty, but

“Still, admitting it to its full extent, and admitting that

Congress not only had the right of separating Nicoya from Greenwich, thence due north on said meridian to the river

the republic of Nicaragua has a title to the port Nicaragua, and supposing that it had exercised the power Segovia, thepce down said river to the Caribbean Sea, of San Juan and ihe whole of the territory to be with a view to permanency, and that the whole transaction thence southerly along the shore of said sea to the place of beginning, and all the rest and remainder of the territory

" cededby this projet as clear and indisputable had been concurred in by Nicaragua, yet, even then, Costa and lands lying southerly and westerly of said reservation, as the United States to the District of Columbia.

Rica could not claim a foot beyond the actual limit of the

department of Nicoya, which constitutes less than one heretofore occupied or claimed by the said Mosquitoes, || In 1502, Columbus sailed from Cape Honduras to

third of the vast territory which Mr. Webster proposes to including Greytown, they shall relinquish and cede tó the Isthmus of Panama, and took possession in surrender to her! Nicoya is comprised between the souththe republic of Nicaragua, together with the jurisdiction the name of Spain. There are grants made in

western shore of Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific, and emover the same, in consideration of the net receipts for three years from all duties levied and collected at Greytown, at close and constant succession of different parts of

braces no portion of the territory south of Lake Nicaragua,

and below the San Juan river, a territory over which the rate of ten per cent. ad valorem on all goods imported this coast by Spain down to 1786. England had, Il Nicaragua has always maintained jurisdiction, where she

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DECREES:

has had forts for centuries, and which she still occupies. one that these islands were only held by the Eng- to the State of Honduras, and were acknowledged As late as 1846, Costa Rica negotiated with Nicaragua for

lish themselves to be dependencies of British as her territory by Great Britain herself in 1830, the privilege of passing through this territory, and in 1848 made overtures for the purchase of it."

Honduras in August, 1851, more than a year after when England disavowed in plain terms the act of This plan for the partition of Nicaragua was

the treaty was concluded; consequently, they the superintendent of the Balize in seizing the presented to her Minister here. He resisted and could not have been the dependencies" spoken || island of Roatan. The treaty of 1814 refers to and

of in the secret conditions of the treaty: But it expostulated, but in vain; it was sent to Nicara

revives the treaty of 1786 with all the boundaries gua, and, after being considered by the Govern- is perfectly clear that, under existing treaties, (from and rights which it contained, and that treaty is

which I have already cited paragraphs for other ment, was replied to by the following decree:

the law of the case at the present day. And purposes,) in unbroken series from 1763 to 1814, England has so recognized it to be by acts of ParThe Director of the State of Nicaragua to its Inhabitants: Inasmuch as the Legislative Assembly has decreed the

and now governing the relations between England | liament as late as 1819, and now in force, which following:

and Spain, and from laws passed by the English | amends an act passed in 1817, in which these The Senate and Chamber of Representatives of the State Parliament, and now in force, that England had words occur : of Nicaragua, in Assembly convoked

no such right even in the Balize or British Hondu- “Whereas, grievous murders and manslaughters have ART. 1. The State of Nicoragua does not accept the proras, as is asserted over these islands.

been commitied at the settlement in the Bay of Honduras, ject of convention or recommendatory basis, adjusted on

Under these treaties, the Balize itself belongs to

the same being a settlement for certain purposes in the

possession, and under the protection of his Majesty, but the 30th of April last, between his Excellency Daniel Web- the State of Guatemala, and the islands now in not within the territory and dominions of his Majesty," ster, Secretary of State of the United States, and his Excel

dispute as clearly to Honduras. By the seven- &c. lency J. F. Crampton, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of her Britannic Majesty, in respect to the

teenth article of the treaty of peace, of 1763, it was As to the part we should take in any dispute territorial boundaries between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, provided that “ His Britannic Majesty shall cause between Guatemala and Great Britain, in regard and the separation of the Mosquito coast.

