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320 CONG.....20 Sess.
Foreign Policy-Cuba—Mr. Marshall.
Ho. of Reps.
and for the further reason that the State which I ers were weaker than ourselves. Now, sir, let me mere statement-certainly everyaddition of terrirepresent in part has a special and local interest in say in behalf of Young America, and the pro- | tory, voluntarily connecting itself with an existthe policy of the Government as regards the Gulf gressives, with whose opinions I sympathize, that ing government, increases the physical force and of Mexico, its islands and shores.
we desire to do no one thing which is not consist- resources of every kind, at the disposition of the It is true, as a general principle, that in a Con- ent with the sound principles of public law, and constituted authorities of the whole. federacy like ours, the more remote members are, the rights of all our neighbors. That we do not It is true that a pure democracy can only exist and ought to be, more jealous of the honor, and desire war for conquest, or any purpose; that we within narrow territorial limits, and with a very more sensitive to every indication of weakness of regard it as the greatest evil, except dishonor. small population, for the obvious reason that the Union, than those nearer the political and geo- And further, that we advocate no measure of for- where the people assemble and pass laws directly, graphical center. Civis sum Americanus is uttered | eign policy which ought, or which we believe will, that only a very few can meet or act in concert. with more pride on the shores of the Pacific than lead to war. We contend for no new doctrine; | Our own observation and experience proves that the Potomac.
we merely insist upon the strict observance of such democracy should consist of fewer citizens We lean upon the General Government for sup- || principles well established by authority, and ne- than compose this House, if prompt and efficient port; and nowhere within the ample boundaries cessary for our own peace and safety. "I shall, in i legislation is the thing desired. But that difficulty, of the Union does there exist the same sentiment another connection, state the doctrines to which I which is as old as the formation of society, was of confiding dependence that we feel. At the allude, while I now consider some of the leading | obviated by the system of responsible representasame time there are none of the States which have | propositions of the gentleman, (Mr. VENABLE] tives of the people themselves. The other objection, felt with such poignant shame the sacrifice of honor which I believe constitute a faith common to the that a legislature assembled from vast distances, and principle, and the deep humiliation, brought | gentleman and the more conservative portion of could not wisely provide for the local wants of reon us as a people by the present Administration. the Whig party.
gions remote, and to the great majority of its comWe believe, we know, that there is strength If I understood the gentleman, he was opposed ponent members, wholly unknown, has been met enough in the Government, under a manly and to the annexation of Cuba at any time, and in any only conclusively in the history of the world by patriotic Administration, to protect all its paris in way, on the ground that the Union could not with our own system, partly national and partly federal. all their rights. The eagle's wing is strong enough | safety embrace any additional territory. I will The establishment of the doctrine of State rights, to bear its flight over the continent, and its beak also state what I believe is the real operative rea- as a security for efficient local legislation, and a Fedand talons sharp enough to guard its charge, even son of the objection of that gentleman. It is a eral Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary, for the though the lion of England should array himself conviction, now nearly universal, that the progress arrangement of foreign relations and of domestic against it in his acknowledged power,
of slavery in American territory is arrested. That affaii's, throwing its guardian arm over all, is perThe interest so universally felt in the subject of in all future acquisitions, from the operation of feet in theory and in practice. It appears to give inter-oceanic communication, and much of that felt many active causes, the institution of slavery will the only absolute security against the prevalence in regard to the islands and shores of the Gulf of not exist. It is clear that whatever the reason as- of dangerous faction, by placing always, in the Mexico, has arisen since, and depends on the ac- signed, the ground of opposition to the acquisition hands of the National Government, the force of quisition of California. Commercial necessity of a country so manifestly, advantageous to the more than half of the Confederacy; and against forces us to transmit, monthly, nearly three mil- South as Cuba would be, either as a free or slave | foreign invasion it is a self-evident security-and lions of specie through an independent republic, State, is jealousy of the North.
these internal factions and foreign wars exclude and under the very guns of fortresses which have Mr. Chairman, the time is past when the ques- | all the perils which can menace a nation. I cononly to hold us in the contempt we have merited tion of slavery in any territory about to be ac- fess that I can see only one limit to the safe exto become hostile; and the inestimable rights of quired, can produce the agitation and danger which tension of territory, and that is in a distance every kind of our citizens are exposed through has arisen from it. The principle is settled by the so great that the constituent citizens would be the same causes, and to the same dangers. I feel compromise, that the citizens of such territory, at unable to hold the representative to the rigid reobliged, therefore, even on occasions not pecu- the time, shall determine for themselves this ques-sponsibility which is the basis of the whole sysliarly appropriate, even when the effort will not be tion; and if the North should, by its greater enerproductive of immediate action, to assert the doc- gy and aptitude for emigration, acquire the popular
Such a Government seems to me to grow stronger trines I hold, and to expose the imbecility and power, and the right under the rule so settled by | with each accession of territory, and like a wellcorruption, from which even now we are suffering. the compromise, to declare any territory seeking constructed arch, to acquire greater firmness from The Island of Cuba, and the possibility and prob- admission into the Union,
free, the South could increased pressure and accumulated weight. But ability of its annexation to the Union, and the not, if it would, under the Constitution and laws, || suppose the worst did happen, from the annexapolicy of the Administration toward the Govern- and would not if it could, resist a measure benefi- tion of Cuba, or any other province-suppose the ment on which it is dependent, have produced cial to the whole nation. The South should be worst to have come--that the parts could no longer much debate. The danger of collision between satisfied with the guarantees of the Constitution hold together, but must dissolve: what then? Spain and ourselves seems to me to have passed and the laws, for their peculiar institution; and I say, still, that the experiment is worth trying, for the present, and, right or wrong, the questions even if it be receding, if the conditions of human and that good would result even from the tempobetween us are settled. I do not think that in society, and the progress of free States militate rary union. We would have introduced new good faith the next Administration can, or that it against it; if with the protection thrown round it ideas; we would have taught the lesson of selfwill, assert any claim or principle likely to renew by the organic law of the land, it be yet in its own government, of resistance to oppression, of freethe late difficulties, or to change materially our nature temporary and evanescent, and about to dom, of the equality of men in the eye of the law, relations with Spain or Cuba. I cannot see that disappear before the democratic energies and the of the dignity of the individual, without which any immediate necessity exists for a change in our laws of political economy, there is neither the teachings, man had better not be. policy, or that any practical question is likely to wisdom of a statesman, nor the generous patriot- We would have made converts to the faith of arise. Neither the next Administration, nor the ism of a good citizen, in seeking to impede the ad- human liberty, and given their true value to a napresent generation, will be called on to act in re- vance, and check the development of States where tion; and whether we continued to exist in one gard to it, and I am willing to leave it to the wis- no such institution obtains.
