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32D CONG.....20 Sess.
Report of the Postmaster General.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPs.
As an inducement for this increase of pay, they | States, to operate independently of our treaty with | end of the year, that the aggregate commissions show that in addition to their having performed | Great Britain. How far the negotiations on this accruing may be compared with the commissions their mail service as efficiently as could be expected subject have progressed I am not at present pre- allowed for that year. The effect of this in delaying with the limited means allowed them, the ex, pared to state. It is hoped, however, that they and embarrassing the settlement of accounts in the ports from Germany to this country have increased may be conducted to a favorable issue at an early || Auditor's office, and increasing the labor of such since they commenced running from $3,000,000 to day. Connected with this project, France pro- i settlement, is fully shown in the following letter $10,000,000; that the number of emigrants is in- || poses, in conjunction with the United States, to from the Auditor, who recommends a repeal of creasing, and the gross sum which they at present establish a union line of mail steamships direct the provision requiring this mode of settlement, bring to this country amounts to $15,000,000 an- between New York and Havre.
and a return to the old system of uniform rates of nually. It was for this object--for the purpose | ditional articles have been agreed upon, and
Under our postal treaty with Great Britain ad-commission on the amount of postages collected. of extending our intercourse and increasing our
I concur in his recommendation, both as to the mercantile relations with Germany—that this line ready for signature, providing for a regular mail repeal of the existing law, and the rates of comwas established. The results have equaled the arrangement between the United States and the mission to be allowed: expectations of its friends, and it now remains for West Indies generally, and points on the coast of
Auditor's Office, P. O. D., November 19, 1852. Congress to decide whether the necessary aid shall | Mexico and northern coast of South America, at
Sir: It is found in practice that the acts of Congress rebe extended, or whether we shall abandon to the which the British mail packets touch. To the specting the allowance of additional commissions to postEnglish the profits of our increasing trade with the British West Indies the United States single rate masters are extremely inconvenient and burdensome to this advantages that flow from it. of letter postage, which must be prepaid on letters
office. The sixth section of the act entitled “ An act 10 Semi-monthly ocean service, as last reported from sent from and collected on letters received in the
reduce and modify the rates of postage,” &c., approved
March 3, 1851, provides, " That to any postmaster whose this Department, was continued between New United States, will be ten cents, where the distance commissions may be reduced below the amount allowed at York and California and Oregon until July last, from the mailing office is under 2,500 miles, and his office for the year ending the 30th of June, 1851, and when, under authority of a provision contained in twenty cents where the distance exceeds 2,500
whose labors may be increased, the Postmaster General
shall be authorized in his discretion to allow such additional the naval appropriation act of March 3d, 1851, the miles. To the West Indies, (not British,) Mexico
commissions as he may deem just and proper; provided running of the mail steamers on the New York, and South America, by this channel, the British that the whole amount of commissions allowed such postHavana, New Orleans, and Chagres lines was re- postage of twenty-four cents the single rate, also
master during any fiscal year shall not exceed by more than arranged, so as to afford a more direct dispatch of required to be prepaid, must be added to the ten
twenty per centum the amount of commissions at such office the mails to and from the Pacific. This service is
for the year ending the 30th day of June, 1851." or twenty cents United States rate, according to And the ninth section of the act entitled “ An act to estab. now divided into three distinct lines, viz: from distance as above. This arrangement it is expect- lish certain post roads, and for other purposes," approved New York and New Orleans to Aspinwall, both ed will go into effect without delay.
August 31st, 1852, provides, that the Auditor of the Treas. direct; and from New York by Havana to New In accordance with the wishes of the Hawaiian
ury for the Post Office Department may, under such reg
ulations and restrictions as the Postmaster General may Orleans. This change is made with the assent of Government, arrangements have been made by prescribe, allow to every postmaster whose office was not the Secretary of the Navy, on the application of which letters the Sandwich Islands are dis- established until after the 1st day of July, 1850, or whose the contractors, and with the understanding that patched in sealed packets by each mail steamer
commissions, in consequence of the increase of labor and
business of his office, shall have equaled or exceeded the the Government is not responsible for any addi- from New York, and conveyed through to Hono
commissions allowed at such office for the year ending on tional expense involved in it. The former arrange- lulu without being opened. On all letters and the 30th day of June, 1851, such compensation in addition ment may be restored at the desire of either party newspapers for these Islands, however, as well as to his legal commissions as will, in the judgment of such on one month's notice. to China, by this route, it is required that the
Auditor, make the compensation of such postmaster equal,
as near as may be, to the compensation of other postmasters The convention between this Department and United States postage to San Francisco be prepaid.
in the same section of the country whose labors are the same the Post Office Department of Prussia, which at The act of March 3, 1851, “ to reduce and mod: as his, and who are entitled to additional allowance under the date of the lasi annual report from the Post-, ify the rates of postage in the United States and the sixth section of the act entitled 'An act to reduce and master General remained unexecuted, has since for other purposes, authorized the Postmaster modify the rates of postage in the United States, and for been concluded, and went into operation in Octo- General to allow increased commissions to post of the Postmaster General, made in pursuance of the prober last. This convention provides for a closed masters whose labors had been increased and their visions of the said sixth section of the act aforesaid." mail to be dispatched in each direction between commissions reduced by the operation of that act. To entiile a postmaster to additional commissions under the United States and Prussia regularly twice a The maximum allowance thus authorized was
these laws, it must satisfactorily appear, first, that by their
enactment and operation the labors of his office have been week, via London and Ostend. New York and twenty per cent. added to the amount of commis- increased, and that his commissions have been reduced beBoston are the offices of exchange on the part of sions received for the fiscal year ended June 30, low the amount allowed for the fiscal year that ended on the the United States, and Aix-la-Chapelle is the cor- 1851. In the exercise of the authority thus
30th of June, 1851; or, secondly, that his "office was not
established until after the 1st day of July, 1850,” &c. If responding office of exchange on the part of Prus- granted, the late Postmaster General issued an order on the 29th of October, 1851, allowing in- different rates is, according to the present practice, allowed
these facts are sufficiently shown, additional commission at By this convention a uniform postage rate of creased commissions to all postmasters entitled as follows: thirty cents-prepayment of which is optional in thereto, varying from ten to twenty per cent., ac
1. Where the commissions of the postmaster for the year either country-is established for all letters not cording to the gross receipts of their offices. This
ending June 30, 1851, did not exceed $50, the same amount
of commissions which was allowed for that year, with exceeding half an ounce in weight between the two order applied to the settlement of the accounts for twenty per cent. added thereto, is allowed him. countries. Six cents is the rate established for the fiscal year 1852, and reserved the rate of 2. Where they exceeded $50, but did not exceed $100.fthe each newspaper, to be prepaid. This convention allowance to be made thereafter " for future con- same ainount with fifteen per cent. added thereto is allowed. also provides for the transmission of mails, not sideration, after accounts for the first three quar
3. Where they exceeded $100, but not $500, the same only through Germany, but also through the Uni- ters of that year should have been adjusted by the
amount with twelve and a half per cent. added thereto, is
allowed. ted States to countries beyond, and has induced | Auditor.” When the result of this adjustment was 4. Where they exceeded $500, the same amount, with ten this Department to discontinue the closed mail to reported to him, the late Postmaster General issued
per cent. added thereto, is allowed; but the coinmissions Bremen. It is estimated that the countries (includ- the following order, which is now in force:
allowed to any postmaster (other than at a distributing office)
are not permitted to exceed the postages collected at his ing the German Austrian Postal Union) which
Post OFFICE DEPARTMENT, August 7, 1852. office during the period for which the allowance is made. are thus brought into postal communication with The Postmaster General being satisfied that the labors of 5. Where the office was not established until after the 1st the United States, embrace a population of seventy | postmasters have been so increased with the increasing day of July, 1850, &c., such compensation, in addition to millions.