I to be demolished all the fortifications which his to the Balize, I have said enough before to indiART. 2. The State of Nicaragua is disposed to have the

subjects have erected in the Bay of Honduras, question started, in connection with the points mentioned,

cate my opinion; but upon the much clearer quesdiscussed before imperial arbitrators.

and other places of the territory of Spain, in tion arising from the seizure of these islands, which Art. 3. The State of Nicaragua protests solemnly against • that part of the world, within four months." were not dependencies of the Balize, but of the State all foreign interference in the affairs of its government, and The English did demolish some of their forts, of Honduras, and which were not claimed as deagainst the use of force to coerce its will or violate its

but retained some of their establishments, which pendencies of Balize for a year after the Clayton rights. Given in the Hall of Sessions of the House of Represent

violation of the treaty of 1763 led to another war. and Bulwer treaty, and which therefore could not atives, Managua, July 14, 1852.

This war was concluded by a treaty of peace in come within the doubtful reservations, secretly AUGUSTIN AVILEZ, Rep. Pres't. 1783, by which the English were allowed the priv- made by Messrs. Clayton and Bulwer explanaJOAQUIN CUADRA, MARIANI BOLANOS, {Rep. Sects.

ilege of cutting logwood in the district “ lying be- tory, I do not see how Americans can differ. The

"tween the rivers Hondo and Balize, provided that In the Executive Hall of the Senate, Managua, July 16,

treaty of 1814 is plainly violated; the Clayton and 1852.

'the stipulation shall not be considered as deroga- Bulwer treaty is as openly broken in the clause MIGUEL R. MORALES, Senate Pres't. ting in anywise from the rights of sovereignty which provides, "that neither Great Britain nor 1. DEL ROBLETO, } Senate Sects.

of the King of Spain." It also provides that all the United States shall occupy, fortify, or assume,

English subjects, " whether on the Spanish conti- nor exercise dominion over any part of Central Therefore, let it be executed. J. L. PINEDA, Supreme Director of the Government of Nicaragua.

'nent, or in any of the islands whatever depend- America.'

Sent upon it," shall retire within the district above We should take such action as would enforce MANAGUA, July 19, 1852. A true copy : 'CASTILLON, Secretary of Foreign Affairs.

defined. As the conditions of this treaty were the treaty, let the result be what it may. It would The following decree had been passed before

violated by the English, another was entered into, | be no war for conquest, but for the maintenance of

in 1786. The first article of this treaty is this: national honor and good faith. It would result in (viz: in October, 1849) by the same authority:

“His Britannic Majesty's subjects, and the other colonist, placing us in our natural position, as the protector “ The Legislative Chambers of the Republic of Nicara- who have enjoyed the protection of England, shall evacu- of those republics which have been created by the gua, in view of past events and existing circumstances, in ate the country of the Mosquitos, as well as the continent conformity with the settled sentiments of the people which in general, and the islands adjacent, without exceptions

force of our example, and which have a right to it represents, solemnly declare: situated beyond the line hereafter described as what ought

look to us for aid in those emergencies in which "1. Their adhesion to the principle of the total exclusion to be the frontier of the extent of territory granted by his we are as deeply compromised as they. I believe of European interference from the domestic and interna- Catholic Majesty to the English, for the uses specified in tional affairs of the republican American States, as neces

such a war-even if there should be a war from the third article of the present convention. sary to their peace and independence.

“ The English line, beginning from the sea, shall take

the assertion of our manifest rights—would ter"2. That the extension of monarchical institutions by the center of the river Libun, or Jabou, and continue up to

minate with extended territory, augmented power, conquest, colonization, or by a support of savage chiefs to the source of said river; from thence it shall cross in a and increased influence in the world. If, in its resovereignty, or savage tribes to national existence, or by

straight line the intermediate land till it intersects the river other means upon the American continent, is in opposition

sults, the ties which would exist between ourselves Wallace, (Bakize,) and by the center of the same river the to the interests of the republican American States, danger- line shall descend to a point where it will meet the line

and the States of Central America, as guardian ous to their peace and safety, and an encroachment upon already settled and marked out by the commissaries of the and ward—if the sympathy of a common repubtheir individual and collective rights." two Crowns in 1783."

licanism should be drawn yet closer even to a poAnd thus the affair was suspended; and nothing The third article provides that the English may

litical union-I can see nothing of evil augury in but the firmness and decision of the Nicara

cut certain woods, and “gather such fruits of the the prospect. Not that I would desire to see war guan government has saved us from the deep || earth as are purely natural or uncultivated.” And for this or any other purpose, but to avert inguilt involved in the projet just discussed. When || further:

jury and disgrace; but I believe that such a war, it was discovered that this plan would be opposed