Union, or broke into fifty free republics, the world dom and courage and patriotism of those who I believe myself, and I speak only for myself, would be improved by the diffusion of that knowlwill, by the course of events, and in the fullness that there will be no more slave territory annexed edge, which alone makes life tolerable. The great of time, have to meet it. I cannot but allude to to the United States. The history of the country, i Union so broken, would be like a fractured diaone significant fact, of which I have seen no ex- and especially of California, establishes the fact, mond, less valuable certainly in its fragmentary planation, which goes to prove that the Adminis- | and illustrates the principle which governs the state, but still the same precious material, reflectiration is by no means confident of the propriety Look at California. If slavery could ever ing from each brilliant part the light of American of its course in the most exciting and threatening progress, it would have obtained there." Slavery civilization, intelligence, and liberty. of the Cuban difficulties. The American Consul is only advantageous to the slaveholder in coun- No one can have less sympathy than myself in Havana, who had pursued precisely the course tries where the largest amount of labor can be be- with the wild excesses into which doctrines liberal, consistent with the expressed views and instruc- stowed on the smallest surface, and where it pays but at the same time safe and prudent, have been tions of the Government, who carried out with a the heaviest profit. Now, sir, since man first left sometimes carried. I would by no means defend tameness and cowardice, which should have made the Garden of Eden, there has been no place dis- the vagaries of Anacharsis Clootz, or such sects him Secretary of State, the will of the Executive, covered where these conditions are so wonderfully as he represented. I mean to be never the adwas by that very Executive dismissed with dis- met, as in California—and yet I tell gentlemen that vocate of wild and self-sacrificing propagandism; honor, and given over to the execrations of the there never was a time when slavery could have but I prefer it much, in its worst form, to the exwhole unanimous people, without one word of ex- been introduced there, nor is such a time coming. treme of conservatism--that conservatism which planation or defense.
We approved the compromise; but the character would, in terror and suspicion, withdraw from all The gentleman from North Carolina, (Mr. Ven- of our State was fixed without it. Labor was im- foreign intercourse into Japanese solitude; that conABLE,) who introduced this discussion, did not con- posed as a curse, (and it is awful in my private servatism which, in dread of entangling alliances, fine himself to an examination of the policy of the opinion,) and free citizens will not submit to have would refuse to declare a principle of public law, Administration in respect to Cuba, but went on to it made dishonorable, as well as disagreeable, by or in the maintenance of strict neutrality neglect to the assertion of general principles, which I was slave competition. Free men will be the first em- defend its citizens, plundered by both belligerents; surprised to hear from him, and in which I by no igrants, and they have, and will protect their aris. | that conservatism which instructs the represent
That gentleman also indulged | tocracy of labor from the action of organized capital, atives of a great Republic to avoid in monarchical himself in a general reprobation of the doctrines in the shape of slavery.
courts the expression of the sentiment of the counof progress, and the plans of filibusters, and But as regards the proposition now beginning try they represent, or the inculcation abroad of seemed to intimate a belief that some political par- | to be urged in the most unexpected quarter, that the free principles which alone give value to govty, or section of a party, were desirous of lawless any extension of territory is dangerous to the ernment that conservatism which has alrendy made conquest, and in favor of predatory incursions Union, I shall say only a few words. The directly our own diplomatic corps mere evidences of the upon neighboring Powers, especially if those Pow- ll opposite proposition would seem true upon its power, mere trappings and circumstances to swell
320 CONG.....20 Sess.
Foreign Policy-CubaMr. Marshall.
HO. OF REPS.
the pomp and flatter the insolence of those poten- | tion, not solely or principally with a view to pecu- minican government upon the basis which you may jointly tates to whom their very presence should be a sol- | niary advantage, but a periodical which shall be
prescribe to him, or to consent to a truce with that govern
ment of not less than ten years, emn warning; that conservatism which dares not the jealous guardian of the rights of the people
“ The Emperor should be made properly aware of the interpose in friendly mediation between its own and the honor of the nation; which shall speak | dangers which he and his country may encounter, if he neighbors, without calling in the crowned heads with the boldness of conscious knowledge on all should be unfortunately advised to reject reasonable terms of Europe to destroy its influence, and laugh at its subjects of public importance. Upon this ques
of pacification; but you will stop at remonstrance until
further notice." folly. Liberal opinions and bold policy may run tion of Hayti, the Republic copies the article of into inconsiderate rashness; but prudent conserva- the Union as being perfectly in accordance with the United States assert a right to intervene forcibly,
Now, if this means anything, it means that the tism may also degenerate into cowardly imbecility. | views of the Administration. Did not the Union The notions of an hundred years past are not ne- know, had its editor never heard, that the Demo
if necessary, in the affairs of the island, and that
that intervention has been made in a way that calls cessarily or generally suitable or safe at this date. | cratic party, so far as it had expressed, by the The conservatism of the present day is a mere press or otherwise, its opinions on this point, had
for “the warmest commendations" from the
Union. Those warmest commendations are beeddy in the rushing and resistless tide of human visited, with the deepest reprobation, the course of development and progress. The position of our the Administration but the article itself contains
stowed upon the total failure to appease his continent, its mere geographical position, makes (what every one in the country knows, and noth
(Soulouque's) ferocious wrath,” or "drive him from his bloody purpose.'
If the Union desired impossible the policy of conservatism. Placed be- | ing more) enough to convict itself of absurdity, tween the civilization of the Orientals, which the and the Executive of weakness and disregard of I would have been generous to the Administration;
to defend or explain this contemptibie failure, it maturity of despotism has well-nigh destroyed, one of the fundamental principles of American
but to bestow the warmest commendations upon and the nations of Europe still fresh and vigorous policy. It says: even under the curse of monarchical and aristo
it for permitting a bloody, savage-not acknowl
“In general, the foreign policy of President Fillmore's cratic institutions, commercial necessity, like the administration has not been in accordance with our notion
edged by the very Administration itself as one of attraction of gravitation, forces contact with both. of what the foreign policy of this country should be, and we
the recognized Powers of the earth—to mock and have been constrained in some instances to express an emCommerce must have its agents, must be protect
defy it, while he does the very thing about which phatic disapprobation of negotiations which seemed to us the issue has been made, is self-evident nonsense. ed. Representatives of the Government, with to compromise the dignity and to surrender the rights of the political character higher than the mere consul, United States. For this reason, any instances of an ener
This is the plain statement: The United States
says to Soulouque, You shall not make war on and hedged round by the sacred jus postliminii, in- getic or wise administration of the foreign affairs of the
country by an Executive whose general policy we have been troduce the very atmosphere of the republic to the
thé republic of Dominica; Soulouque says, I will constrained to condemn, will the more readily command court of the monarch-opinions are diffused, sym- our warmest commendation. Such an instance of wise
make war on the republic of Dominica; and the pathies are created, interests spring, up, which diplomacy do we regard the efforts of this Government, in
United States don't say anything more-but the may be affected by the terms of treaties to which conjunction with Great Britain and France, to arrest the Union says, it is “an energetic and wise admin
sanguinary designs of the negro Emperor of Hayti against istration of the foreign affairs of the country. we are not parties; wars and pacifications, trans
the republic of Dominica. fers of territories by which our rights and privi
Oh, shade of Dogberry! rejoice, that at length “By som emeans, publicity has been given to the correleges may be sacrificed, so blended become the spondence between the State Department and Mr. Robert
thy profound teachings are appreciated by a Whig interests of commercial nations that an injury to M. Walsh, its agent in the negotiation for the pacification
Administration and a Democratic editor: of Hayti. In the various papers which constitute this corone is an injury to the other. The United States
" Dogberty. You shall comprehend all vagrom men; you respondence, the motives and purposes of the Adininistramust either adopt a Japanese seclusion, or she tion in proffering its good offices in behalf of the Dominican
are to bid any man-Stand, in the prince's name.