business of the country, and by the operations of the act his legal commissions, is allowed the postmaster as will make
"to reduce and modify the rates of postage in the United his compensation equal, as near as may be, to the compenAs a necessary consequence of our convention | States, and for other purposes," approved March 3, 1851, sation or other postmasters in the same section of the counwith Prussia, the larger part of the continental that the highest additional allowance of commissions aucorrespondence which formerly went by the way
thorized by the sixth section of that act will not afford These various contingencies and conditions cannot be of Bremen is now sent via London, Ostend, and
them more than a reasonable compensation for such in- determined until the accounts for an entire fiscal year are creased labors, it is
adjusted. Commissions are therefore computed by postAix-la-Chapelle, the latter being the more expedi- Ordered, That (with the restrictions
and limitations here- masters, in their quarterly accounts, mainly according to tious route. The mails for Bremen, however, and inafter mentioned) the Auditor of the Treasury for the Post the old rates of allowance. And the adjustment of addi such as may be addressed via Bremen to other Office Department, in settling the accounts of postmasters
tional commissions has become, as it were, a separate busiGerman States, and countries beyond, will con
for the fiscal year ending 30th of June, 1853, and for each ness, superadded to the adjustment of quarterly accounts,
succeeding year until otherwise ordered, shall, upon satis- and is devolved exclusively upon this office. First, it audiis tinue
to be dispatched monthly by the New York factory proof being furnished him by affidavit, or otherwise, and adjusts the quarterly accounts of some twenty thousand and Bremen line.
that the labors of any postmaster have been increased, and postmasters, and then, as the additional commissions are A projet of a postal convention between the
his commissions reduced, as provided for by said act, allow dependent for their allowance upon no uniform rule, oper
and credit such postmaster the same amount of cominis- ating equally and applicable alike to all postmasters, but United States and Belgium has been prepared and sions allowed at his office for the fiscal year ended the 30th upon the facts of each particular case; it has, at the end of submitted by this Department for approval to the of June, 1851, with twenty per cent. thereon added thereto. a fiscal year, to reëxamine those twenty thousand accounts Belgian Government, and it is confidently ex- Provided, however, That the commissions to be allowed to see which of them are entitled, and in what proportions, pected that in the course of a few months at
at any post office (other than a distributing oflice) shall not to said additional compensation. Postmasters, meanwbile, exceed the postages collected at such office during the pe
not knowing what additional allowances may be made furthest an arrangement which shall be mutually riod for which such allowance is made: And provided fur
them, are unable to determine how much they owe the Deadvantageous will be duly sanctioned and put in ther, That there shall not be allowed at any office where
partment at the end of each quarter and at the close of the operation.
the compensation of the postmaster is by law limited to a year. Their accounts and the post office accounts necesOur postal convention with Great Britain has
fixed annual salary, or compensation, any greater sum than | sarily disagree; and by consequence some pay too much,
shall be required to pay such salary or compensation, and others not enough, and others, again, excuse themselves not yet been so modified as to admit of the ex- the actual and necessary expenses of his office.
from any payment. change of a closed mail with France via England;
N. K. HALL, Postmaster General. Furthermore, these disagreements produce confusion and the British Government, with reference to such It will be perceived that this order' makes it
perplexity in settlements, retard collections, and require, in
explanation and removal of the difficulties they create, a mail, still insisting on a transit postage of twenty- necessary, in the settlement of each postmaster's i correspondence beyond the ability of this officer to conduct four cents an ounce.
quarterly account, to compare the current business with requisite promptness; and although the most strenuous France has manifested a disposition for im- of his office with that of the corresponding quarter
exertions are made, with an insufficient force, to meet and proved mail facilities with this country, and has of the year 1851, and that his commission account
respond to the additional demands thus made upon the
office, postmasters complain, and with apparent reason, made proposals for a postal treaty with the United ll for each quarter must remain unsettled until the that their letters are not duly answered.
32n Cong....2n Sess,
Ho. Of Reps. Another evil is, that the additional labor thus thrown upon been enabled to furnish, in his annexed report, the office has interrupted and retarded its current and gen
This Department has received, through the meeral business to a degree that calls for immediate relief, and
answers to most of the questions referred to. dium of the Hon. Abbott Lawrence, late Minister I have no hesitation in saying that it is inpracticable to The whole number of paid and unpaid letters which have to England, the proceeding of an association formed continue to adjust commissions in the manner at present passed through the post offices of the United States during in London for the purpose of promoting a cheap required to comply with the law. The only effectual remedy the last fiscal year was..
and uniform system of international postage. The for these evils is the adoption of the old systein of uniform of those passing to and from places if the United rates of percentage upon the proceeds of otfices, depending States, exclusive of California and Oregon, there were
object aimed at by this association is very desiron no condition or discretion; and I would respectfully unpaid...