“But it is expressly agreed that this stipulation is never

and for such a purpose, is as sound in policy as by the Minister of Nicaragua, application was to be used as pretext for establishi

in that country any

right in morals.
made to his government for his recall; this was plantation of sugar, coffee, cocoa, or other like articles, or
refused, as he was a long-tried and trusted repre- any fabric or manufacture by means of inills, or other ma-
sentative, and the reasons of the demand were

chines whatsover, (this restriction, however, does not re-
gard the use of saw-mills for cutting or otherwise preparing

ACQUISITION OF CUBA. asked for; they were not given, but after the death the wood,) since all the lands in question being indisputaof the then Secretary of State, as lately as the bly acknowledged to belong to the Crown of Spain, no set- SPEECH OF HON. V. E. HOWARD, 30th of December, 1852, only the other day, the

tlement of that kind, or the population which would follow,

could be allowed." present Secretary of State addressed a note to the

OF TEXAS, Minister of Nicaragua, refusing to recognize him In this rettlement of boundaries, it will be ob- IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, in his official character; thus proving the persist- served that no islands are included; but as if to

January 6, 1853, ence of this Administration in the same policy | exclude all doubt upon that subject, the fourth arwhich had dictated the refusal to answer the in- ticle of the same treaty provides that the English | In the Committee of the Whole on the state of the quiry contained in the letter to Mr. Webster, shall use for certain purposes the island of Casina,

Union, on the duty of the United States to take inserted above, and making the present Secretary of St. George's Key, but that "no fortifications possession of and hold the Island of Cuba. of State a sort of administrator, de bonis non, of shall be erected, or troops established there." Ar- Mr. HOWARD said: the unexecuted vengeance of his predecessor. ticle fifth also provides that some small islands, Mr. CHAIRMAN: I have risen to address some

The last point to which I shall ask the attention (not, however, those now in dispute,) may be remarks to the committee in reply to the observaof the committee, is the seizure by England of used by the English for the same purposes, and tions of the honorable gentleman from New York, the islands of Roatan, Bonacca, &c., &c., in the with the same restrictions as St. George's Key. || (Mr. Brooks,) the other day, touching the course Bay of Honduras. This has been completed in “Spanish sovereignty over the country," and the of the Administration in relation to the subject of two acts; on the 10th of August, 1851, the super- exclusion of any system of government, either | Cuba. I think he has done great injustice both to intendent of the Balize took possession of, and military or civil,” by any other_Power, are ex- the law and to the facts connected with the course attached these islands as a dependency of the pressly provided for in article sixth. It is obvious, of conduct pursued by the Administration, and that Balize.

therefore, that the British claim to the Balize is a he has also done injustice to the American citizens In July, 1852, they were regularly organized mere possessory right guarantied and limited by who were the victims of Spanish cruelty connectunder the name of the “Colony of the Bay of Isl- treaty, and for certain specific purposes, and it is ed with this affair. It is manifest that the subject ands." That this is a manifest violation of the equally obvious that the islands in dispute are not of Cuba is becoming one of great and growing Clayton and Bulwer treaty, in the sense which it under the treaties, or in any sense dependencies of national interest in this country. Its importance bears on its face, does not admit of contradiction. the Balize.

to my own State consists in this, that if Cuba was But it is contended by the agents of England, that The limits laid down for the English in the in the hands of an adverse or unfriendly maritime under the explanations and exceptions and con- treaty of 1786, were within the territory claimed ! Power of any great strength, it would be imposditions between Mr. Clayton and Mr. Bulwer, by and recognized by Spain, as belonging to Gua- || sible for the States bordering on the Gulf of Mexthat British Honduras was not within the scope temala, and that State has the undoubied right, de ico to get their products to market; our great of that treaty, or its dependencies. Now, admit- rived direct from Spain, to sovereignty over it. staples must rot upon the wharves of our southern ting this proposition, ii is a fact known to every ll By the same title the islands in dispute belonged li commercial cities. It is, therefore, a subject to 320 CONG.....20 Sess.

Acquisition of CubaMr. Howard.