“ Watchman. How if he will not stand? will be forced into entangling alliances, and will || republic, are frankly and clearly set forth. become the involuntary propagandist of the hide"In 1821, the Spanish portion of the Island of St. Do
“ Dogberry. Why then, take no note of him, but let mingo voluntarily subjected itself to the government of
him go; and presently call the rest of the watch together, ous principle of republican liberty. Conservatism Hayti, then presided over by Boyer. On the expulsion of
and thank God you are rid of a knave." is impossible: we must go backward or forward. Boyer, and on account of the wrongs and grievances which But, sir, the Union seems wholly unconscious We must decline into worse than colonial feeble- || they had endured, with a repetition of which they were
that the Administration has not been content to ness, or we must accomplish a mission
of world- menaced, the Dominicans threw off the subjection of negro
render itself simply ridiculous, and contemptible; wide beneficence. Fogyism itself would look hope- || inis step the Spanish inhabitants of St. Domingo were driven but that to do so effectually, it has violated a prinfully forward from one of our California prom- by the necessity of self-preservation. Not only were their ciple, the very clearest and least liable to dispute ontories, around which break, unchecked in their political rights and their liberty invaded and trampled upon in our entire foreign policy. I allude to the doc
by the black barbarians of Hayti, but the doom of indiswild play for six thousand miles, the giant waves criminate slaughter and extermination was incessantly held
trine of Monroe. The Union makes itself responof the Pacific ocean. (Plenipotentiaries from China before them in the threats of the Macaya and Dessalines. sible for the joint mediation of France and Eng: offering unrestricted intercourse)-Fogyism itself " By the most imperious necessity, then, were the Do- land, accepted by the Administration in direct and would become a convert to progress, and fancy | Nevertheless, their act of separation was regarded as a reminicans impelled to set up an independent governinent.
apparently intentional, gratuitous, and wanton viothe very continent a vast ship voyaging triumph- volt by the negroes of Hayti, who prepared to reduce the lation of the policy which is essential alike to our antly into that future, which opens bright but rebel wbites to subjection by the strong arm of force. All safety and our honor. In another connection, I boundless around humanity.
the efforts of the Haytian government were unequal, how- will state the doctrine, and what I conceive to be I have said, Mr. Chairman, that the subject to
ever, to the reconquest of Dominica. The Spaniards de-
its meaning and effect; but for the present purwhich I should ask the attention of the committee,
disparity of numbers, successfully repelled the invasions of pose, I would only direct the attention of the was of a practical character. In the investigation their foes. They achieved and established their independ- Union to the National Intelligencer of December of the policy of the Administration in the Island ence. France formally recognized the republic of Domi- 23d, where "non-interference on the part of Euroof Hayti, I shall attempt to prove that the doc
nica. England and the United States recognized it by their trine of Mr. Monroe, and the principles of naacts. Still Soulouque refused to acknowledge the inde
pean Powers with the independent Governments of the pendence of the Dominicans, and pers in his efforts to New World," is stated as an admitted principle of tional law, and the dictates of humanity, and the reduce them to subjection. In this juncture, under the all parties--apparently in the same happy oblivion impulses of universal manhood, that all the settled apprehension of a very formidable attack by Soulouque, the
of the course of the Administration in this and and necessary rules of conduct peculiar to the
Dominican government solicited the mediation of the Uni-
other transactions, as the Union. United States, as between it and the Powers of || peaceable relations with its savage neighbors. Great Britain But leaving the Democratic organ to the consoEurope, in the adjustment of the affairs of this and France promptly acceded to the proposition, impelled lation to be derived from the sympathy of the continent, and the instruction and all-pervading | thereto by every consideration of justice and humanity. Republic, I will examine the course of the Adminsense of dignity and personal consequence which
Without reluctance, the United States followed their examregulates the deportment of man to man, have ple. The Government dispatched Mr. Walsh to the Hay
istration in regard to Hayti, by the light of its tian court, to cooperate with the representatives of Great own official correspondence, and other reliable been openly and absurdly violated. That the Britain and France in the humane endeavor to persuade sources of information. The momentous importrights and interests of the United States, the the Emperor Soulougue to abandon bis hostile designs
ance of this island to the United States in a com against the Dominicans. rights and interests of a sister Republic, have been
"Persuasion could not appease his ferocious wrath, nor
mercial point of view, and its still greater imcontinually and wantonly sacrificed. These are could threats drive him from his bloody purposes. He per- portance as a naval depôt, has been strangely strong terms, but I shall endeavor to establish the sisted in his designs against Dominica, and would in no overlooked. I do not speak of the policy of its title of the Administration to yet stronger epi- || mediating Powers could effect was the prolongation of an manner acknowledge its independence. The utmost the
annexation, nor do I contemplate its acquisition thets. And here, sir, in advance of the arguexisting truce.
by the United States; nor do I believe that the ment, and assuming, for a moment, what I pro- * And this was the issue of a negotiation for which the course of the next Administration ought to be or pose to prove, I must express my astonishment Administration deserves credit. It originated in an impulse will be shaped with any such purpose; but this I and mortification at the course of the central Dem
of humanity, and sought to protect a civilized community
do say is obvious from a single glance, that its inocratic journal, (The Union,) in regard to this The mission of Mr. Walsh was a mission of peace and true dependence of Europe is of more moment to us affair. This journal, which should be the organ | philanthropy.”
than that of Cuba; and that the protection of the of the party-which should exert an immense in
Even in the imperfect history of the Island of white republic, which embraces iwo thirds of its fluence in the formation of public opinion-which Hayti here given, it is clear that the Dominicans surface, against the negro empire which holds and should gather, with patient labor, correct informa- were entitled to their independence in the judg
ruins while it holds the other third, is at once our tion for general diffusion; this paper which should
ment both of the Union and the Administration; duty and our interest, and that such interference be a vigilant sentinel over the doings of the Ad- | that being so entitled, and in fact being independ
should be without the cooperation of any Euroministration, has selected this disgraceful negotia- ent, they invited the United States to protect them pean Power; but that in that island, more than tion for its approbation. The Union has exhibited against a savage whose power was originally
elsewhere, the interference of Europe, whether as the last degree of ignorance and thoughtlessness founded on murder, and continued and sustained joint mediators, or in any other way, should be in its article upon this subject, and has not only by lawless outrage. The Union indorses this par- effectually, prevented. The devendence of Cuba failed to throw any light upon it, but has not even | agraph from the instructions of Mr. Webster to on Spain is the cause of the embarrassments and reflected truly the conclusions or reasoning of Mr. Walsh, the agent who conducted the nego
difficulties which have sprung up in that direction. even the most careless observers of passing events. tiation:
Hayti has for nearly thirty years been wholly inWe want beyond everything a party organ which
“You will then, conjointly with your colleagues, require dependent of all European power. The island shall be conducted, not as a commercial specula- !) the Emperor to conclude a permanent pease with the Do- contains about thirty thousand square miles. Of 321 CONG..... 2D Sess.