32,672,765 able, and well worthy of the altention of this Gove suggest the following as a scale of rates that should be Do,
du.... ..paid by money., 1*,448,510 ernment; but in the imperfect state of our foreign adopied and tried, viz:
do......paid by stamps..31,897,750 Say, for an office collecting postage to the amount
postal arrangements I deem it inexpedient to enter Do. do. do...... free..
3,146,000 - $3,000 00 There were conveyed by European steamers.... 4,421,547
at present on any new experiment. Allow on $100, 50 per cent.commission...950 00
In conclusion, I desire to express my obliga300, 40 do
by California steamers.... 1,495,537 tions to my predecessor, the Hon. N. K. Hall, for 2,000, 33% do do.........666 66
Number of dead letters unpaid...
2,635,909 the aid he has afforded me in compiling this rez 600, 12% do do....... 75 00
port. The statistics he had in preparation, and the The present rates are as follows:
printed matter chargeable with postage.. ..87,710,490
method he had established in the Department, have On $100, 40 per cent. commission.... $40 00
Number of exchange newspapers..
7,073,548 materially assisted me in the discharge of my On 300, 33% do do
. 109 00
where published, estimated .. On 600, 12%
I would respectfully recommend that a statis-
tical and historical sketch of this Department, Do. do.
do...... by Collins line.... 963,692 which he submitted to the Post Office Committees Difference...
of Congress, be continued, as a valuable work of I also think that a postmaster should be entitled to a small
The industry and attention to their laborious office to a subscriber each newspaper not now chargeable Of which was collected in the United
duties exhibited by the Assistant Postmaster Genwith postage.
eral, the Chief Clerk, and the other Clerks of this I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient
do. in Great Britain 325,824 60 servant, J. W. FARRELLY, Auditor. Number of dead letters returned io Great Britain 124,548
Department, demand my thanks, which are grateOf which 21,589 were paid and 102,959 unpaid.
fully rendered. Hon. 8. D. HUBBARD, Postmaster General.
Amount due the United States thereon..
13,541 52 I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, The attention of Congress should, I think, be Nuinber of dead letters received from Great Britain 38,505
S. D. HUBBARD, called to the fact, that although the 6th and 7th
Of which 9,860 were paid and 28,645 un paid.
Postmaster General. sections of the act of 3d March, 1851, before re- Number of dead letters returned to Bremen..
To the PRESIDENT. ferred to, provide that neither the compensation of Number of dead letters received from do.
2,587 postmasters nor the ordinary extension of mail In his last annual report my predecessor in office Bervice should be diminished in consequence of suggested that it should be earnestly and urgently
MODIFICATION OF THE TARIFF. any diminution of the revenues resulting from that l recommended to Congress to take immediate and act, no provision was made for the protection of effectual measures for the extension of the west SPEECH OF HON. BENJ. STANTON, the rights and interests of a large class of persons wing of the building occupied by this Department, employed as contractors on special routes, and as or for the erection of its north front according to
OF OHIO, mail messengers, whose compensation depends the original plan.
In the House of REPRESENTATIVES, upon the amount received from postages at the It would seem unnecessary for me to say that
December 14, 1852, offices supplied by them.
the reasons then urged for an enlargement of the There are not less than twenty-five hundred building have become more imperative. Import- | On the Tariff question; delivered in the Committee persons employed in carrying the mail for the net ant papers are accumulating in the unsafe rooms
of the Whole, on the motion to refer the Presiproceeds of the offices supplied—limited, however, over the city post office, to which it became neces
dent's Annual Message to the several commitin every case to a certain sum equal to that paid sary to remove a part of the force of the Auditor's for similar service on public routes in the same office in consequence of the crowded state of the Mr. STANTON, of Ohio, said: section,
rooms in the main building. More room, too, is Mr. CHAIRMAN: So long as this discussion was On a few of these special routes the amount col- | required for the accommodation of the city post confined to the revenue aspect of the tariff, I was lected is more than sufficient to pay the contractor, | office, and it can only be provided by the proposed not disposed to participate in it. But since it has and considerable balances remain to be applied to enlargement.
been so extended as to include its effects upon the the ordinary expenses of the Department, but on When it is considered that much time must be industrial interests of the country, I feel disposed, a large portion of them the amount received even consumed before the additional structure can be as a representative of a grain-growing, agricultural under the old rates of postage was insufficient to completed, and that in the mean time the existing district, to give my views upon it. I feel the more pay the compensation allowable for his service. Il evil will continue to increase, I cannot doubt that inclined to do this, for the reason that some genUpon this class of contractors the reduction of Congress will take immediate action in the matter tlemen on this side of the House have advanced postages operated with great hardship, and every when the attention of that body shall be directed || doctrines against which I wish to enter my protest. additional allowance to the Postmaster has still to it.
The gentleman from New York, (Mr. BROOKS,} further diminished the fund which alone can be I think it proper to state in connection with this on the first presentation of this subject, incorpoapplied to the payment of the contractor.
subject that, uwing to injudicious construction of rated in his published remarks a project of a bill, On the 25th of March last, the Senate adopted a the chinineys in the Post Office Building, the De- || indicating the modifications he desired to make in resolution, by which the Postmaster General was partment has been subjected to great expense in the tariff of 1846. One of these was the admission requested to embody in his next annual report fruitless attempts to warm the several rooms with of wool,costing not more than ten cents per pound, answers to numerous questions embraced in the out the diffusion of gas and smoke. I respectfully at the place of production, duty free. resolution, relating to the business of this Depart- suggest that it would not only conduce greatly to The gentleman from Massachusetts, (Mr. Dunment, and its receipts and expenditures, under the relief and comfort of the officers employed | CAN,) in his remarks the other day, proposed to various enumerated heads, for the fiscal year end in the building to have it warmed by means of hot | abolish the duty on coarse wool and flax. I do ing 30th June, 1852.
water or steam pipes, but that this method would not know that fax is extensively produced in this Much of the information sought by these ques. also prove, it is believed, much less expensive country. But I do not see why it is not as well tions could not be furnished in the form desired than the present one, and that the cost of intro- | adapted to the soil and climate of this country as from the accounts ordinarily rendered by postmas- ducing it would be soon reimbursed by the conse- || any other; and I suppose it will be produced whenters, nor from the books of the Auditor's office, quent saving in fuel.