Ho. of Reps.

which we must direct our attention and dispose of in those resolutions to which I allude. It is rather | and thereby endanger the peace and security of in some form or other.

calculated to irritate than to be of any practical | the slave States upon the Gulf, then it would be Now, sir, in relation to the expedition which benefit.

the duty of this Government to interfere, and take was the subject of the gentleman's comments, I But, sir, I do not think that the Senate reso- possession of the Island and hold it as an Ameriagree in one view expressed by him, and that is, lutions state the Monroe doctrine fairly. The can State or an American province, that it was the duty of this Government to sup- Monroe doctrine is, that if colonization upon this The southern States on the Gulf would never press all illegal private enterprises against Cuba, continent by European Powers shall endanger our permit Spain, as a matter of revenge in the case of or any other foreign country. And, sir, it gives safety, shall conflict with our great national inter- a revolution by the Creoles, to abolish slavery in me pleasure to be able to say upon this occasion, ests or peril our institutions, then it will be a cause that Island, with a view to the destruction of the that the Administration of Mr. Polk did suppress of war; but it is not, as these resolutions seem to planters. They cannot permit such an example an illegal expedition that was contemplated shortly contemplate, that every settlement upon any sand- to be successful so near their shores. The instinct after our late peace with Mexico, and into which bank on this continent is an offense, which is to of self-preservation is too strong. This measure an effort was made to draw our soldiers on their result in war. I am opposed to any declaration, was threatened during the invasion of Lopez; it return.

by legislative enactment or by joint resolutions of never can succeed so long as slavery exists in the The letter of Mr. Buchanan, the Secretary of Congress, which would compel us in honor to go United States; and any attempt of that sort, either State of Mr. Polk, which has been so improperly to war if a European Power should happen to take by Spain or any other Power, will be followed by published by this Administration, shows that that possession of any unimportant or barren spot | an immediate seizure of the Island, either by this Administration inter posed and suppressed a con- upon this continent. I am in favor of this doctrine, | Government or by the slave States on the Gulf of templated expedition against Cuba; that it issued that whenever a European Power undertakes to Mexico. There is no principle of international directions to the officers of the army, and to all its make a colonial establishment here which inter- | law that would require a great Government like civil officers who could act on the subject, direct- feres with our great national interests, our national the United States to permit itself to be thus ing that measures be taken that any such ex- safety, or our institutions, we will then resort to assailed through a small colonial dependency of pedition should be suppressed. The measures the last argument, if the last argument becomes | another and distant Power. England has been adopted were efficient, and in this respect, the necessary to free ourselves of the difficulty; but I very prompt to protect herself from like dangers conduct of Mr. Polk's administration stands out do not go beyond that. I am in favor of a prac- by at once taking possession of the point of dan in bold and honorable contrast with the course tical enforcement of the doctrine when any neces- ger. If Cuba had been as near her possessions of his successors, for two such enterprises have sary case shall arise.

as ours, she would have seized it long since on since been set on foot, and descents upon Cuba But, sir, I am opposed to these resolutions for half the provocation. effected in both instances. If the present Admin- another reason. They are inadequate to the sub- On what principle do the British hold Gibraltar, istration did not permit this expedition to go out, ject. They go upon the ground that we will not Malta, and several other strong positions, which they were at least guilty of great negligence in permit any foreign country to establish any settle- I give them control over the commerce of the world ? relation to the matter, for which they ought to be ment here; but at the same time that we permit Why, they have assumed them as being necessary held responsible to a just public opinion. For, | present establishments to remain as they are, to the protection of their own commerce. Upon sir, I take it to be an absurdity to say that this ihat we will never acquire Cuba without the con- this question of necessity, the policy of the GovGovernment, with all its power, could not arrest sent of Spain. Now, I am at a loss to understand ernment is well settled, if Cuba should ever pass an expedition confined to a single steamer. The on what the Monroe doctrine, taking that view of from the dominion of Spain to that of any other use of ordinary diligence and exertion would have the subject, is held to be based. If it has any Power. The danger to be apprehended to this prevented that expedition from going out. Gen- sound basis, it must rest on a question of safety = | country and its institutions from the acquisition of tlemen on the other side cannot, therefore, accuse that these colonial establishments interfere with Cuba by any other Power, as well as the intrigues a Democratic Administration of this country of our commerce and institutions, and endanger the of England' in relation to the subject, have been being negligent in relation to these expeditions i stability of our Government. Well, if any exist- | pointed out and made the subject of comment by against a neighboring Power; and in that respect, ing establishment upon this continent interferes nearly every Administration för more than thirty the Democratic party of this country stands in a in the same way, and is pregnant with the same years. These dangers were suggested by Mr. much more favorable light, not only here, but else- dangers, is there not as much reason that an ex- Adams while Secretary of State in 1822, in his where. I have no doubt that General Pierce will isting establishment shall cease as there is that official dispatches to ur Minister to Madrid. In take efficient means to maintain and enforce the new establishment or colony shall not be created ? | his dispatch to Mr. Forsyth, he says: neutrality laws of the country.