Foreign Policy-Cuba—Mr. Marshall.
Ho. of Reps.
about one third of its western end is in has published satisfactory reasons for its interven- spectacle to his eyes, and the sending such a one just now, possession of Soulouque, and the remaining two tion. In addition to the instructions given to Mr.
is a ceremony of which he would much prefer the breach
to the observance. It is a pity the commodore cannot pro thirds constitute the territory of the republic of Walsh, quoted before, the following extract from
tract his stay here, as the presence of the steamer would Dominica. It is blessed with a climate the most a letter addressed by the representatives of the materially assist our negotiations, the logic of force being, I delightful, and a soil the most productive; it lies three Powers, Greai Britain, France, and the am afraid, the only kind which his government thoroughly to the wind ward of Cuba, and holds it, in fact, a United States, to the Haytian Minister of Foreign comprehends, or at least is disposed to respect.” mere prisoner in its hands if in the possession of Relations, expresses the views of the Administra- But as to the views of the Department of State any naval or military power. By its geographical tion, and takes the true ground:
of the national character of Hayti and the govposition, it is the true key to the Gulf of Mexico, “ In the eyes of the three Powers, the independence of the ernment of Soulouque, the following to Mr. and to both oceans the natural Queen of the An- Dominicans reposes upon a right as sacred, a fundamental Walsh, from Mr. Webster, is conclusive: tilles. It has upon its northeast side a bay called
compact as respectable, a fact as consummate, as those
“ It is presumed, however, that in process of time-and Samaná, perhaps the finest in the world, and eyes, that people is in legitimate possession of all the titles
perhaps before long-if the Haytian government shall which is said at this time to be occupied by France; which constitute nationalities the most incontestable; a
abandon its ambitious projects of foreign conquest, shall
devole its attention to the improvement of its own people, a bay of which a French political writer of emi- regular administration, a legislation protecuing equally the persons and property of all, a military organization boih on
and shall succeed in that object, so as to cominand the renence speaks in these words: land and sea, a flag enjoying the honors due to that of a free
spect of dispassionate and iinpartial men, no nation whose "There are three points in the Atlantic wbich assure the country, international relations through accredited agents,
interests may dictate the measure will hesitate to send conmaritime preponderance to the great power which shall es- and even a solemn treaty of recognition and commerce with
suls to their ports or to recoguize Haytian consuls in their tablish itself on either one of them the little Island of St. one of the chief natiops of the earth.” Thomas, the Mole of St. Nicholas, (in Hayti,) and the Bay And from the same document:
Could anything be clearer? The Government of Samaná. St. Thomas, at present the entrepôt and inari
“Reduced to the alternative of renouncing those advan
itself asserts the right to coerce the Haytian outtiine center of that part of the world, is nothing but a barren rock, to which everything-even wood and water-has to tages, or of perpetually fighting to retain them, the Domi
law, and refuses to recognize the absurd and monnicans have been compelled to request the intervention of be brought from abroad; and besides, it belongs to Den
strous empire as one of the Powers of the earth, the Powers with whom they are connected by the aforesaid mark. The Mole of St. Nicholas is surrounded and cominternational relations, in order to free theniselves from a
entitled to the respect or countenance of the civilmanded by a compact circuit of high mountains, which position so deplorable.
ized world. One other extract from Mr. Walsh's circumstance requires the military occupation of a very extensive territory; it belongs, moreover, to the Haytians.
“ That intervention they justly obtained, because a few report, and the diplomatic history of this affair, as
words juserted in the often-modified constitution of Hayti, There remains Samaná. Of all the bays in the world, the
furnished by the Government, is finished. In it Bay of Samaná is at once the most vast, the most secure,
are by no means sutficient to create for thnt country a righi || is confessed the failure of the whole mission, and and the best defended on the side of the land and of the sea;
of perpetual possession of the territory of its neighbor_a while all the riches of the mineral and vegetable kingdomspossession entirely fictitious at the time when that consti
the only honorable and manly course indicated. tution was formed, continuing so during eighteen subse
It has been, however, wholly disregarded: from gold to coal, from ship-timber to precious shrubs are foumd accumulated in the peninsula which gives it its
quent years, and again becoming so after the lapse of seven, “ That result can only be accomplished by coercing the
and of which the temporary existence only demonstrated Haytian government. All persuasion and argument are name."
the radical impossibility of blending two races of different thrown away upon it, all sense of duty and justice and " Where, then, shall we search for the secret of the hesitaorigin, customs, inanners, and language.”
right is merged by it in sanguinary ambition and ferocious tion, which nothing without or withiu can excuse? Is itin And again:
vindictiveness. The Dominicans will listen to no terms the strange illusion of one of our last Ministers of Foreign
which do not establish their national sovereignty, which
“The only thing for foreign nations to consider was the Affairs, who, in reply to one that was representing to bim
they have so long and so successfully defended. simple fact that the Republic of St. Domingo is positively the danger of the occupation of Samaná by the Unyed
"They would prefer total extermination, as they declare independent, and entitled to be treated as such, whatever States, said: 'Fortunately the English are yet in Jamaica ;'
and as their conduct demonstrates, to falling again under may have been the original rights or pretensions of Hayti." so, too, were the English in Oregon?"
the atrocious despotism which they have shaken off; and “ No, it lies, I rear, in the traditional maxim of the bureau : Nothing could be more distinct and satisfactory
every consideration of interest, of justice, of humanity de" It is none of our business.' None of our business! Hap- than this. Upon the same subject, and to show to
mands that their independence should be placed on a secure py, indeed, is that country which can act on such maxims !