ever the demand will justify. in which the accounts of this Department are kept. The grand jury of Philadelphia have presented As to coarse wool, I know it is said that the Neither could it be furnished with perfect accuracy the rooms occupied as a post office in that city, description of wool sought to be exempted from for the whole year in any other mode than by pren and ascribe the numerous charges which are made duty is not produced in this country, and that the scribing to postmasters, before the commencement against it to the deficiencies of the building, rather wool.growers of this country will not be affected of the year, a new form of accounts to be kept for than to any want or diligence and attention to their by abolishing the duty. It is impossible to deterthis object, in addition to those now required from duties on the part of its officers. This Department mine with any certainly what quality of wool may them; and, as nearly three months of the year does not feel itself justified, even if it possessed the be produced at ten cents per pound in the temhad elapsed before the passage of the resolution, power, to erect a new office, but, while it recom- perate climate, and upon the wild lands of South it was obviously impossible to overcome this diffi- mends, respectfully, leaves it to Congress to supply | America, where it costs nothing but the labor of culty. the remedy.
shearing. I can see no reason why fine sheep Desirous, however, to comply as far as possible At the last session of Congress a resolution was may not be introduced there, that would produce with the request of the Senate, the late Postmaster | introduced, but not acted on, authorizing the Post- a fair quality of wool at a low price, for many General referred the resolution to the Auditor for master General to allow at his discretion a sum years, before the climate would deteriorate it 10 this Department, immediately on its receipt, and not exceeding $20,000 to the contractors for carry: || ihe lowest grade of wool that is in use. desired him to adopt such means as remained in ing the mạil between this city and Richmond, and But my information is, that the coarse wool his power for collecting the information called for. thus enable them to keep in operation the ice-boats that is now imported is so mixed with dirt when
By corresponding with postmasters at the prin necessary to secure certainty and prevent delay in imported that it loses from twenty-five to fifty per cipal offices, and from the accounts returned to his the transportation of the mails on that route. I cent. in weight in the process of cleansing before office for settlement, the Auditor has made (in respectfully ask that the attention of Congress be it is fit for use. So that while it may in fact not cases where perfect accuracy could not be attained) called to this resolution, and that its passage bell be worth more than ten cents per pound at the estimates which are deemed reliable, and has thus li recommended.
place of production, in the condition in which it is
imported, yet it may be worth from fifteen to for t irning them out of office, but not for increas- tives from Wales and England to New York and twenty cents when it is cleansed and prepared for ing their salaries.
Pennsylvania, where they would make just as the manufacturer.
The great mass of the people of the country, much iron, and eat just as much wheat, as they But aside from these considerations, there is the who pay the revenues from which the compensa- now do, and save the expense of transportation risk of false invoices and custom-house oaths, il tion of public functionaries is derived, live on a under which my friends from New York (Mr. | smaller annual income than is paid to the worst. In short, I believe that reason and common sense BROOKS) and Massachusetts (Mr. Duncan) tell paid clerk in the public service. And I can see teaches, and that all experience proves, that name immense frauds are constantly perpetrated. no reason why the hired servants of the people || tional and individual prosperity is best promoted And this is a difficulty that I see no way of avoid- || should be paid better than their masters. and secured, by each nation producing by the labor ing, as the quality to be imported free of duty A. public functionary acquires no additional of its own citizens, every commodity adapted to its must be determined by a foreign valuation, as 1 | dignity or consequence in the estimation of any soil and climate, which can be produced with as do not understand that anybody proposes to sub- i sensible man, at home or abroad, by clothing little labor at home as abroad. All history proves stitute a custom-house valuation in this country himself in “purple and finelinen, 'or attempting, that where there is the greatest diversity of purfor the foreign valuation now in use. The wool in any manner, to ape the nobility or aristocracy suits, and the most extensive exchange of comgrowing interest is now one of the largest and of the old broken down despotisms of Europe. modities amongst the people of any country, there most important in the country, and cannot be | On the contrary, he brings upon himself and his is always the largest accumulation of wealth, and sacrificed or placed in jeopardy for any real or country the ridicule and contempt of the very men the greatest national and individual prosperity. imaginary benefit that is to result to the manufac whose footsteps he is so obsequiously following: On the other hand, where a nation devotes the turer. We will unite with you in imposing any The consideration and standing of the United labor of its entire population to a single pursuit, duty on importations of woolen goods that may Slates does not depend upon any matter of court (and especially to agriculture,) the people are unibe necessary to enable you to sustain your manu- etiquette or silly display, but upon the power and formly poor, and the nation feeble and defenseless. facturers; but we cannot consent to sustain them resources of the country, and the character of the The reason is obvious. Raw agricultural products by reducing the price of our products. The people for honesty, intelligence, enterprise, and are extremely bulky and heavy in proportion to friends of protection have no more steadfast ally | courage; upon their capacity to understand their their value. Many of them will not bear transupon this floor than I am; but they cannot expect rights, and upon the spirit and courage with portation at all. me to support a measure which strikes at one of which they are always ready to maintain them. The timber of Minnesota and Wisconsin would the most important interests of the district which Economy in public expenditures, and plainness be worth millions in the neighborhood of New I represent.
and simplicity in public functionaries, is indis- York or Cincinnati, but is an incumbrance to the The proposition before the committee is for an pensable to the preservation of republican institu- owner of the land, who has to destroy it at great inquiry into the proper mode of reducing the lions.
labor and expense to bring his land into cultivarevenue arising from the duties on imports to For these reasons I am opposed to the accumu- tion. such an amount as will be only sufficient, with lation of any considerable surplus in the public A bushel of wbent cannot be transported from the revenue arising from other sources, to defray Treasury, and am prepared to go into the inquiry the interior of Indiana or Illinois, to Liverpool, the expenses of the Government under an eco- as to the best mode of preventing it. Two prom- for less than sixty cents, and will sell for one dollar nomical administration.
inent modes of accomplishing this object are pre- and twenty cents when it gets there, leaving the If the existing surplus with that which may sented.
farmer sixty cents. hereafter accrue, could be applied to the improve- 1st. By making a pro rata reduction of duties Thus for the leading staple of the Northwest, ment of the rivers and harbors of the country, upon all imports that now pay duty.