The one principle is precisely as broad as the other, While I am upon this subject, I may as well and controlled by the same reasons. Sir, it is not

“The present condition of the Island of Cuba has excited

much attention, and has become of deep interest to this refer to another question. I am in favor of the a sound principle of international law which is Union. From the public dispatch and other papers which Monroe doctrine; but I am not inclined to sustain attempted to be asserted by the Senate resolves. you will receive with this, you will perceive the great and certain resolutions that have been introduced into | The whole doctrine rests, and can be based upon

continued injuries which our commerce is suffering from the other branch of Congress by one of the great nothing else than that we have a right, under the

pirates issuing from thence, the repeated demands made

upon the authorities of the Island for their suppression, and est statesmen of the country, which gives a formal international code, to take all those precautionary the exertions, but partially effectual, of our own naval force notice to the world, that when any foreign Power measures which the safety of the nation requires. I against them.”

“ From various sources intimaattempts to settle or colonize on this continent, Therefore, sir, for one, while Cuba remains in its

tions have been received here, that the British Government we will consider it an unfriendly act, a cause of present position-while it remains quietly under

have it in contemplation to obtain possessiou of the Island.”

“There is reason also to believe that the future war. I am not for abstract legislation on any ihe power of Spain-while its present domestic political condition of the Island is a subject of much anxiety subject. I do not see the propriety, by a joint relations are continued and its internal policy

and of informal deliberations among its own inhabitants; resolution of Congress, of serving notice upon the does not endanger our safety-I see no necessity | there, observing the course of events, and perhaps endeavor

that both France and Great Britain have political agents whole world, after the manner of Richard Roe for our attempting any design upon it.

ing to give them different directions." and John Doe in an action of ejectment, that But, on the contrary, if the projects of England whenever a colonization establishment, or any should ever take a definite form, which have con

In his dispatch of April, 1823, Mr. Adams again other settlement, shall be made upon this continent tinued from 1820 to the present time--if there

comments upon the designs of England, with refby a European Power, it shall be immediately a should be danger that any great maritime power

erence to the Island; upon the impossibility of its cause of war. I think that abstract legislation in will take possession of Cuba, and thereby dis- inhabitants maintaining an independent governall instances, is improper. The court which

turb our safety, by locking up the commerce of ment, alleging, that “their only alternative of dewanders beyond the record in deciding a case, in the Gulf, including as it does that of the valley of pendence must be upon Great Britain or upon the judicial proceedings, generally has to retrace its

United States." the Mississippi and eight or ten States, then, under

In commenting upon the necessteps; and when the legislator attempts abstract the international code as laid down by Vattel, sity of Cuba to the United States, he says: legislation in advance of the times, he commits a Wheaton, and others, and as the principle has been

" Such, indeed, are, between the interests of that Island

and of this country, the geographical, commercial, moral, fault still greater, and more inexcusable. I prefer stated by Chancellor Kent, we would be justified and political relations, formed by nature, gathering in prothat each case should be left to its own circum- in taking possession of Cuba, although we might cess of time, and even now verging to maturity, thai, in stances. It is the part of wisdom to leave every in justice and fairness be afterwards compelled

looking forward to the probable course of events, for the case to be determined by its own circumstances. to make a fair compensation for it to Spain, if the

short space of half a century, it is scarcely possible to resist

the conviction that the annexation of Cuba to our Federal They will not only be a law for themselves, but necessity for such a measure was created without Republic will be indispensable to the continuance and infind a means for their own peaceful solution. To any fault on her part, and if her conduct towards tegrity of the Union itself.” attempt to determine this matter by legislation is us had been fair and just.