and permanent basis." But are we in that condition? When England is each day
the Department at home the propriety and necesenlarging the distance which the year 1848 placed between sity of intervention, Mr. Walsh writes to Mr. || comprehensive view of this question. Has the
I will, however, Mr. Chairman, take a more her and us,” " when the United Webster in these words—this is official:
United States a right to intervene for the protecStates are covering the Atlantic and Pacific with their an
“ The contrast between the picture which is now pre. nexationist Corsairs; do we not, by remaining asleep in our
tion of Dominica against Soulouque? The facts sented by this country, and that which it exhibited when little corner, incur the risk of awaking some fine day, stifled under the dominion of the French, affords a melancholy
and principles which are necessary to prove this and powerless ? Our léthargy is here all the less inexcusa
confirmation of what I have said. It was then indeed an right, are often identical, and always connected ble, inasmuch as there are no political or financial obstacles
exulting and abounding' land-a land literally flowing with those which establish the obligation of the for an excuse; that in order to see our flag float over the
with milk and honey; now, it might be affirined, without Peninsula of Samaná, we should not have even the trouble
Government to forbid, and at any hazard to preextravagance, that where it is not an arid and desolate of carrying it thither'; [quere?) that, in order to conquer waste, it is flooded with the waters of bitterness, or covered
vent, the interference of any European Power, esthe finest maritime and territorial position of the New World, the tèle de-pont of the passage of Panama, the future entre
with noisome and poisonous weeds. “When I arrived | pecially France or England, in the affair. pôt of the two hemispheres, the key of the two oceans,
here,' to quote the words of an intelligent foreigner who The conclusion as to the policy of the Govern
has been in Hayti since the epoch of its independence, would only require of us a simple monosyllable and a single
ment, which has contemptibly failed in the assere
there was abundance of everything-now there is a want. nod of the head. But why say this aloud? Some one will
tion of the right, and which has, without any jusof everything.' The cultivation of sugar, which was once object to me. Good God! to make known here what all the main fountain of wealth, is now entirely abandoned,
tification or necessity, or any good result, in fact the world, except ourselves, knows already."
except for the production of an intoxicating drink; and that violated the obligation, is inevitable. Before goThese considerations no wise people will over- of coffee has so much decreased, that it would not in the look. It is true, that at present, while the releast be a matter of surprise if ere long the supply of that
ing into these facts, before giving a brief account indispensable article for Haytian commerce, were to be
of the relations of the Island of Hayti to Europe sources of both divisions of the island are ex
insufficient for the ordinary consumption of the inhabitants and to ourselves, and its different parts to each hausted by wars and preparations for wars against themselves.
other, and of the submission by this Government each other, the commerce of the Island seems “The government, in spite of its constitutional forms, is comparatively unimportant.
to the interference of France and England, it is The exports of the
a despotism of the most ignorant, corrupt, and vicious de-
well to recur to and carry with us distinctly the Dominican republic are about one million annual
while it absorbs the largest portion of the revenue for its rule of foreign policy, and its reasons, which is ly, and Haytí about three millions; the popula- support, it dries up the very sources of national prosperity, called the Monroe doctrine. In the seventh meslation of Dominica being about one hundred and by depriving the fields or their necessary laborers to fill the town with pestilent hordes of depraved and irreclaim
sage of Mr. Monroe, this clear and luminous extwenty-five thousand, of which only fifteen thouable idlers."
position of the doctrine occurs: sand are pure blacks, thirty thousand whites, and the balance blancos, or mixed, and Hayti about
And in further proof of the gtrong position taken
" It was stated at the commencement of the last session
that a great effort was then inaking in Spain and Portugal seven hundred thousand. This co.nmerce has been by Mr. Walsh, with the approbation of the De
to improve the condition of the people of those countries, declining, as has the actual produce of the island, partment, witness this extract from an official and that it appeared to be conducted with extraordinary steadily since its occupation by the French, in letter:
moderation. It need scarcely be remarked that the result 1787, 1788, and 1789. In those years, the exports “ I thought I might then try the effect of an argument
has been, so far, very different from what was then antici
pated. Of events in that quarter of the globe, with which from Hayti alone, one third of the island-and which I took care to represent as wholly unofficial and pri. we have so much intercourse, and from which we derive our
vate, my Government having no knowledge of it whatever. with a population, all told, of five hundred and
origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectaThe day before I left Norfolk I was told by a friend that he tors. The citizens of theUnited States cherish sentiments the thirty-five thousand-was $8,783,000; the conse- had been offered a command in an expedition which was most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their quence is, that Dominica, which has a soil equally | contemplated to go to St. Domingo and assist its inhabit- fellow-men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the productive, and twice as extensive, would, if she
ants against the Haytians. This fact I communicated to European Powers, in matters relating to themselves, we were suffered to, equal the condition of Hayti perilous probability that should such an expedition ever
the Minister with all plausible empbasis, dwelling upon the have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our under the French in 1787, 1788, and 1789, sustain
policy so to do. It is only when our rights are invaded or land upon the island, all the miseries and horrors with seriously menaced, that we resent injuries or make prepaa population of more than a million, and export which the Emperor was now threatening the Dominicans ration for our defense. With the movements in this hemisover fifty millions. This is an estimate infinitely
would be brought to his own door; that the desperadoes phere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and
composing it would never rex until they had exhausted by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and imlower than the facts justify, but it is sufficient to
every effort to overwhelin the empire, and that even if they show that the interest of the United States consists
partial observers. The political system of the allied Powshould fail in destroying it, the evils they would suffer ers is essentially different in this respect from that of Ameriwith its duty; that all the motives, pecuniary ad.
would be almost equivalent to ruin. The only sure way, This difference proceeds from that which exists in vantage, security for our trade in the Gulf, and I added, to arrest the danger was to conclude a peace, and
their respective Governments. And to the defense of our the dictates of humanity, should impel us to the lending aid to a people whose independence was wrongby thus depriving the expedition of the lawful motive of own, which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood
and ireasure, and matured by the wisdom of their most eneffectual protection of the Dominicans. fully assailed, it would become the duty of the United States
lightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unBut no motive of interest would be sufficient to to prevent it from leaving their shores.
exampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe
The chord was one which seemed to vibrate more direct national policy as against the public senti
it, therefore, to candor, and to the amicable relations existing strongly than any other, for the Government has been in hetween the United States and those Powers, to declare that ment of civilized and enlightened nations or the great dread of such an expedition ever since the attack we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their plain dictates of morality and justice. upon Cuba."
system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to Has the United States a right to interfere? The And again, from Mr. Walsh, as to the right to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies and deAdministration has not only settled that question menace or use force:
pendencies of any European Power we have not interfered
and shall not interfere. But with the governments who as against itself by an actual interference, but it “The truth is, the big ship in the harbor is not a pleasant have declared their independence and maintained it, and
320 CONG....20 Sess.
Foreign Policy- Cuba—Mr. Marshall.