the cost of transportation is equal to the cost of and to other works of internal improvement, of a 2d. By abolishing entirely the duties upon sun-| production, and equal to fifty per cent. upon the national character, I should be opposed to any dry articles of import that do not come into com- selling price at the place of consumption. reductirn; or if the national debt was now re- petition with the productions of this country. On the other hand, a manufacturer in Manchesdeemable, or the stocks of the Government could The first I understand to be the one generally ter sends to Indiana or Illinois an equal weight of be purchased at a reasonable rate, or if a sinking advocated on the other side of the Hall, and the silks or other fine fabrics for about the same price, fund could be created in such a manner as to be second is the one generally favored on this side. say sixty or seventy-five cents, and sells them for secure, and yield any reasonable profits, I should I know there are exceptions on both sides, and $1,200 or $1,500. The cost of transportation is regard it as preferable to any diminution of the that there may be many who would make slight nothing. And while the British manufacturer can
But assuming that no such disposition modifications in the terms of these propositions. send his fabrics to any part of the commercial can or will be made of it, the question arises, | But they define with sufficient certainty for the world and sell them at five or ten per cent, advance How shall its accumulation be prevented ? purpose which I have in view the position of the upon the cost of production in Manchester or
Besides the effect which locking up so large a great body of the members upon this floor. I ain Leeds, the American farmer is confined to such sum in the coffers of the Government may have ready to unite in such an adjustment of duties as commodities, and such markets as will pay transupon the trade and business of the country, there will reduce the revenue arising from duties on im- portation. No wonder John Bull is willing to pay are other objections to the accumulation of a large ports; provided always that the protection now liberally for teaching Brother Jonathan the myssurplus, which have a controlling influence on my afforded to the industry of the country shall not teries of free trade. mind. The natural, necessary, and inevitable tend- | be affected by the change. I admit that I am so If we were the sole producer of these agricultural ency of a continued surplus in the Treasury, is to far behind this progressive age as to be in favor of products, and could command our own prices in beget profligate and extravagant expenditures. | “protection for the sake of protection.” in the foreign markets, we might, by demanding high Public functionaries will be pressing for increased adjustment of duties on imports, my primary ob- prices for them, to some extent indemnify ourcompensation; claimants upon the Government ject is protection; but I am willing to keep the selves against the enormous expense of transporwill be prompted to enlarge their demands; and effects of it upon the revenue in view as an inci- tation. new claims, hitherto unheard of, will be gotten dental and secondary consideration. I speak for But our farmers have to come into competition up, and pressed upon Congress and the Executive no one but myself, and no party nor no individual with the wheat-growers from Russia, Poland, the Departments, by all the corrupt and corrupting but myself is responsible for my opinions. I ad- northern part of Germany, and other countries appliances which avarice and cupidity can devise. vocate protection to the manufacturer, not for his bordering upon the Baltic and Black seas. They Already a proposition is made io build mansion- sake only or mainly, but because I wish to build can produce wheat as cheap or cheaper than we houses for the Vice President and heads of De- up a consuming class that will create a market for can, and are much closer to the market. We are partments, and to furnish them, and provide them the agricultural products of the country. I know therefore compelled to sell as cheap as they do, or with lights and fuel, at the public expense. that in a country of such vast extent, with a soil not sell at all.
Propositions are also pending, for additional of such unequaled fertility, and a climate so va- It must be obvious that such a trade as this is compensation to some three or four additional rious, that agriculture must, for generations to entirely one-sided, and that an agricultural counlines of ocean mail steamers, based upon the pre- || come, if not in all future time, be the great, lead- try can stand no chance with a manufacturing cedent set at the last session, in the appropriation || ing, and paramount interest of the country. country under unrestricted free trade. Hence, for the Collins line. And from all parts of the In all our legislation, therefore, 1 look mainly you find that the great centers of commerce are country there will come up a deafening horse- to its effect upon agricultural pursuits. And '1 | always in the manufacturing countries. Why is leech cry of " Give!" "Give!” If the evil conse- know that the farmer can never prosper without it that exchange is in favor of London against quences of this state of things did not extend an adequate, certain, and uniform market for his the whole commercial world? Because England is beyond the loss of some twenty or thirty millions, products. And my settled conviction is, that a the great work-shop of the world, and exchanges of which the public Treasury will be plundered, it | home market is better than a foreign, because it her light and costly fabrics for the raw and bulky would not be a matter of so much importance. saves the expense of distant transportation for his productions of other countries. It is not my
But the tendency of such a state of things, to heavy and bulky commodities, and is not affected | intention, however, to discuss in detail, or at beget extravagance and profligacy in public and by foreign wars, famines, or commercial revul- any considerable length, this doctrine of protecprivate expenditures, and to pervert the moral
tion. sense of public functionaries, must go far to im. I cannot perceive the wisdom of importing im- I desire, however, to notice one point made in pair and undermine republican institutions, and mense cargoes of railroad iron from Wales and the very able speech.of the gentleman from South bring them into disgrace and contempt.
England, and laying it down upon the banks of Carolina, (Mr. WOODWARD,) the other day. I have no sympathy with the clamor which I the Juniata, and the tributaries of the Alleghany, His proposition is, that a permanent revenue hear, about the sufferings of the office holders, on over the richest deposits of iron and coal that can tariff is impossible. That it is the difference beaccount of their inability to live upon the compen- be found in the universe, and sending the wheat tween the cost of foreign and domestic production, sation now allowed by law. If any of the heads raised upon the adjoining farms in New York and that enables imports to pay duties. That this difof Departments cannot live on $6,000 a year, it Pennsylvania, to Wales and England to pay for ference is constantly diminishing. That Amerwould, to my mind, furnish a very good reason
it. I think it would be better to bring the opera- ican skill is advancing. American profits are low
ering. American economy is improving. Ma- pone the introduction of manufactures until we are for $1 25, they will not give us $1 26. And so it chinery---which makes everything now-the hands driven to it, to find employment for our population will continue, whether we buy their fabrics or not. of man do but little-is as skillful in the United at starving wages; or whether we shall encourage The creation of a home market, therefore, does States as in England.