After Mr. Adams was elevated to the Presidency, not compatible with the theory of our Government. In the first instance, it is more properly a question lject:

Chancellor Kent thus states the rule on this sub- | he maintained his policy in relation to Cuba, which for the diplomacy of the Government; and in the

was substantially repented to our Minister to Spain next place, if diplomacy fails, it is a question for

“Every nation has an undoubted right to provide for its

in 1825, by his Secretary of State, Mr. Clay.' In own safety, and to take due precaution against distant as 1827, our Minister to Spain, Mr. A. H. Everett, the war-making power. To declare this policy, well as impending danger. The right of self-preservation by a law, in the shape of a joint resolution, would

gave information to the Government of an effort is paramount to all other considerations. A rational fear in a great measure take it out of the hands of our of an imminent danger is said to be a justifiable cause of

of England to revolutionize Cuba, based upon a diplomatic agents, and limit the discretion of the war."-kent, Vallel, b. 2, c. 4, section 49, 50.

dispatch of the Spanish Minister at London. The President, to whose custody it has hitherto been I can well conceive that that necessity will Spanish Minister admitted to Mr. Everett

, that confided.

his Government had received information of the Sir, it must be apparent to every re- probably arise. If any one of the great European efforts of England. Mr. Everett says in his disflecting man, that the European Powers are much Powers were to attempt to possess themselves of the more likely to quietly concede Cuba to us if we do not thus ostentatiously assert such a principle

Island, or if they were to attempt, what has been patch of December 12th, 1827:
threatened, to change the institutions of the Island

" I then mentioned to Mr. Salmon that, according to the

information which the Government of the United States by legislation, than they are to acquiesce in this so as to make it a second St. Domingo, with a view had received, the object of the plan was to place the Island doctrine so broadly stated as it has been put forth of striking a blow at slavery in the United States, II under the protection of Great Britain ; but that the form of

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a declaration of independence was to be adopted, in order Hence if the use of the Havana be even at the disposal of Asiatic possessions. We have been made to feel to avoid awakening the jealousy of the United States; that an enemy while in the hands of a neutral Power, each and the United States would not, of course, be deceived by this all of these interests could be with difficulty defended, even

her power and weight in Mexico, in connection artifice; that they could not view with indifference these by a superior naval force, and never guarantied against with the Tehuantepec route. movements of the British Government, considering it, as severe losses. While from it, as a United States port, a I dissent altogether from the position of the they did, as a settled principle, that the Island must in no squadron of moderate size would cover the southeast and President that it would be inexpedient for us to event pass into the possession of, or under the protection of Gulf coasts, protect the foreign and inshore traders, and seany European Power other than Spain.” cure the lines from New Orleans or New York to the Pa

acquire Cuba, if Spain consents to our acquiring Mr. Van Buren, as Secretary of State, in 1829,

cific States by way of the Isthmus--its occupation would it by treaty or purchase. I hold that it is our

necessarily be the object of every expedition, military or in his dispatch to our Minister to Spain, alluded

highest national interest to become the possessor naval, preliminary to any attempt on the southern trade or of that Island as soon as we can by cession from to the designs of England and France with refer- territory." ence to Cuba and Porto Rico. With reference to

Spain. I cannot see the danger of sectional agi

The rule of international law for which I am the importance of the former to the United States, contending, is thus stated by Mr. Wheaton:

tation from its acquisition which is anticipated by

the President. There are ten men in the United he said: “ of the absolute international rights of States, one of States now in favor of acquiring Cuba,

where there “The Government of the United States has always the most essential and important, and that which lies at the was one in favor of the annexation of Texas at the looked with the deepest interest upon the fate of those foundation of all the rest, is the right of self-preservation. Islands, but particularly Cuba. Its geographical position, It is not only a right with respect to other States, but a duty

time of the Tyler treaty. The commercial class of which places it almost in sight of our southern shores, and, with respect to its own members, and the most solemn and

the North generally are in favor of the measure as as it were, gives it the command of the Gulf of Mexico and important which the State owes to them. This right neces- soon as it can be honorably accomplished. It is the West India seas, its safe and capacious harbors, its rich sarily involves all other incidental rights which are essen- obvious that the northern States would be largely productions, the exchange of which, for our surplus agri- tial as means to give effect to the principal end." cultural products and manufactures, constitutes one of the