Ho. OF Reps.
whose independence we have, on great considerations and miliating subserviency to Europe we would have to sovereignty had been advanced by any Euroon just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or control.
insensibly gone, I forbear to conjecture. We have pean Power for more than twenty years. They ling in any other inanner their destiny, by a European Power
gone far enough, however, to prove that the only had, driven by a tyranny unexampled, thrown off in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly safety is in the rigid observance of the Monroe the connection, forced in the first place with Hayli, disposition towards the United States. In the war between doctrine which is contained in one line: Non-in- | and were in fact and of right independent. The those new governments and Spain, we declared our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this we have
terference on the part of European Powers with leading ground of difference between them and adhered, and shall continue to adhere, provided no change
the independent governments of the New World. Hayti, white immigration, should have commandshall occur, which, in the judgment of the competent au- That this doctrine should have been enforced with ed our sympathies; and the doom of extermination thorities of this Government, shall make a corresponding jealous precision against France and England in pronounced against them, gave them a right to change, on the part of the United States, indispensable to their security.
the Island of Hayli by the United States is made protection on the grounds of common humanity. “ The late events in Spain and Portugal show that Europe more apparent by the fact that each of these Pow- || On the arrival of these commissioners, Mr. Calhoun is still unsettled. Of this important fact no stronger proof ers has guarded against interference by the other, was in the Department of State. The large and can be adduced than that the allied Powers should have and that the United States alone has been indiffer- comprehensive mind of that great statesman, apthought it proper, on any principle satisfactory to themselves, to have interposed by force in the internal concerns of Spain. ent to the progress of either in the island. The preciated at once the importance of the interests To what extent such interposition may be carried, on the joint mediation met the views of both those Pow- || involved, and he sent out a special agent to exam-. same priņciple, is a question in which all independent Powers whose Governments differ from theirs are interested; l negotiations which might be entered into. And ers, as it gave to them a controlling majority in any ine
carefully and report on the affairs of the island.
Before the report was made, or at least before it even those most remote, and surely none more so than the United States. Our policy in regard to Europe, which was
that there could have existed no adequate motive was acted on, Mr. Calhoun retired from the Deadopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long for accepting or tolerating the joint interference of || partment of State. Mr. Buchanan, who succeeded agitated that quarter of the globe, nevertheless remains the those Powers is demonstrated by the fact, that that Mr. Calhoun, sent another special agent, Lieutensame, wlich is, not to interfere in the internal concerns of
connection with us did not influence Soulouque in any of its Powers; to consider the Government de facto as
ant Porter, who made a long, and I think, an able the legitimate Government for us; to cultivate friendly re
any degree, but tbat the joint mediation was as report, which was never acted upon, owing to the lations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, | ludicrously impotent as our sole attempt could by excitement and absorbing interest of the Mexican firm, and manly policy; meeting, in all instances, the jusí | possibility have been.
war, which was just then being commenced, and claims of every Power; submitting to injuries from none. But, in regard to those continents, circumstances are emi.
By the treaty of Ryswick, 1697, Spain ceded to the events which followed it. This is, however, nently and conspicuously different. It is impossible that France the western one third of the Island of San but an imperfect excuse for a most serious fault. the allied Powers should extend their political system to any Domingo, retaining the eastern two thirds: The In 1849, just at the accession of General Taylor, portion of either continent without endangering our peace
black population of the western or French portion | Soulouque made the most formidable attack upon and happiness :* nor can any one believe that our southern brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own
of the island in 1790 massacred the whites, and | Dominica which it had sustained. He reached accord. It is equally impossible, therefore, that we should became independent of France. The blacks of within two days' march of Santo Domingo city, behold such interposition, in any form, with indifference. the east or Spanish division did not join in this re- and with a force apparently irresistible. The inIf we look to the comparative strength and resources of
bellion. In the same year the Spanish part of the difference and neglect of the United States had exSpain and those new governments, and their distance from each other, it must be obvious that she can never subdue
island was ceded by Spain to France, and remained || tinguished all hope of interposition on our part, them. It is still the true policy of the United States to leave in her possession till 1808, when the English aided and in despair the Dominicans applied for a French the parties to themselves, in the hope that other Powers will the Creoles to throw off the control of France, and protectorate. This would have been accepted by pursue the same course."
the territory was confirmed to Spain in 1815 by France at once, and the Bay of Samaná (a point In the subsequent or eighth annual message of the treaty of Paris, and was governed as a Spanish of more importance than Havana, and which, it is the same President, (Mr. Monroe,) he again al- || province till 1821. In 1822, Dominica, with a view | rumored, she has at last taken possession of) ceded luded to the contest between Spain and her colo- io connect herself with the Colombian republic, to her-the island, in fact, would have become her nies; said that the latter had fully achieved their in- | revolted from Spain. This purpose was never property, but for the interference of the British dependence, and that said independence had been carried into effect; but Spain was unable to attempt | Minister, who gave notice that Great Britain would recognized by the United States. He then ad- even its subjugation, and has never to this day re- not consent to it. The correspondence on this verted to the European Powers; said that it was asserted her claim. On the contrary, she has subject, copied from the archives in Santo Do" the interest of the United States to preserve the openly acknowledged their independence by de- mingo, is now in this city, and in possession of most friendly relations with them, but that with manding, in 1830, from Hayti an indemnity for its || the gentleman afterwards sent out by Mr. Clayton regard to our neighbors, the republics of South loss, and also by receiving and treating with the as special agent to Dominica. Whether this would • America, our situation was different. It was Dominican commissioner in 1847 for the acknowl- have been submitted to or not by the United States, impossible for the European Governments to in- | edgment of the republic then established in the it is impossible to say; but it was by no action on terfere in their concerns without affecting us. east.
the part of our representative at home or abroad • Indeed, the motive which might induce such in- In February, 1822, Boyer, the chief of the west that it was prevented. 'terference would appear to be equally applicable to or negro part of the island, the now Empire of After the invasion of Soulouque, which was us;" and he added that “it was gratifying to Hayti, invaded the east with a force which was defeated by the exertions of the Dominicans, know that some of the Powers with whom we en- irresistible by the Dominicans. The provisional though made more formidable by domestic treason joyed a very friendly intercourse, and to whom authorities were compelled to submit, and the ter- and foreign intrigue, Mr. Clayton, then Secretary these views had been communicated, had ap- || ritory was incorporated with the Haytian repub- of State, sent, as had grown to be a habit, a spepeared to acquiesce in them."