their introduction, by protecting them in their in- not deprive us of the foreign, but creates an addiIf there could be any doubt about the sound- fancy, and by diversifying the pursuits of our tional market, that of necessity enhances the price ness of the gentleman's logic, his illustrations people now, and by increasing the rewards of of our products. But I cannot see that there is prove its correctness beyond controversy: | labor, postpone to some remote and distant day, if any impossibility in creating a home market for all
It is undoubtedly true, that the competition be- not forever, the time when labor shall be driven by our agricultural products. tween foreign and domestic manufacturers, is want to seek employment at inadequate wages. The farmers of the United States annually exconstantly stimulating the enterprise and invention The gentleman from Pennsylvania (Mr. JONES] || change their entire products for the productions of our people, to introduce cheaper modes of pro- also anticipates the “good time coming,” when of the industry of other persons, who are engaged duction to such an extent, that even ad valorem ill-paid labor will secure low-priced products, and in other pursuits. duties, that are constantly diminishing with the thereby destroy the revenue arising from duties on I do not mean that they consume or destroy all diminished cost of imports, ultimately become imports, and usher in the political millennium of they earn, but their profits and accumulations are prohibitory, and yield no revenue. But does it free trade and direct taxation. There is no neces- not hoarded away in coin, but are reinvested in never occur to the gentleman, that while the sity for that close, intimate, and unrestrained com- some product of the industry of others. Now, if revenues of the Government are diminishing, the mercial intercourse which carries with it equality the products for which a farmer exchanges his people are gaining in the diminished cost of the in the wages of labor; and every one knows that a crops, are all the products of the labor of our own commodities which they consume, and in the free and unrestrained exchange of the products of citizens, then it follows of necessity that the home diversity of pursuits amongst our people, which labor must of necessity ultimately result in an market is sufficient. It is no matter whether the makes them purchasers of each other's products, i equality in the wages of labor. The reason why commodities which he buys are manufactured instead of rivals in the sale of the same commo- the wages of labor in this country have not yet here, or in Europe; they will pay for the sanie dity?
been affected by our commercial relations with amount of his products in the one case as in the And while I admit that the gentleman's argu- Europe is, first, because our immense wild lands other. ment is sound, so far as it applies to the effect of furnish a better subsistence to the laborer than And it has always seemed to me that the farmer the tariff upon the revenue, I think he must also starving wages in a manufacturing establishment; and manufacturer are both gainers by living close admit that when the friends of protection use the and, second, because the American manufacturer together, as they thereby save the expense of dissame argument to show that commodities are ul
has always been protected to some extent by tant transportation. I presume no one is prepared timately reduced in price to the consumer by steady duties on imports, which has enabled him to give now to say any thing definite as to the amount, and uniform protection, that they are also cor- better wages than is paid by European manufac- that the duty should be either increased or dimin
turers; and whenever the duties have been so re- ished on any particular commodity. In fact the gentleman's argument is a full and duced that the manufacturer cannot give remuner- But with others, I am prepared to state the prinunequivocal admission of the proposition which ' ating wares, the laborer has sought employment ciples by which I would be governed in adjusting the advocates of protection have been urging upon in other pursuits, such as clearing and cultivating the duties. In the first place, I would put up the the country for thirty or forty years; that the | the wild lands of the West, or in digging canals duties on such articles as are produced in this ultimate effect of protection would be, to reduce ' and making railroads.
country, to the highest revenue point. If that prothe price of the protected article. This argument ! The gentleman from South Carolina is looking duced revenue enough, I would abolish the duties has heretofore been scoffed and jeered at, by the forward to the time when the increase of popula- on everything else opponents of protection, as ridiculous and absurd, lition will be so great, and these sources of employ- If it raised more than was necessary, I would I am much gratified to find that it has secured ment so far exhausted, that the supply of labor raise the duties a little higher on protected articles, the powerful support of so distinguished an advo- | will exceed the demand, and that low wages will so as to check imports and diminish the revenue. cate of free trade as the gentleman from South enable us to manufacture the great mass of the If it did not produce enough, I would levy the Carolina. The gentleman is not only right in his ' commodities which we now import.
balance upon foreign luxuries, such as imported facts and conclusions, but he assigned the true Now, sir, I regard such a state of things as the silks, liquors, and other articles consumed mainly reason for the constant depreciation in the price of greatest calamity that could befal this nation. by the rich, and not produced in this country. protected imports.
And I believe it may be prevented for a period Further, I agree with the President's message, in It is American skill, industry, and interprise, beyond which we cannot undertake to provide, if substituting specific for ad valorem duties. I am stimulated by both foreign and domestic competi- not indefinitely. To do this, we should multiply opposed to ad valorem duties, not only on account tion.
by proper and judicious laws the sources for the of the facilities for fraud which®they furnish, but When there is no domestic product to come in profitable employment of labor. Instead of con- because they create a sort of sliding scale against competition with the dutiable import, this constant fining the labor of the country to agriculture and protection. reduction does not take place; and if it did, it public works, we should direct a portion of it to Thus, when railroad iron was selling at $70 per could not affect the revenue; because the lower the manufactures, and thereby increase the demand ton, and no protection was necessary, then your price, the larger will be the amount of the import, ' and enhance the price, so that the laborer may thirty per cent. ad valorem amounted to $21 per ton. when there is no domestic product to come in !, always find a liberal reward for his toil, and bé- But when it went down to $25 per ton, and your competition with it, or supply any part of the de- come a profitable customer both to the farmer and manufactures were broken down by foreign command. the manufacturer.
petition, your thirty per cent. amounted to only But all this diminution in price, resulting from If I understood the gentleman from Illinois, $7 50 per ton. Now, a specific duty of $15 per competition between domestic and foreign manu- [Mr. MOLONY,] he ridiculed the idea of creating ton would probably yield more revenue, and af. facturers, presupposes the existence of manufac- å home market for the agricultural products of the ford ample protection, while the average cost of turing establishments in this country. Yet it is country. He supposes that there cannot be a con- imported railroad iron would probably not exceed very clear, and the history of manufactures in this suming population in this country that is capable what it does under the thirty per cent. ad valorem country proves, that manufactures cannot be es
of consuming all of its agricultural products. I duty. tablished at all, without some protection to coun- am not aware that any advocate of protection has But an ad valorem duty lacks uniformity and teract the effect of the difference between the wages ever proposed to prevent the exportation of agri- stability, which is the essential thing for a tariff of labor in this country and in Europe. The im- cultural products. And ! suppose the foreign for protection. provements in labor-saving machinery, skill, and demand will not be diminished by building up a I understand the gentleman from Pennsylvania economy, (which, as the gentleman supposes, will home market. Europe buys our productions be- [Mr. Jones] to say, that he, as a representative of ultimately enable us to overcome entirely the dif- cause she needs them, and not as a mere matter of the iron manufacturers of that State, prefers ad ference in cost of labor, and manufacture as cheap accommodation. So long as her necessities con- valorem to specific duties. Well, sir, there is no as any other country,) is the result of long, pain- ' tinue, so long she will continue to buy from us, accounting for tastes; and as I take it for granted ful, and dear-bought experience. This experience unless we have a better market at home and re- that the gentleman from Pennsylvania understands cannot be had until manufactures are established. fuse to sell to her.
the interest of his immediate constituents better And when established, they must be sustained If we do not continue to sell to her it will be our than I do, I shall vote with him for retaining the long enough to give an opportunity for testing the own fault, and because we can do better at home, ad valorem duty upon iron; unless indeed I should various experiments and processes which may be which I suppose will be no great calamity for us. find that some of his colleagues who represent the necessary to ascertain what are the best and cheap- It is no answer to this argument, to say that if we same interests, should differ with him; and then est modes of production. And this is all that the do not buy her manufactured products, that she I shall be compelled to exercise my own judg. friends of protection have ever asked. If they cannot pay us for our commodities. Her popula- ment. can have the nid of their Government as long as tion must be fed, and therefore must have employ- Mr. JONES, of Pennsylvania. The gentleman the inventor is guarantied the exclusive use of his ment. If we do not buy their iron, and woolen did not understand me.' I did not speak as the invention, they will then be willing either to set and cotton fabrics, they must sell them elsewhere representative of the iron interest. I hope I was competition at defiance, or abandon their business. for silks, tea and coffee, and such commodities as not so understood. I do not wish to be under
The gentleman from South Carolina says that we do buy, or abandon to some extent their present stood as representing the iron interest or any parwhen the fertile lands of the West are filled up, pursuits, and engage in the production of such ticular interest, as I am not authorized to speak in and the laborer cannot have them to fly to, to es. things as we do want, and exchange these with us that capacity. cape low wages, that we shall then manufacture for our products. Nor is it any answer to this Mr. 'STANTON. Of course I take the dis, the great mass of the productions that are now to say, that if we do not buy their fábrics, that they claimer and explanation. I understood the gen. imported. In this, I have no doubt, he is correct will buy from other nations who will. They will tleman to say that he was the representative of a also. And the great question for Congress and always buy where they can buy cheapest. And district producing iron, and so far as his knowlthe country to decide is, whether we shall post- || if they can buy a bushel of German wheat now edge extended, that there were many intelligent 320 CONG.... 1st Sess.
The Tariff--Mr. Jones, of Pennsylvania.
Ho. OF REPS.
Whigs who do not want any change from ad va
MODIFICATION OF THE TARIFF,
Now, this is the doctrine of our foreign policy, lorem duties.
or at least will be, I presume; and in this very state Mr. JONES. The gentleman misunderstood SPEECH OF HON. J. GLANCY JONES, of things, one of the morning papers tells us that me. I stated that so far as my information ex
the French empire has annexed to it a province of tended, many intelligent Whigs had come to the
Mexico called Sonora. It is a remark long since / conclusion that if they could secure stability, they
In The House of RePRESENTATIVES, made by Richelieu, that in State affairs " there are would acquiesce in ad valorem duties—not that they
December 13, 1852,
no small steps. ” Here is an indication; to me it preferred it and make no further contest for spe- On the Tariff question; delivered in the Committee
is ominous, and it leads my mind to the conclusion, cific. Mr. STANTON. Just the very point I am
of the Whole, on the motion
to refer the Presi: looking upon the existing state of affairs in Eumaking, that of necessity there can be no stability.
dents Annual Message to the several commit- ! rope, that in less than twelve months from this day tees.
you will find the French empire, backed by the Now, the gentleman says that if they can get sta
despotisms of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, prebility they will be satisfied. You cannot get sta
Mr. JONES, of Pennsylvania, said:
pared, and well prepared too, to contest the ques. bility from the very nature of things. l under
Mr. CHAIRMAN: I confess I was somewhat sur- tion whether a foreign Government shall or shall stood the gentleman at the last session to propose, prised the other day to hear the proposition of the not gain a footing upon this continent. Now, the that the value of imported iron at the time of the gentleman from New York, (Mr. Brooks.] I had | question is not whether we shall go to war with passage of the tariff of 1846 should be ascertained, supposed the honorable gentleman to be what is Europe; the question is not whether we shall and we should then levy an ad valorem upon that commonly known as a National Whig; and as follow the doctrines of Kossuth, and go abroad as valuation. That is practically a specific duty. It such, I was under the impression that he was in is not ad valorem at all. You may as well say favor of protection per se. How, therefore, he propagandists; but the true question presented to
the American people, as the champion of freedom, that there shall be a duty of $20 or $25 per ton
could offer a resolution at this particular crisis, for is, whether, in less than twelve months from this upon imported iron when it comes into market. such a purpose as that proposed upon the tariff day, you may not be called upon to maintain your Practically, it will be the same thing.
question, was beyond my comprehension. Cer- | position, or abandon it? Not to become the agMr.JONES. I had not an opportunity of being tainly, if that gentleman is the advocate of progressor in propagating this doctrine, but whether heard upon that occasion. I will state for the in- tection, he must know that, constituted as this
you will abandon or defend it with your arms? Mr. formation of the gentleman, what I could not say House is at this particular time, nothing could Chairman, I allude to this incidentally, because I at that time. I did not mean to say that the val- possibly accrue that would not be injurious to that
know that the honorable gentleman from New uations should be fixed and stationary. My ob- | particular interest. He knows that under the op- York (Mr. BROOKS) is perfectly conversant with ject was to get a valuation, to be made as nearly eration of the tariff of 1846, at this particular junc- i| these affairs; and knowing that this is, at least, a stationary as possible, by frequent appraisements, ture, the duties levied upon imports, particularly possible contingency, it strikes me as the more making it stationary for six or twelve months, in upon articles which are manufactured in my own
extraordinary that he, who is a protective tariff order, by taking averages, to get as near as possi- State, are at such high rates as almost, in the lan- ' man and a National Whig, and looking
thus upon ble to a condition of stability; Appraisements guage of the honorable gentleman from South the present state of our foreign relations, should throughout the country should be made in differ- | Carolina, (Mr. WOODWARD,) to have approached move at this day for an immediate reduction of the ent ports, and the appraisers should meet twice a the prohibitory point; and in any possible contin- revenues of the Government. year or oftener, and ascertain the average valua- gency, viewing it as I suppose he does, I cannot Now, sir, I am opposed to an alteration of the tion, and for the sake of stability let that remain conceive of any adjustment which can be made of tariff of 1846 at this time. I am opposed to it until the next meeting. In that point of view an the tariff question at this crisis that would not be ' because we have no land marks or statistics to arrangement of this kind might be satisfactory, most unquestionably injurious to these interests. guide us. We have not even a message from the though it was a mere suggestion to meet a certain
The gentleman from New York (Mr. Brooks) President on the subject that gives us statistical contingency, if that should become necessary.
stated in his first resolution to this House that the details, and we have not access to a single thing Mr. STANTON. If I understand the first object he had in view was a reduction of the reve- at this time which will throw any light upon this proposition, it amounts to this: He proposes pe
nue, with a view to prevent the accumulation of a perplexed and perplexing question; and yet the riodically to fix a specific duty through the in
surplus. I wish to know of the honorable gen- gentleman proposes that we should all at once, strumentality of appraisers; for this is substantially tleman from New York if he has looked abroad without hesitation or deliberation, act immediately the gentleman's proposition. After all, it is a and reflected before he made up his mind to take
upon the whole subject of the tariff with reference confession that your ad valorems are unstable and this step? He talks about a surplus revenue. to its reduction in order to get rid of the surplus fluctuating, and cannot be relied upon as protect
Does that gentleman know that in less than one revenue. I presume that there are but few memive duties at all; and it is a confession of the year from this day you may not have a surplus bers who hold seats in this House, who have soundness of the views of the President's message,
revenue but in iis place you may find a defi- derived their power from the people, at least that specific duties are preferable.
ciency? I hesitate not one moment to say at this within two years. I know that I do not. It is two Mr. Chairman, I know it is claimed with great time, as the honest conviction of my mind, that years since I was elected a member of this House. confidence that public opinion has been repeatedly Europe has retrograded fifty years in the last six The people of this Union have, within two months, expressed against protection at the ballot-box. 1 months. Fifty years ago there was an empire in elected as their President and standard bearer of do not think so.
Europe. That empire, pretending to be republi- Democratic principles Franklin Pierce. Shall he There are always so many elements entering into can, was arrayed in active hostility against the not have a hearing on this great question, in a presidential contest, that it is difficult to tell despotic powers of Europe. Russia, Austria, and which the Government has so deep an interest? whether any, or if any, what principle or measure
Prussia all combined with England against France. Is it not the will and wish of the Democratic of public policy is approved by the election of one Now, what is the spectacle ? A new empire rising
party that the man who is the choice of the Amercandidate, or the defeat of another.
in colossal grandeur, not opposed, but backed by ican people for the Presidency of the United States Different issues are made in different sections of all these self-same powers of despotism. With shall be heard on this and on all kindred subjeets the country. In one part of the country a Demo- all the diplomatic pretensions of hostility to the before we act? I, sir, do not believe that the crat evades and slides round the tariff'issue, and empire, made by Russia, Austria, and Prussia, Democratic members of this House will consent in another, a Whig does the same thing. But my deliberate conviction is, that there now sub- to act upon this subject now; but that they will reone thing I do know, and that is, that the whole sists a secret alliance, formed between them, under gard it as uncalled for and impolitic in the extreme. Democratic party in this House have never “ faced which combined power the war of despotism Our candidate was nominated by a convention the music” fair and square upon this tariff ques- | against liberty is soon to be fought. I may be representing every State in this Union. They tion. There seems to be a manifest reluctance
mistaken. I hope that I am; but I see events in built a platform, embodying the doctrines of the from some quarters to risk an appeal to the peo- Europe which have no analogy in history, and
Democratic party. Franklin Pierce planted himple upon the naked and direct question of protec
which were never heard or dreamed of before. self upon that platform, and the American people, tion or free trade. And it is my solemn conviction Why, to use a paradox, there is a Democratic by a majority almost unheard of in the
annals of that if you could take the verdict of the people absolutism—the most despotic power on the face our history, made him the President elect of the upon this question alone, upon full and fair dis- of the earth, created by the free suffrages of forty United States. As for the Whigs, I have no fault oussion, that a majority would be found in favor millions of people, and for what purpose? For to find with them in this affair, because, if their sf the principle of protection I know that it is the purpose, sir, of meeting an issue which we
papers speak truly, they have an object to acco connected and identified with party politics, ourselves have already made. Has not this coun- complish, and that object is our division. But that we can hardly expect any fixed settled policy What does that doctrine teach? It teaches that what principle a Democrat can wish to open this
knowing this, I am at a loss to understand upon upon the subject.
What is done by one party when it is in power, while the Powers subsisting at this time upon this question at this time. You have now no statistic is almost certain to be undone by the other so
continent may hold their position as long as they details, nor any reliable information upon a subject soon as it obtains power. However pernicious || have the capacity to do so, (our Government not the most perplexing of all questions; how you can and deplorable such a state of things may be, it | interfering,) that nevertheless this Government act, then, I confess I cannot comprehend. 'I have seems nevertheless to be unavoidable. And the never can and never will consent that any foreign no objection, however, to a full discussion. I am only hope seems to me to be, that the progress and Power shall gain a fresh foothold upon American i perfectly
willing to discuss this question from beimprovement that is making in labor-saving ma
soil. Is not this the principle, the doctrine of the ginning to end. For one, coming as I do from chinery, may enable many branches of manufac
Democratic party of this Union? Now, where is the State of Pennsylvania, I hold myself in readitures to dispense to so great an extent with man
Cuba? Why, precisely in this position. We ness at any time to answer every interrogatory ual labor, that they may be able to live and sustain
have declared in all our negotiations with foreign put to me. themselves by the aid of such little snatches of in- Governments that Spain may hold Cuba so long Mr. CARTTER inquired if the gentleman now cidental protection as they may get under a Demo- as she has the power to hold and govern her, but speaking had not moved a modification of the tariff cratic tariff, and such honest, old-fashioned protec- that no Power on earth shall occupy it, saving our of 1846, at the last session ? tion as they may occasionally get under Whig rule. || selves, when she ceases to be able to hold it. # Mr. JONES. I will answer the gentleman. I