benefited by it in a commercial point of view. It most extensive and valuable branches of our foreign trade, The European Powers are estopped from deny- is, in my opinion, a great mistake to suppose the render it of the utmost importance to the United States ing the application of this doctrine in its fullest acquisition of Cuba would give rise to any fresh that no change should take place in its condition which might injuriously affect our political and commercial stand

extent, by having repeatedly acted upon it. By agitation of the slavery question. If the Island ing in that quarter. Other considerations, connected with

the treaty of Utrecht the French Government were in our possession, we should effectually supa certain class of our population, make it the interest of was compelled to demolish the fortifications at press the slave trade, and to that extent, its transthe southern section of the Union that no attempt should Dunkirk, because dangerous to others. By the fer to us would not only diminish slavery, but be made in that Island to throw off the yoke of Spanish de

treaty of Paris of 1815, France was compelled to arrest a traffic which results in an annual loss of pendence, the first effect of which would be the sudden emancipation of a numerous slave population, the result

demolish the fortifications of Huningen, and agree the lives of colored persons, nearly, if not quite of which could not but be very sensibly felt upon the adja- never to renew them, because dangerous to Basle. l equal in number, to those reduced into slavery by cent shores of the United States."

The doctrine of self-defense and self-preservation the trade. If Cuba were converted into a black Mr. Forsyth, as Secretary of State, in his dis- was the alleged justification of the combination of republic, it would soon become a mere harbor for patch in 1840, repeated the views of his predeces- the Protestant Powers against Louis XIV., and pirates, and the northern States would be the sors, and warned our Minister to be on the look-out il for all the coalitions formed by the allied Powers first to cry for the acquisition of the country. against the designs of England on Cuba, of which against France, and more recently for the Con- There is no danger that the North would risk the the Government had been advised. Mr. Webster, li gress of Troppau and Laybach, in relation to consequences of rejecting Cuba. They have too in his dispatch as Secretary of State, to our Min- | the Neapolitan revolution in 1820; for the Con- || much interest in the preservation of the Union; far ister to Spain, says:

gress of Verona in relation to the affairs of Spain, | more than the South. Their whole commercial « The archives of your legation will show you that the

and one of the grounds for British interference and manufacturing prosperity rests upon it. We subject of the supposed designs upon the Island of Cuba by in the affairs of Portugal in 1826; for the interfer- have passed that crísis for the preseni century. the British Government is by no means new, and you will ence of the Christian Powers in favor of Greece, Neither is there any danger from the character also find that the apprehension of such a project has not been unattended to by the Spanish Government." principally on the ground that the contest en- of the population in Cuba. With the aid of the

thousands which would flock there from every In January, 1843, Mr. Webster communicated couraged piracies, and interfered with commerce;

for the interference of Austria, Great Britain, portion of the United States, they would have no to our Consul at Cuba, the contents of a communi- and Russia, in the affairs of the Ottoman Em- difficulty in working our system. The admission cation which he had received from a “highly respectable source,” as to renewed designs of Eng. / pire in 1840. I do not mention these instances of a free press, and the Protestant religion, would

approbation, but the land upon Cuba. The writer makes statements | right in a proper case, and that neither England,

work wonders in the Island in a short time.

I will proceed now to the course of the Adminabout the designs of the British Ministry and France, nor Spain, can complain of its exercise istration, which was the subject of the remarks British abolitionists, to bring about a revolution in England has seized possession after possession in i of the honorable gentleman from New York, (Mr. Cuba, and erect it into a " black military repub- | India, on the ground that each instance was neces- BROOKS,) the other day, touching the treatment lic, under British protection.” He remarks, says Mr. Webster, " if this scheme should succeed, the in that country. sary to the preservation of her other possessions which the prisoners taken in the Lopez expedition

received by the Spanish authorities of the Island. influence of Britain in this quarter, it is remarked, The right of a government to take all necessary I repeat, that I am not a defender of the Lopez will be unlimited. With six millions of blacks in

measures for its safety and self-defense consistent expedition, nor of any similar adventurers. But Cuba, and eight hundred thousand in her West

with reason and justice to other Powers, is stated there are many things to be said in extenuation of India islands, she will, it is said, strike a death

more strongly by European writers than by our that unfortunate occurrence. Cuba is, no doubt, blow at slavery in the United States. Intrenched own. Vattel asserts that" since, then, every nation oppressed by one of the worst governments on at Havana and San Antonio, posts as impregnable is obliged to preserve itself, it has a right to every:

earth. It is more arbitrary than that of the Czar, as Gibraltar, she will be able to close the two enthing necessary to its preservation."

and less humane because it is governed by officers trances to the Gulf of Mexico, and even prevent nation or State has a right to everything that can | from Old Spain, whose object is to amass wealth the free passage of the commerce of the United | help to ward off imminent danger, and keep at a by oppressing the people by burdensome and onerStates over the Bahama Banks, and through the distance whatever is capable of causing its ruin; ous exactions. General Lopez, an ardent lover of Florida channel.” And although Mr. Webster and that from the very same reasons that establish liberty, was inspired with the ambition of freeing says the Government neither indorses nor rejects | its rights to the things necessary to its preserva- | his country from this intolerable despotism. He these views, they are so stated by him as to show tion."

pursued his high purpose with an energy, persethat they made a deep impression on his own Cuba is even now in a transition state. It cannot verance and courage, worthy of a better fate. He mind. It is apparent from all this correspondence, that will continually occur there, for the seeds of lib. continue long in its present condition. Revolts | missed the fame and renown of one of the liber

ators of the age, only because his efforts were un. it is the settled policy of the Government that Cuba erty have been sown in that devoted Island. The i fortunate. While the leader of a revolution is is not to pass from Spain without coming under people will be restive under the onerous and op- canonized by success, the unfortunate conspiraour own jurisdiction, and that the Island is not in pressive exactions of Spain. With the present tor is covered with obloquy, and his name shrouda position to permit it to be an independent gov- commercial policy of that country, the revenues ed in disgrace. Narciso Lopez perished ignominernment without making it dangerous to our com- collected from the Island will not pay the army iously by the garote, but his blood watered a soil merce, institutions, and national safety:. Since and navy necessary to keep the people in subjec- that will yet bear the fruits of liberty, and a monthis correspondence, our immense Pacific com

tion. It is not, therefore, in my opinion, possible ument to his memory will hereafter be erected over merce has arisen, which passes within sight of for the Island to long remain a dependency of the spot where he fell, by the hands of freemen. Cuba.

Spain, and we can never with safety permit it to Every revolution generally has a victim before A very accomplished officer of the Navy, pass out of her dominion without becoming a Lieutenant Dalghren, in his report on the subject portion of the United States. Cuba requires our It has been the policy of the authorities of Cuba of fortifications, has expressed an opinion, which

utmost vigilance. The effort of England and to represent that the Creoles of the Island did not is obviously true, that, with all the fortifications

France to induce us into a treaty in relation to the sympathize with the movement of Lopez. But we can place on our coast, we cannot protect our || Island; the fact that those Powers combined to the reverse is well known; an extensive revolt was commerce in the Gulf of Mexico, with Cuba in place fleets there under pretense of guarding its at one time planned and organized. That is the possession of a hostile Government. Indeed, coast; the fact that England has assumed to erect proved by the multitude of arrests and banishCuba is far more necessary to us, than Gibraltar a colony on the islands off the coast of Central ments, by the fact that all the prisons in the Island or Malta is to England.

America, and has now a considerable fleet in the were crowded to overflowing. After the failure Mr. Dalghren says:

Gulf and off the coast of Cuba, under the pretense of the first expedition this organization was, to a « The true and only key, however, to the defense of these of arresting the slave trade, all demand our vigi- li great extent, broken up. A reorganization took shores and to the immense interest there collected, is the lance, and preparation for any emergency: There place just before the second expedition of Lopez, Havana. The island to which it belongs enters its western extreme into the Gulf, leaving but two passages for vessels

, Australia, England has, with

increased interest, l! pendence was promulged. There is no doubt that

is no doubi that, since the discovery of gold in and ai one place, at least, a declaration of inde bese are the great thoroughfares of trade, and the mail

turned her attention to the Gulf of Mexico and I the extent of this movement was greatly exaggersteamers from New Orleans to California and New York. I the Isthmus, as a line of communication with her li ated, and that the revolt was by no means as

New SREIES.-No. 6.

* "A

success.

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