lic. "It is not necessary to my present purpose to cial agent to Dominica. I have had access to the In this statement it will be observed that all in- recount all the atrocities practiced by Boyer on reports and papers of this gentleman, so far as tervention between the Governments of this hemis- the Dominicans. It is enough that his adminis- they could with propriety be communicated. phere by the Powers of Europe, for whatever tration was so intolerable, not only to the Domi- | Upon his arrival petitions and addresses from all purpose, whether " oppressing them or controlling nicans, but to the Haytians, that he was driven parts of the Republic came to General Santa in any other manner their destiny,” is declared to be from power and from the country in the year 1843. Anna and the President of the Republic, urging a “the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition to- Riviere, who overthrew and succeeded Boyer, was retraction of the offers to France and opposing toards the United States.' The purpose for which more ferocious toward the Dominicans than his | the French connection, and advocating annexathe intervention might be made does not change || predecessor. It is true that Dominica sent her tion to or protection from the United States. An the dangerous and hostile character of the act; and representative to the convention held at Port au application was made to the agent, and by him the reason is obvious, and our late experience | Prince, in 1843, to remodel the constitution. In | forwarded to the Government here, praying for gives it additional force. If once they are permitted the first business before the convention, the diffi- | intervention by the United States for the pacificato interfere, protectorates, and consequent acquisi- || culty arose which led to the establishment of a tion of the country. This application was fortions and fortifications of strong points, for the separate republic in Dominica. This was the || warded by him along with a report, which set effectual protection of such wards, would render basis on which the union (if any union was to be forth additional reasons, of the most conclusive the State so protected and occupied, the mere cren. between the west and the east) should be estab- character, why it should be favorably considered, ture and victim of the stronger power, and would lished. The Dominican delegates insisted, as a and then, if not before, the authorities here should lead by a thousand pretexts which everybody but fundamental provision, upon the protection and have become fully aware of the intrigues which Mr. Fillmore can see at once, to the introduction encouragement of white immigration. It was re- both France and England (the joint mediators) of the European system into the continent, which fused by the Haytian representatives. Upon this had kept on foot for the acquisition of some hold is inconsistent with our safety. How dangerous the Dominicans declared themselves independent in the island, and of the most fatal effect upon our every infraction of this principle is, may be seen of Hayti, in a manifesto published 16th of Janu- l, interest. I shall give a short synopsis of the reby the late overtures for å tripartite treaty, which ary, 1844 In the war which immediately fol. pert, and then a short history of the diplomacy would have bound us in all time from the acquisi. lowed, the Dominicans beat the Haytians in sev. of those Powers in Hayti. And I think it must tion of Cuba, and which has even awakened the eral actions, and have maintained themselves in be clear to every mind, that whatever might have Executive. This offer, so promptly rejected, was, this independence ever since. In November, been decided as to our own intervention, or the however, a corollary, a necessary consequence of 1844, the constitution, modeled after our own, extent and character of it, nothing but criminal the tripartite mediation in Hayti, and the admis- was proclaimed.
carelessness or infatuated and predestinated stusion in Honduras, and along the Mosquito coast, The two successors of Riviere--Guerrier and pidity could fail to recognize the necessity for exof the claims of England.
Riché-made no serious attempt against Dominica.cluding France and England from any share in The offer on the part of France and England to But Soulouque who succeeded, has exhausted every the matter or any the least control over our free make a treaty stipulating for the eternal separation means in his power to annoy or to reconquer the action. of Cuba from the United States does not equal in country, and has publicly declared his intention to The report urges that the duty and interest of insolence either of the two encroachments which exterminate the whites from the island. Shortly the United States was to intervené, for the reasons we have not only submitted to but invited. To | after the establishment of the Dominican republic, | which I have before given, and which were subwhat depth of degradation—to what sacrifice of commissioners were sent to this place to ask its rec- sequently assigned as the causes of the joint mepride, honor, and power—to what extreme of hu- ll ognition. Had they not a right io ask it? No claim Il viation, and goes on to urge further, that the war
was one of extermination and for conquest, and the majority of them could have been acting in “ The United States is the natural protector of all the rethat it involved the very existence of the white good faith. This Administration, however, replied publican States of the continent, the center of the hopes of race in the island; that the Haytian constitution to Mr. Bulwer, by the appointment of Mr. Walsh;
pulses from you, and is anjmated by your example, doubts declared as a first principle “ that no white of any | the joint mediation was entered into. Everything not that her representations will be received on a subject nation should place his foot upon the soil with the whích our interest and duty dictated failed, and which threatens her institutions and independence, and title of proprietor,” and that the Dominicans in- || the two Powers had the triumph of leaving matters
affects the interests of all the American republics.” vited white immigration by grants of land and the open for their future action, with this incalculable Mr. Buchanan, to whom this letter was adprivileges of citizenship; that our commerce suf- || advantage gained, an admission by the United dressed, did not reply to it at all; but subsequently, fered from the war, and that our citizens were en- States of the right of European Powers to interfere after the same application was repeated, and the dangered, and our property lawlessly seized by || in the affairs of independent Governments in this English had actually seized the port of San Juan, the barbarians of Haytí in the prosecution of the hemisphere, and a thorough and well-merited con- he sent out Mr. Hise to negotiate. Mr. Hise diá war; that acts of plunder and piracy to the amount tempt felt for us and our arms and diplomacy in
not return till after General Taylor was inauguof many hundreds of thousands of dollars had || those Governments, which should trust us as im- | rated, when he came with a treaty, the leading been committed against our citizens, as is proven | plicitly as they should profoundly respect us. I || features of which I shall give by extracting its by Mr. Webster's Report, House Doc., 3d Sess. shall leave this branch of the subject, with this most important provisions. 27th Congress. The report further urged the fact extract from the official organ of the Dominican The instructions of Mr. Buchanan to Mr. Hise upon our Government, that England and France government. I take it from the New York Her- assert in bold and true terms the rights of the coveted Samaná, and that the Dominicans would ald, February 26th, which translates from the United States and the motives of England; and be forced to cede it to one or the other, in consid- || Gaceta de Gobierno, of January 25th:
for their most lame and impotent conclusion, I eration of protection which they had vainly sought "We were surprised,” says the Dominican official or- confess myself at a loss to account. I give those from us. It was urged that France had never re- gan, “ when we read, in the message of the President of clauses which contain the substance and meaning linquished her designs to recover the island, and
the United States to Congress, of the settlement of peace of the whole. He says:
between the Dominican republic and that part of the west thai England had always been, and was then, called the Haytian empire. This false report, communica
“ The object of Great Britain in this seizure is evident engaged in efforts to acquire the control of the ted to that Government by an unfaithful person, precisely
from the policy which she has uniformly pursued throughisland. The Government was by this report put when Soulouque was calling under arms a numerous army
out her history, of seizing upon every valuable commercial
point in the world, whenever circumstances have placed it in the possession of this additional fact—that the at Juana Mendez, in order to invade our territory, is highly Consul General and Minister Plenipotentiary,
in her power. Her purpose, probably, is to obtain ihe conalarming, for these falsehoods can affect us in other countries which are friendly to our republic. They wish to di
trol of the route for a railroad and canal between the Atlantic Sir R. Schomburgh, as soon as he discovered that vert the attention of other nations from the unrighteous
and Pacific oceans by way of Lake Nicaragua.” an application was made for the mediation of the machinations against our independence. For that reason, He also insists on the policy “ of excluding all United States, had offered and urged the media
we positively repeat, that till now the Powers who wished
interference on the part of European governments tion of England, which was not accepted. The || shed in a disastrous war, have not agreed on the affair.” in the domestic affairs of the American republics." Dominicans did not trust the English Government, The same spirit which has conducted our nego
He asserts the wrong of Britain, and denies their but better informed, and consequently more pru- tiations in Hayti has guided our policy in Nicara- | claims, but says, in conclusion, that “the Governdent than the United States, feared the known gua, and to the same or even worse results. The ment of the United States has not yet determined policy of Great Britain on the great question be- || state of things existing at the present moment,
what course it will pursue in regard to the entween the races, and did not believe that she produced by the sagacity and courage of this Ad croachments of the British Government.” So would support them in good faith against the ministration, and the one which immediately pre-instructed, Mr. IIise, not perhaps pursuant to double claim of Soulouque to sympathy-both as ceded, may be stated in a few words. The terri- || instructions, but under the impulse of genuine negro and as emperor. Dominica had been taught torial rights of the republic of Nicaragua are in American feelings, and impressed with the danby many years of observation, that it was no part | fact sacrificed by the construction of the treaty / gerous character of the intrigues of the agents and of the policy of Great Britain to support a free made to protect those very rights, and this Ad-representatives of Great Britain, particularly at white republic on the island, but that her designs ministration has become a party to the dismem- and about San Juan, concluded a convention with were to acquire rights for herself in that territory; || berment of that republic. The aboriginal tribe Commissioners of Nicaragua, with the following The mediation of England was, however, pressed of Mosquitos are recognized as having the sov- | provisions: by Schomburgh with such earnestness, that the || ereignty over an indefinite extent of territory
1st. That the United States should enjoy the Dominicans dared no longer refuse it peremptorily, which has belonged to Spain since the discovery perpetual right of way through the territories of and the American agent was consulted by the au- of the continent, or to the States which have been Nicaragua by any means of conveyance then thorities on the subject. The Dominicans would || formed from her colonies. Islands in the Bay of existing, or which thereafter might be devised. not, however, agree to it, unless it was distinctly || Honduras, which belonged to that republic, have
2d. That the United States, or a company charunderstood that the United States and France | passed, without protest or objection, into the ab- tered by it, might construct a railroad or canal were to be joint mediators, and with the further
solute possession of Great Britain, in direct viola- from one ocean to the other, and occupy such distinct avowal that the call for joint mediation was in the alternative, and should be made only binds us to the protection from European aggrestion of treaty stipulations, and the principle which lands, and use such natural materials and prod
ucts of the country as might be necessary for the on condition that the United States refused to in- | sion of all the independent States of this conti- | purpose. tervene alone. This report, and these offers on nent. All this has happened, too, in violation of
3d. That the United States should have the the part of Dominica, were met by General Tay- | repeated pledges made by this Government. It is right to erect such forts on the line or at the ex, lor's administration, so far as to instruct their
not necessary to trace minutely the history of our tremities of the proposed work as might be deemed agent to give notice to Soulouque that this Govern- relations with Central America-political Central
necessary or proper for its protection. ment would not view with indifference any aggres- | America-before the year 1848. In that year, the
4th. That the vessels and citizens of all nations sion on Dominica, at least while Soulouque was subject of inter-oceanic communication became of at peace with both contracting Powers might pass indebted to the United States. This notice had vital and immediate importance; and from that freely through the canal. the effect to suspend for a time an invasion which time the series of measures which have terminated
5th. That a section of land two leagues square Soulouque was preparing in 1850. in the disgrace of the American name began.
at either termination should be set apart to serve Mr. Bulwer now gave notice of the readiness of Much earlier, however, as early as 1825, the sub- as the sites of two free cities under the protection his Government to enter into the joint mediation, ject was agitated, and correspondence was had be. of both Governments, the inhabitants of which and the Administration replied, that upon the re- tween the governments of Central America and should enjoy complete municipal and religious turn of their special agent, they would give a de- the United States on the subject, which is instruct-freedom, trial by jury, exemption from all milifinitive answer. The reputation of Mr. Clayton | ive. The Minister of that Government wrote to tary duty, and from taxation, &c., &c. is, however, free from the stain of this disgrace. || Henry Clay, then Secretary of State, asking the In consideration of these privileges the United Nothing was, in fact, done by him. General coöperation of the United States in a treaty for the States were to be bound to defend and protect the Taylor died while the affair was pending, and Mr. secure establishment of a transit route, and giving territorial rights of Nicaragua, to preserve the Webster took charge of the Department of State. the United States preference over other Powers, on peace and neutrality of her coasts, and some other It is worth remark, and should be borne in mind, || the ground that its “noble conduct had been a provisions not relevant to the matter in hand. Bethat after the departure of this special agent from model and protection to all the Americas." In fore Mr. Hise had concluded this convention the Santo Domingo, no treaty being concluded for the structions were accordingly given to our Chargé Administration which sent him had gone out, and safety of Dominica, but everything left as it had a'Affaires to assure the Government of our deep General Taylor was inaugurated. Mr. Hise was always been, and still is, open and unsettled, the interest in the subject, and to investigate the matter recalled, and Mr. Squier sent in his stead, with agents of France, and also of England, endorsed and report upon it. This was not done; but the instructions from Mr. Clayton, which I shall lay the propositions of Soulouque to that Republic, and same efforts were renewed in many instances by before the committee. This treaty of Mr. Hise, endeavored to induce its authorities to submit to his Central America, and afterwards by the separate which certainly contains matter worth considerdemands. This is conclusive evidence that neither States which had composed it.
ation, was suppressed by the Taylor administraof those Powers were acting in good faith with us, I shall pass, however, over all that, and come tion, on the ground that it was completed after the or Dominica, and, taken in connection with the as hastily as possible to the negotiations which date of his letter of recall, and that it exceeded his fact that the mediation wholly and shamefully | immediately preceded the Clayton and Bulwer instructions. The very truth is, it was suppressed failed of its purpose, and that the threats of the treaty, and which are necessary to a full compre- because it took the American ground, and would three greatest Powers of the earth did not alarm hension of the present established policy. In 1847, have brought us by, possibility in contact with a barbarian who was unable to have resisted, for the republịc of Nicaragua, feeling itself endangered England, which was then asserting new and most one moment, the attack of either of them—and that by the aggressions of the British, and alarmed at extraordinary propositions. We will see what those threats were not carried out by either against the fatal doctrines asserted by that Government those propositions were, and how they were met him, when he met fully the very contingency on in regard to the rights of the Mosquito kingdom, by Mr. Clayton, and by his successor. "Mr. Manwhich they were uttered—it is monstrous-wholly | appealed to the United States for protection, on || ning, Vice Consul at Nicaragua, writes to Lord incredible, on any principle of human action, that ll these grounds:
Palmerston in April, 1849: