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There are other circumstances which led me to Sir, the compacts were totally different. One of three hundred thousand; and Honduras, in her suppose that this was a propitious moment for ma them, the Cuban convention, would not have re turn, is sending a military force to dislodge the king this effort; and it does seem to me, from the ceived, I am sure, a single vote in the Senate, if English wood-cutters upon her disputed frontier. characier of the recent debate, that if it should now the Executive had been ill advised enough to send | Sir, these feuds, these border wars, and contenfinally terminate without any allusion to those it here. The other was confirmed by a majority tions, can produce, they do produce, no other recircumstances, it would, as I stated last Thurs- largely exceeding that which was required by the sult than a series of bloody revolutions, which, day, leave upon the public mind, not only an in- | Constitution. The Senator from Delaware has besides leaving them in a state of almost semicorrect, but a somewhat painful impression as to said that he concurs in the principles of the letter barbarism, has the effect of disheartening their the real state of affairs in that part of the world, of the 1st of December, and he has shown you friends in every other part of the world. and our connection with them; that the country that the policy pursued by him towards Cuba was These Slates have formed, or at least have enwould be alarmed with the idea that the state of precisely the same as that pursued by the late Ad- | deavored to form, their political institutions after affairs is more critical in that quarter than it really ministration. If there is the difference which the the model of our own. While they might have is. To rectify this impression is the main object Senator from Illinois thinks there is between some learned from us that a Federal union which, leavof my addressing the Senate at this time.

of the doctrines of the Cuban letter and the prin- || ing everything that belongs to local administration Before I do this, I wish to make my acknowl- | ciples of the treaty, I should feel that it behoved to the separate States, confers on the central govedgment to the distinguished Senator from Illinois, me quite as much to look to my letter, as it does ernment only those matters that are of general [Mr. Douglas,) whom I do not at this moment the Senator from Delaware to look to his treaty; concernment; in short, a government like ours, if see in his place, for the very complimentary notice and instead of attacking him, I should think it was wisely and purely administered, may be the strong. he was pleased to take of the letter addressed by much wiser for me to look around to find how I est government on the earth, as I believe ours in me on the 1st of December to the Ministers of might fortify myself. In fact, my friend from the long run will turn out to be; on the other hand, France and England on the subject of the trip- Delaware is one of the last men with whom I there is no form of government so weak, so hopeartite convention relating to Cuba. If I could should wish to engage in a parliamentary warfare, | less, so contemptible as that of small separate think that he did not, in the warmth of the argu even with the advantage of the alliance of a leader | States lying side by side without harmony, withment in which he was engaged, overstate the merits so vigorous and skillful as the Senator from Illi out concert, and employing all their energies in of that letter, I should certainly feel that, with the nois. I should fear that that alliance would prove | making war upon each other.

Though there was a great interest taken by the judge, my highest ambition as a public man ought | solutely unconstitutional, it might be very unad United States in the fortunes of the Spanish Amerto be satisfied. It was a subject of great difficulty, | visable one for me to enter into.

ican colonies when they threw off the yoke of the importance, and delicacy, dividing to some extent But it is time that I should proceed to the ex mother country, and asserted their independencethe opinions of the people, and it was my desire position which I propose to make, and which 1 an interest mainly inspired by the kindling eloin that matter, to find out if possible, and to assert must forewarn you, Mr. President, in the outset, quence of Henry Clay—there was perhaps no part a line of principle and of policy which would be is to be of a plain, business-like character, which it of these vast territorial possessions that excited generally approved by the country; which would would be idle to seek to invest with any rhetorical | less interest than the five States into which the show that it was possible to reconcile the progres- || attractions. Our relations with Central America ancient kingdom of Guatemala resolved itself. sive spirit and tendency of the country and of the have for some time formed one of the most import- They were small separately and small collectively, age with the preservation of the public faith, with ant topics of consideration within the whole range

We had little or no commercial intercourse with the sanctity of the public honor, and with the dic of our foreign relations,-an importance out of all them. They had no great places of resort to tates of an enlightened and liberal conservatism. || proportion to the consequence of these States them attract the curiosity of the traveler; in fact, we This was the object which I had in view, and if I selves; that is, either to their population, to their knew but little about them; they were almost lost shall be thought in any degree to have attained it, Il political weight, or to any commercial relations upon the map of America. In 1822, the year after my utmost ambition will be satisfied.

which we either have or ever can expect to have the revolution was effected, the State of San SalAllow me to say one other word, as I have with them. The five States, Guatemala, San Sal- | vador passed a formal act in her Legislature proalluded to this topic, of a personal nature. Called | vador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, all viding for her incorporation into the American as I was, in the month of November last, without together do not contain a population greater than Union; she sent two commissioners to Washinga day's preparation, after a retirement of seven that of the single State of Ohio. And that popu ton to carry that act into effect. I do not know years from all active participation in political life, lation, instead of being compact, homogeneous, that the least notice was taken of them. I supto occupy-but alas! sir, how far from filling- brought together, is divided into five States, with || pose they were treated with personal civility, as a the place of one of the foremost statesmen of the their capitals remote from each other, with very matter of course, but no communication yas made age; called upon within three or four weeks, the inadequate means of communication, and in other to Congress upon the subject. I am not sure that greater part of which time was passed in the bus respects wholly disabled from making itself felt in any official response was made to it, even from ile of an inn, without a book to refer to, without || any relations with foreign countries, like the popu the Executive. 'I am inclined to think there was a leisure moment for research or inquiry, to take lation of the State, the noble State, which I have none. At subsequent periods, and under various up such important questions as the Lobos Islands, I just named. The State with which we have been Administrations, attempts were made to enlist the the Crescent City affair, the difficulty about the brought most into connection, that of Nicaragua, || active interference of the United States in favor of fisheries, and then this last great subject of a according to the account of Mr. Squier, has but the Central American Republics, but never with tripartite convention; to dispose of all these ques two hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, and the least success under any Administration. I do tions under the daily pressure of the routine of the ten thousand only of these are of the pure European not say this reproachfully; it is no matter of reDepartment, enough of itself to put to the test the blood, while the rest, the remaining two hundred proach. Looking back for a period of nearly stoutest capacity of labor and endurance, I did and forty thousand, are of mixed races, colors, thirty years, upon the history of these countries, feel that this was a task of no ordinary magni- || and castes.

I cannot find the time nor the occasion when we tude, and one that should entitle a person to some I do not say this by way of disparagement. I could have enlisted actively in their affairs with charitable consideration for any imperfection or do not mean to argue that our relations with these any prospect of doing them the least good, or withdefect in the performance of his duty. And, sir, States are unimportant because they are small. out departing from all the safe and settled princiif in the State papers which I was obliged, in very | They are incidentally of great magnitude. I do not ples of policy of our own country. rapid succession, to produce, it should be found, | undervalue these little Republics. They have had But at length the time came; at length an era under the severe scrutiny to which they must of everything to contend with. They were educated opened, not only in our own history but theirs, necessity be subjected, that some things,

-as I un in the worst possible political school, that is, the and in the history of the whole world. You know derstand is alleged to be the case,-are omitted old Spanish colonial régime. They have strug that I refer to the acquisition of California, and the which had better been said, that some things are gled into independence under the greatest incon- || discovery of its gold. Then, sir, an intense neput forward which had better been reserved for veniences and obstacles. They are in their in- cessity was immediately felt for the speediest and other opportunities, and some things stated, ab- || fancy. They will grow, I have no doubt, and

most economical and most convenient routes of stractly true, but without sufficient qualification prosper. They have a beautiful position, lying communication between the Atlantic and the Paand guards, if anything of this shall be found, I between the two great oceans, with some of cific oceans-between the Atlantic States and our trust that due allowance will be made; as I also the finest ports upon either shore. Their climate, new acquisitions on the shores of the great sea. confidently trust it will still be found that there is for a tropical climate, is for the most part salu- Then, sír, the tide of emigration-I cannot comnothing committing the honor or the interest of brious and agreeable. They have a fertile soil pare it to anything else but what I have witnessed the country: which yields all the valuable products of the

a hundred times on the sea-shore-the tide of emiThe honorable Senator from Illinois cited some tropics, and they have mines of silver and gold ; | gration, like the tides of the ocean, went pouring sentences from my letter of the 1st of December, they have lakes and rivers which furnish facilities down the coast, swelling over every rock and 1852, which he thought were in direct contradic of communication; they have agriculture and every shoal, rushing into every inlet, turning back tion, on the ground of constitutional principle, some commerce; and they have made some prog the currents of the rivers, and seeking by å kind with some of the provisions of the trepty which ress in the arts of civilization. But they have yet of irresistible, moral necessity an outlet into the was negotiated by my friend from Delaware. Now, a great deal to learn; and it will be for their per- || Pacific ocean. The project of a canal had often sir, I think that if a due allowance is made for the manent advantage, if in the result of their commu been started before, propositions had been made, entire difference in the nature of the compacts, and nication with other Powers more advanced than charters applied for, surveys undertaken; but of the relations of the contracting parties to the themselves, they shall derive some important les nothing practical had been done. But now it was subject-matter, the total dissimilarity in the geo

Their internal feuds are deplorable, and plain that the time had come when something pracgraphical and historical circumstances that give their incessant border wars are a drawback upon

tical must be done. Attempts were commenced, the character to the two conventions, it will be all progress. While I am speaking, the State of and pretty soon we heard of small steamers that allowed that the constitutional doubt which I ex Guatemala, with a population of eight hundred were navigating the inland streams and lakes of pressed—for it was but a doubt—and which ap- thousand, is marching an army of six thousand Central America, and companies of pilgrims of plied in the one case, does not apply in the other. men against her sister State of Honduras with Il both sexes and of all ages from the United States,


320 CONG.....3d Sess.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.


were seen winding their way through those dark dom nominis umbra, the shadow of à name. And a century and a half, the whole commercial world tropical forests, through the branches of which the it is certainly nothing more. There is in an import-took sides against Spain. We now are inclined rays of the sun had never penetrated since crea- ant document which lies on your table, a letter to sympathize with her, we think but meanly tion.

from Mr. Rives to Mr. Clayton, then Secretary of | of this Mosquito protectorate, and we regard the A charter for a canal was soon granted by Nic- State, giving a report of a conference which he occupation of those islands and these establisharagua to a company of American citizens, and had, by direction of the Department of State, with ments on the main by Great Britain as acts of inif no political difficulties had existed, and if Cen- Lord Palmerston on his way to Paris, in 1849. || justice and violence. But it was not thought so tral America had been occupied by a population | Lord Palmerston said to Mr. Rives:

then. The whole commercial world, exclusive of like that which poured the waters of Lake Erie into

“From a very early period the Mosquito Indians had

Spain and her allies, sympathized with England, the bed of the Hudson at Albany, I do not know been treated by the British Government as a separate and

and no part of the world more than the English that it would be extravagant to say, that at this an independent State--they had what was called a king, I colonies, now the United States. I have been very moment three-masted vessels of twenty feet who, by-the-by, he added (says Mr. Rives) in a tone of

amused in reading the old colonial journals to draught would be navigating the waters of Lake pleasantry, was as much a king as you or I."

see the effusions of the loyal feeling constantly Nicaragua, on their way to the Pacific.

After this account which the British Minister poured out from these colonies, when the public But unfortunately polítical obstacles did exist, for Foreign Affairs gives of the Mosquito kingdom mind was greatly excited in England upon subobstacles of all kinds. There were dissensions and of the Mosquito king, I think it would be | jects of this kind. On that memorable occasion, between the neighboring States of Nicaragua and wasting the time of the Senate of the United States which you recollect from the history of those Costa Rica. There was a difference between Nic- for me to bestow many words to prove the inanity times, when a certain Captain Jenkins was brought aragua and the British Government, assuming to of the king and kingdom. Nevertheless, it was upon the floor of Parliament, and exhibited his be the protector of the Mosquito Indians; and really an ancient affair. There was something of mutilated ears, and a fragment which had been jealousies, it must be said, were entertained-un- history in it. It had a pedigree. It ran back iwo torn from one of them, and produced such an exfounded jealousies, I think-but jealousies were centuries, and Great Britain maintained, appa- citement, that England, against the opinion of the sincerely entertained between the United States rently in good faith, that in the course of these Prime Minister, was thrown into a war with Spain, and Great Britain—that each of these great mari- two centuries she has contracted certain obliga- || in the whole compass of the British Empire, there time Powers was desirous of obtaining some ex

tions and duties towards these Mosquito Indians, was perhaps nowhere such fervent, loyal zeal exclusive advantage to itself in reference to the opening now reduced to a mere handful, and they in the hibited as in these transatlantic colonies. In the of this route of interoceanic communication. most wretched condition, which she does not feel war which took place, the fleets and armies of Now, sir, it was a great object, as I understand herself at liberty to disregard.

England were recruited in these American coloit, of the treaty negotiated on the part of this Gov- This Mosquito kingdom in its origin and prog- nies. I can tell you, sir, that in the old graveernment by my friend from Delaware, to remove ress is really a little more important than it might yards of New England, you can still read the epithese difficulties, particularly so far as the United otherwise be thought. It played a very important taphs of men who brought home the diseases of States and Great Britain were concerned; and part in the history of the world. It was a prom- the tropics from Porto Bello and Carthagena. to establish the principle that neither of these inent incident in the Spanish colonial system, There are men now living, whose great-grandgreat Powers wished for any separate and exclu- || which for a century and a half gave a character fathers laid down their bones upon the Spanish sive advantage. That treaty was negotiated pre- to the politics of the whole civilized world. Amer- | main. Sir, the name of the home of Washington cisely on the principles that had governed every ica having been discovered by the great navigator upon the banks of the Potomac, here in your movement and every step which had been taken who sailed under Spanish auspices, Spain pos- neighborhood, derived its origin from the enthufrom the first by the United States, in reference | sessed herself of the largest and the noblest part siasm felt by Washington's elder brother for one to artificial interoceanic communication. As I of the continent. From California to Cape Horn, | of the unfortunate heroes of those wars, who think, it was the right principle; that is, that with the exception of Brazil, everything fell into found upon these pestiferous coasts an enemy neither party would seek any exclusive

advantage; her hands. It was not merely the largest and fair- | against which human courage and strength were and that the two great Powers would unite, so far est part, but it was the part which contained with-of no avail: as depended upon them, in opening this great in itself those tropical treasures, and especially

" You, gallant Vernon, saw pathway to the commerce of the whole world. those treasures of silver and gold which have in The miserable scene ; you pitying saw It is a point which I think has not received suffi- | all times overmastered the imaginations of men.

To infant weakness shrunk the warrior's arm; cient attention, viz: that if the whole matter was Why, sir, I believe such was the state of things

Saw the deep-racking pang, the ghastly form,

The lip pale quivering and the beamless eye, to be peaceably disposed of, it was absolutely || in the seventeenth century, that the whole export- No more in ardor bright; you heard the groans necessary that such an understanding should take able product of what is now known as the Uni- of agonizing ships from shore to shore; place between the United States and Great Bri- ||ted Siates, did not exceed one half a million of

Heard nightly plunged beneath the sullen wave tain. The United States could not take a grant of dollars annually, and that, I need not tell you,

The frequeni corse.” exclusive privileges from Nicaragua, because Nic- was perhaps no more than half the amount con- Sir, it was owing to nothing but the yearnings aragua was not in a condition to give such a grant. |tained in one of the treasure ships which were of a fond maternal heart that our beloved WashShe claimed an unbroken sovereignty over the whole | regularly dispatched from Vera Cruz to Cadiz. ) ington himself, for whom a warrant as midshiproute. She was satisfied that her claim was good, || Spain locked up all this treasure beneath the bolts man in the royal navy had been obtained, did not, and perhaps we were satisfied that it was good. land bars of her colonial monopoly. She did no a few years later, enlist himself in those disastrous think myself that it was; but it was not uncontested. more with respect to her colonies than England wars, with an equal prospect of sacrificing his life There was anothergreat Power that denied the valid- with respect to hers. It was the ancient colonial in the support of the system of which this wretched ity of the claim; there was a great Power that set system; but the productions of the Spanish col- | Mosquito protectorate was a part. up rival pretensions, and it was necessary that these onies were so much more important than those of This was the origin, this the character of this should be disposed of; and that, as I said, was England, that the whole commercial world sought | Mosquito claim, carried on in defiance of the power the great object, or one of the great objects effected its revenge by endeavoring to force a contraband of Spain, as long as the power of Spain existed, by the treaty of the 19th of April, 1850. And I | trade with the Spanish colonies. This trade was and after the Spanish colonies threw off the yoke, will say this, I wish to do no more and no less || carried on by the wholesale and retail, by private carried on in defiance, or with the acquiescence of than justice to Great Britain,-although she did set individuals and by armed squadrons, by adven- the coterminous States. Such I understand to have up this claim, and although we think it unfound- turers in whom the trader, the buccaneer, and the been its origin, such its history, reduced at the ed, yet in reference to the canal, she set it up only | pirate were so much mixed up, that it was hard present day to very small dimensions, the state of to waive it. She did not make any use of this pre- io say which character prevailed. After Jamaica affairs having wholly changed, and the English tension to obstruct the execution of the charter was conquered, in the time of Cromwell, that isl. Government having no longer any interest or any which Nicaragua had given. She said in effect, and became the basis of these operations. Spain | motive in adhering to the protectorate. Such she that Nicaragua had no right to give such a charter, of course sought to defend herself, and she not assures us is the case. because she did not own the territory for the whole only instituted a line of guarda costas all along her Now, in reference to this canal, its southern terdistance. But she did not use her rival claim to shores to drive off every vessel that was seen hov- minus, the port of San Juan, fell within the limits obstruct that charter. On the contrary, it was ering in those waters, as if a pestilence lurked in of the territory which was claimed to be (claimed one of the leading objects of the convention of the her sails-for such was the detestable character of to be is all I say) under this

protectorate. This claim 19th of April, 1850, to give the assent of Great this ancient colonial system—but she also under- was of course denied by Nicaragua. She had temBritain to ihe execution of that charter which was took to institute a right of search of any merchant | porarily possessed herself of the port after a long granted to American citizens. She gave her own | vessel which should show itself within a consid- | dispute with the British; but in January, 1848, consent in the form of obtaining the assent of the erable distance of the Spanish coast. Of course the Nicaraguans were promptly expelled by an Mosquito Indians, over whom she claimed a pro- this led to infinite collisions. Wars were con- English force, and the first thing that was done tectorate. It was only a form of giving her own | stantly breaking out; in these wars islands were by the British authority-and I must say, in my consent. She not only gave her own consent, and seized, and establishments were formed upon the opinion, in very bad taste-was to change the anthat of the Mosquito Indians, but she undertook main. Roatan and the other Bay Islands were cient euphonious name of San Juan del Norte or to use her influence, in conjunction with the Uni- || captured by Admiral Vernon in the first half of San Juan de Nicaragua (I do not care which) into ted States, to obtain that of Costa Rica; so that the last century. When the war ceased, these the modern, and to my ear very insipid, appellawhatever we may think of her rights as the pro- | islands would be surrendered, and the establish- tion of Greytown. I hope the first thing that tector of the Mosquito Indians, she availed herself ments given up, or pretended to be given up. But will be done by the independent authorities of San of them, not to obstruct, but to aid the work. the peace would prove to be hollow truce, the || Juan, if they are independent, will be to change

Now, as to the protectorate which Great Britain same system of forcing a contraband trade would it back again. Let us have again that fine, old, claims it is her right and her duty to exercise over | recommence, the same right of search would be and well-sounding Spanish name. the Mosquito Indians, my friend from Delaware instituted, war would break out again, and then Now, as I said, the convention negotiated by has characterized it very well. Using the famous the same circle of operations be repeated.

my friend from Delaware, with the approbation motto of Junius, he has called this Mosquito king- It is but fair to say that in this long struggle of ll of the President, on the 19th of April, 1850, re320 CONG.....30 Sess.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.


moved a considerable part of the obstacles which for the Senate to bestow on the subject; but the So it was on the coast of the Pacific. There we grew out of the claim to the protectorate; but there main objects were few and simple. The first was claimed up to 540 40'. The British said, on the were other difficulties remaining. Costa Rica and this: out of the very large tract of country lying other hand, that the line ought to follow the CoNicaragua were still at variance. Nicaragua re- east of Nicaragua covered by the claim of the lumbia river down to the Pacific.' The two counfused, in any way, to recognize the independent Mosquito Indians, to retain a moderate reserva- tries were brought almost to the point of collision existence of the Mosquito Indians. She refused tion for the temporary use of the Mosquito In- on this question, but at last it was thought on all to renounce her territorial rights to San Juan. In dians. They were all to be collected here; they sides that the only practicable and honorable mode the mean time the preliminary surveys had been were to be withdrawn from every other point of settling the question was to adopt a middle term, instituted, and it was found that the canal would which they may have occupied. In the center of and take the line of the forty-ninth degree of latinot pass all the way on the left bank of the river. the coast of this territory lay the ancient settle- tude—which was the boundary east of the Rocky It was found that probably in some places it ment of Bluefields, the foundation of which runs Mountains as the line of demarkation to the sea. would go into the bed of the river and in other back into the seventeenth century, if I am not If great Powers like England and the United places it would go on the right bank of the river; | mistaken. They were all to be brought together States, the leading Powers of the commercial and and Costa Rica claimed that

her rightful boundary on this reservation, and all the rest of this large | maritime world, find it necessary to settle their came up to the right bank of the river. Then territory east and south of it was to be ceded in full border controversies by these mutual sacrifices, how could we get along with a charter that was sovereignty to Nicaragua. This cession included can Nicaragua, can Costa Rica expect to adjust given upon the principle of the exclusive sover- the much-desired port of San Juan. The great bone theirs on any better principle? However, as I eignty of Nicaragua? It was impossible that of contention, if I may so call it, was to be given said, the terms of the settlement proposed were foreign capitalists, who do not enter into these mat- up to Nicaragua by these propositions; and in con- | accepted by Costa Rica, but Nicaragua did not ters with the critical skill of diplomatists, would sideration of the large cession of territory, and of think it expedient for her to adopt them. risk their capital in a country like Central Amer- getting rid of the disagreeable controversy, it was While these matters were passing, a very singuica, where domestic feuds and border wars are the proposed-proposed only, all this was a proposi- lar event occurred in San Juan, of which I believe order of the day, to build an enormously expen- tion—that Nicaragua, as a pecuniary indemnity I can best give an account to the Senate by readsive canal which would cost perhaps $100,000,000, to the Mosquito nation, should pay the net pro- || ing an extract from a dispatch of our consular over disputed territory, where the soil was liable ceeds of an ad valorem duty of ten per cent. upon agent, Mr. Boone, who arrived at San Juan on to be wrested from them at any moment by a con- articles imported into San Juan, for three years. the 3d of June last. He writes the following, testing Power. It was necessary that something How much that would amount to I cannot under- under date of the 5th of June, 1852: further should be done to adjust all these contro- take to say, but I do not suppose it would amount “I find the government of the place in the bands of a verted questions.

in the whole to more than fifty or sixty thousand corporation, or organization, formed principally of AmerWho should do it? The mediation of the dollars. That was the entire pecuniary consider

ican citizens. It consists of a mayor and a city council. United States and Great Britain had over and ation which was to be paid for the surrender of They have a constitution which recognizes the trial by jury,

and is altogether formed, as far as it goes, upon liberal prinover again been invoked by both States. In the the sovereignty of San Juan, and for the cession ciples They have a well organized police, judges and altreaty of the 19th of April, 1850, to which I have of the rest of the country lying west and south- dermen, all elected annually by the people. There is likeso often to allude, there was an express stipula- | west of the reservation to which I have alluded.

wise a captain of the port and a healin officer. All articles tion, that if any differences existed between the

of commerce are admitted free of duty.” * This was not all. The reservation itself was

“In March last, Mr. Green, the British consul and agent States or the Government in reference to the not intended to be perpetual. On the contrary, it of the Mosquito king, president of the then council at Greycanal, or any question of right of property con- was expressly provided, in a separate article, that town, upon the request being made by some of the princinected with it, the high contracting parties would the terms of the settlement should not preclude pahinhabitants, issued a proclamation or order for a conexert their good offices to reconcile those differ- | Nicaragua from making any private agreement constitution. The convention was held and the present ences, so that while it was absolutely necessary she might please with the Mosquito Indians for constitution was adopted, under which all the before-menthat the work of adjustment should be attempted, what we should call the extinguishment of their tioned officers have been elected." it seemed impossible that anybody else than the title. She was to be at liberty at any time to Now, this Government is carried on under the two friendly Powers could undertake it. Accord- make a private arrangement with the Mosquito name of the Mosquito king; and Mr. Boone repingly they felt it their duty to undertake it, and in Indians for the final extinguishment of the title, resents that there is a decided preponderance of the month, I think it was, of July, 1851, a con- and consequently the absorption of the reserva- the British influence in the Government. The offiference was held here, in Washington, between tion into the Nicaraguan State—the Indians to be cers, by the way, I am informed, are all American; the Secretary of State and the British Minister on incorporated with the citizens of that State, of but I doubt not that Mr. Boone correctly states one side, and the envoys of Costa Rica and Nicar- course; which would be no hardship, because by the fact that they are decidedly under British influagua on the other; but without any favorable far the largest part of the population of Nicara- ence. I suppose this is pretty natural, considering result. About that time Nicaragua had entered gua is composed of the native race and their de- || the previous history of affairs there; because this into a partial confederacy with Honduras and scendants.

small municipality naturally relies upon the name San Salvador, to strengthen herself against Costa These were the propositions as far as concerns of the Mosquito protectorate as a security for the Rica. She had merged her separate political sover- the Mosquito protectorate and San Juan, and all present against the invasion of the State of Nicareignty in this federation. She had no longer the that part of the controversy. Nicaragua being so agua, until they shall be sufficiently strong to propower, if she had the desire, to treat separately upon highly favored on that side, it was thought no tect themselves. this subject. An interval of eight or ten months more than reasonable that Costa Rica, the other With respect to the manner in which affairs are accordingly followed.

party, should be somewhat favored on her side, managed by this new municipal government I At length it was thought by the two Govern- not however by giving her all that was asked, be- would speak with some reserve. I do not like at ments that a further delay was out of the ques- cause she claimed to go up the San Juan river this distance to give a decided opinion founded tion; that it was already amounting to an indefinite through its whole extent from the lake to the ocean. upon ex parte information; but I must say that this postponement of all energetic proceedings towards That was not admitted in the propositions. She new government, though founded on a principle the construction of the canal; and it was abso- || also claimed that she had an equal right with Nic- with which, in the United States, we must have lutely necessary that something decisive should be aragua in the port of San Juan. That could not be all our sympathies enlisted—that of popular elecdone. Accordingly, in the month of April, 1852, | admitted, because the exclusive sovereignty was tion-would seem to be carrying on their affairs the Secretary of State and the British Minister, I proposed to be given to Nicaragua; but it was pro- very badly. They have lately, by an act of vioacting under the instructions of their Governments posed that Costa Rica should go to the Colorado, a lence for which no doubt some provocation was respectively, came together and held conferences branch that strikes off from the San Juan to the given, gone across the river and pulled down the on this subject; and, after mature deliberation, | right, and, giving the large delta between the Col- buildings of the transit company; and I have also they agreed to the propositions commonly called orado and the San Juan to Nicaragua, that Costa received information of some transactions towards the propositions of the 30th of April, 1852, which Rica should follow up the right bank of the Colo- certain French settlers established there, which, if were to be offered to the two Governments. They rado, then the right bank of the San Juan to the they are truly represented, will involve the muniwere only advisory. They could be nothing else. I lake, and then that the southern shore of the lake cipal authorities of this new corporation in a heavy They were recommendations of two friendly Pow. should be the boundary, with the privilege of nav- responsibility to the French empire. As I said ers, having no interest at variance with that of igating the lake; and then the river La Flor to the before, these may be unfounded reports, and it either party; regarding them both with the most Pacific. I admit that this was a favorable bound- would be wrong to form a decided opinion upon ex friendly eye; and anxiously seeking the best method ary to Costa Rica, though it did not, as I have parte information. I hope, as the new constitution by which all these difficulties could be reconciled, said, give her all that she thought she was entitled is organized upon popular principle, that it will by and an effectual impulse given to the execution of to; and Nicaragua had been greatly favored on the a wise administration do credit to such an origin. the great work. They were only propositions. l other side. How, in a boundary contest between Such was the state of things in that quarter when They were not a convention. They were the basis two Powers of about equal strength, can you ever I went into the Department of State, last Novemof a convention that was to be submitted to the come to a settlement on any other basis than ber. It was out of my power for some time, for two Governments of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. | that of compromise and mutual concession? The causes beyond my control, to give any impulse to After having been arranged with great deliberation | United States and England have done it over and the negotiations in reference to Central America. here, they were sent by separate commissioners to over again. We claimed our boundary on the In the month of January, we received the inforthe capitals of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. They northeast as running up far beyond the river St. mation that a change of ministry had taken place were accepted by Costa Rica; they were rejected John-for we have our San Juan too—we claimed in England, and that a new Government had been by Nicaragua. Now, sir, let us for a moment con- that we went far beyond that river on the north- | formed under the Earl of Aberdeen, as prime minsider what these propositions were.

eastern boundary of Maine. England said that the ister. In a fortnight or three weeks I received from ! shall not take up the time of the Senate by boundary line began at Mars' Hill, far south of the the British minister here a communication which going into a very great detail. It would be hard St. John. The controversy lasted fifty years; and showed that one of the first objects to which the to be understood without a map of the country, I finally we were obliged to settle it by each party new ministry had directed its attention, with the and without more time than it would be convenient il giving up something of its extreme pretension. view of bringing about some practical terms of

320 Cong.....30 Sess.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.


final adjustment, were these difficulties in Central thought it held out the prospect that something erence to topics on which I may be expected to America. I will confess to you, Mr. President, practical would at length be done. I consequent say something; I mean the Belize, the Bay Islands, that this communication produced an agreeable | Jy made the suggestion to the President to which and the recent operations in Honduras, and the impression on my mind. It reminded me of what I have alluded, which was approved by him and opinion entertained by distinguished Senators, took place eleven or twelve years ago, when I santioned by Congress, that in order to do our that those settlements and operations furnish just found myself in London, as the representative of part toward bringing about this arrangement, we ground for accusing England of a breach of the this Government. You recollect that at that time should put our diplomatic relations with those stipulations of the treaty of the 19th of April, we were still involved in the controversies about States upon the most advantageous footing. I 1850. In reference to this, I will candidly say that the northeastern boundary, the affair of the “Car will say, however, that I thought, and still think, || I do not think England has either violated or inoline,” the arrest of McLeod, and the seizure and that instead of recognizing the independence of tended to violate the faith of that treaty. Why detention of American vessels on the coast of Af this new municipal organization, this free city of || should she? What had she to gain by entering rica. These subjects had been discussed, some of San Juan-(and it appears to me it would be like into a treaty stipulation, with no other intention them for half a century; and with no other effect one of the Hanse towns of Germany)—consider- || than to break ii? She was not obliged to make than to confirm each party in the conviction that ing the antecedents of the question and the his the treaty. She had no motive in making it, exit had all the right on its own side; and in fact to tory of the whole affair, it would be better to re cept the motive of faithfully executing its provisbring the two great Powers to the verge of a con new to Nicaragua the propositions that we made ions. She owed us nothing in reference to Cenflict. Such was the condition of affairs at that to her last April, and give up San Juan to her, tral America or the canal. We had no claim upon time. In this state of things, late one night in and allow her to establish her sovereignty over the her which required her to enter into the compact December, as I was meditating upon these matters, city. I feel, it is true, that there will be some in with us. What possible inducement of interest not in the best spirits, and feeling a pretty heavy convenience in that course, if this town is to grow. or ambition, or any other corrupt motive that sense of responsibility as to my own position, hav For, mind you, sir, it will be an American town. could influence a State, can it be supposed Eng. ing been sent there to discuss all these questions | Mr. Boone writes that out of seventy vessels that land could have had to enter into the treaty for without a word of instruction from the Govern arrived in the six months he was there, sixty, if | the sole purpose of breaking it? Why, sir, there ment upon any one of them, I received a note from I recollect, were American vessels; and if the

was difficulty enough before. The pretension to Lord Aberdeen, appointing an interview for the canal is to be constructed, as this will be the east the Mosquito protectorate was itself troublesome next day, the object of which turned out to be to ern terminus of the great route of interoceanic | enough. Why should England voluntarily and inform me that the Queen's Government, lately communication, it will become in time a great | gratuitously add to that difficulty'a new difficulty formed under Sir Robert Peel, had come to the American city, inhabited, for the most part, by that would immediately present itself, by breakconclusion to make a new, and as it hoped a citizens of the United States; and I do feel that ing her solemnly-plighted faith with the United successful, attempt to settle all matters in con there will be a considerable inconvenience with this States? I cannot think that she would be so troversy between the two countries; and that for

prospect, in requiring the little independent munici senseless as to do it. this purpose, it had determined to send a special pality, which has now asserted its inherent right Then in reference to the affairs of Central Amerminister to the United States, and had selected to establish its own government there, to go back ica proper, by which I mean what is commonly so Lord Ashburton for the mission, on the express under the sovereignty of Nicaragua. Still, under considered, leaving out of the account Belize and ground that, though he would of course look after the circumstances of the case, I should be in favor, || Honduras, I cannot see but what England has done the interests of his own country, he was the indi- || if it rested with me, of giving Nicaragua that op- | all she contracted to do. There may have been vidual, perhaps, in the whole British empire, in a tion, and trusting, I have no doubt safely trusting, some difference in the interpretation which thetwo position to undertake the duty, who would carry to her good sense not to press the inhabitants of parties placed upon the stipulation, but she has io the United States the kindest feelings and the that city. I believe she would give them an inde- || been continually receding. She has given up this, most friendly domestic and personal associations. pendent government, and allow them to carry on and she has given up that. She is desirous not I confess that that communication, made in that their affairs in their own way, by means of mu only to disembarrass herself of the protectorate, amicable tone for the express object mentioned, nicipal authorities of their own election.

but she has resigned the sovereignty of San Juan, did, as it were, lift a somewhat heavy load from Now, sir, how far this project will succeed de and has proposed the cession of the whole Mosquito my mind. I thought I saw, at no great distance, || pends very much in the first instance upon the country east of Nicaragua. If a suspicion of bad the prospect of an adjustment of all these embar- | individual sent on the mission. I look upon it as faith, which I do not admit, could rest upon either rassing and dangerous questions; a prospect which a very important mission. Small as those States | party; if there were a disposition to cavil upon the was so happily realized in the course of the sum are, I really think that at this time, it is more im occasion, it might be said rather that the United mer by the conclusion of the treaty of Washing- portant who is sent by the United States to Cen- || States, in view of the recent transactions at San ton of the 9th of August, 1842.

tral America, than who is sent to London, to Juan, had broken their faith, for there we see an It may be comparing small things with great, Paris, or St. Petersburg; and I must say, without | independent government establishing itself by a but I must say that it was with a somewhat sim- intending to use any language of compliment, || popular movement, and creating a municipality ilar feeling of satisfaction that I found that one of that I place entire confidence in the President of composed of American citizens. We all know the first acts of Lord Aberdeen's new Govern the United States, that out of the able and distin- || that the Government of the United States has had ment was to make an overture to us for the set- | guished men of his own party, he will select the nothing to do in bringing it about. The utmost tlement of this, not so formidable, but still by no right man. I have no doubt he will do it, and that we have done and I do not know that we means inconsiderable difficulty down in Central I have pleasure in saying so. The only diplo- || have done that-is to furnish some degree of counAmerica. The purport of the communication was, matic appointments which have yet been made tenance and recognition towards the new munithat the Governmeni of her Britannic Majesty was by him, that to Switzerland and that to Peru, are cipal government. But yet the fact is that there disposed to agree to almost anything reasonable. | sufficient pledges to my mind that he will have is an independent government at San Juan under It was willing to recognize, it had recognized, the regard to merit and to qualifications. Those ap the name of the Mosquito king, it is true, but independent government that was set up at San pointments, in my opinion, do him the highest composed of American citizens elected by the Juan. With respect to the protectorate, it desired || honor, as they do the highest honor to his politi- | people. I mention this only to show, that if one nothing more than to be wholly disembarrassed cal friends upon this floor, who confirmed them were disposed to take exception, there would be from it, so far as it could without an entire sacri- without hesitation and without a division. I have reasonable ground for taking it against the United fice of the duties of charity and paternal regard no doubt that he will be governed by the same States. which it owed to the broken-down fragments of good sense in the appointment to be made for this With respect to the settlements at Belize, after the Indian tribes which for two hundred years had mission; and if the right man can be found, and all that has been said in the course of the winter been, to a certain extent, under its protection. It | if he can be induced to go down there to take this on this subject, especially after the speeches of the wished only to get out of it with honor and credit. work in hand and bring these protracted contro Senator from Maryland (Mr. PEARCE) and the That was the purport of the communication. It | versies to a desirable conclusion, he will cover Senator fiom New York, Mr. Seward:) after the was willing to go there with the United States, and himself with honor. I do not see any point in view taken of the subject by the Committee on treat with the municipal authorities of San Juan, the range of our foreign relations where so much Foreign Relations in their able report, and the exand was willing that they should continue to gov good is now to be done. And, sir, allow me to planations that have taken place in the course of ern the territory, American citizens though they say one other word on this point. It seems to the recent discussion, I do not think it would be

It was willing that they should continue me that this is the last chance we have for settling worth while for me to take up the time of the Senin power under the cover of the Mosquito king, affairs on a desirable and honorable footing. If ate by dwelling upon the question. I believe it is or they might assume the absolute sovereignty, this fails, I do not myself see any hope of taking now admitted upon all sides of the Senate Chamand extend just such protection to the Indians as up the subject in any other form with a better ber, let the decision of the geographical question their condition and wants should require.

prospect of success. If we cannot now settle all be what it may, let the Belize be in Central AmerThey invited us to go there with them, to join these matters and remove all the difficulties that

ica or in Mexico, let the origin and foundation of them in treating with the municipal authorities, obstruct the execution of the canal, as far as de these settlements be what they will,—that they and if the arrangement could be completed, then pends upon political considerations, I do not see were not in the contemplation of the parties to to join, not in guaranteeing the independence of but that Nicaragua and Costa Rica must be left to the treaty at the time it was negotiated, or of the this little new republic—for that it was thought struggle on together with each other, with the cer Senate at the time it was approved. would not be deemed by us an advisable step- tainty, the moral and political certainty that the Attention was not at all turned to these settlebut to act in concert with them in extending such construction of the canal through their country is ments. The parties had something else in view. friendly countenance to the poor remnants of the indefinitely postponed. Whether that would be They were thinking of the canal and the means Indians as might be requisite to secure them from for the interest of Nicaragua it is for her to judge. of carrying forward that great work of interinternal violence, and prevent them from perish I have taken up more of the time of the Senate oceanic communication. ing from the face of the earth.

than I had intended, and have now said all that I The same remark may be made in reference to I must confess that I thought this a very have to say on the main subject. Before I take the Bay Islands. They have been for a century reasonable and satisfactory communication. I my seat, however, I will add a few words in ref and more a part of the dependencies of Belize,


32D CONG.....3D SESS.

Special Session--Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.



and it was not the understanding of the contract the West Indies, an officer of great moderation, Sir, in our views of the glorious future that ing parties that they should be affected one way who is distinguished for his friendly feelings to awaits the Union, we are apt to regard geographi. or the other by the stipulations of the treaty of wards the United States, and at whose instance cal extension as the measure and the index of our 19th of April, 1850.

the British Admiralty have very lately put in the country's progress. I do not deny the general corI understand the facts in reference to the recent possession of Commodore Perry, commander of rectness of that impression. It is necessary for the establishment of the colony to be these: These the squadron sent out by this Government to Ja. formation of the highest type of national character islands were among those which were seized, pan, a large number of charts and hydrographic that it should be formed and exhibited upon u grand given up, and seized again, while the state of things works-everything, in short, to facilitate the expe. and extensive scale. It cannot be developed within lasted which I described in a former part of my dition-has sent a war steamer to Truxillo to tell the bounds of a petty State. Nor do I admit remarks, and finally the English of late years have the authorities there that they must recall an armed that this idea of geographical extension necessarily, considered that the title “ de facto and de jure,” (1 party which they had sent over the frontier to carries with it ihough it does perhaps by

natural quote the words of a dispatch of Lord Palmerston) break up the settlements of the English wood-cut- | association—that of collision with other Powers. was in them. As to the validity of the claim, ters on the river Limas. I do not think anything But, sir, I think there is no fear, so far as geohave not a word to say. I am only stating the serious will grow out of these transactions; and I graphical extension is necessary, that we shall in pretensions of England; and I suppose it is admit can only say, that if there were a disputed bound- | the natural progress of things, have as much ofit, ied that at the time the treaty was negotiated, ary between us and Mexico, and Mexico were to and as rapidly as the best interests of the country those dependencies were not, any more than Belize send an armed force to break up a settlement of admit or require. In the mean time, if we wish a itself, understood by the negotiators to be included Americans, and destroy their establishments, I real, solid, substantial growth-a growth which in the stipulations of the treaty. Two or three think we should tell them in the plainest terms the will not bring us in collision with foreign Powyears ago, as I understand, the inhabitants of the English language contains, that the United States ers—we shall have it in twenty-five years to our islands, not being very numerous, sent a messen did not understand that way of settling boundary heart's content; not by the geographical accession ger to the superintendent of the Belize, and in controversies.

of dead acres; not by the purchase of Cuba, or by formed him that they were without any regular The Senate will infer, from what I have now the partition of Mexico, but by the simple peaceful government, and that they wished one to be estab. said, that I do not apprehend any disturbance of increase of our population. lished. He told them, very reasonably, that her the peaceful relations between this country and Sir, have you well considered that that mysteBritannic Majesty could not afford to govern them Great Britain, in consequence of the state of things rious law which was promulgated on the sixth day for nothing; and that they must see how much. in Central America. In the last speech which I of the Creation—"Be fruitful and multiply and they could raise by voluntary taxation to defray had the honor to make in the House of Repre- | replenish the earth"-will, in twenty-five years of the expenses of the Government. They held a sentatives, now eighteen years ago, I expressed peace and union--forit is all wrapped up in thatmeeting and agreed that they would tax them the opinion that there was no danger of a war aided by the foreign immigration, give us another selves £200 a year. They sent word of the result between the United States and France, with whom America of living men as large as that which we to the superintendent of the Belize, who told them our friendly relations were seriously menaced in now possess ? Yes, sir, as far as living men are that for that he thonght he could get them a regular consequence of the delay of the French Chambers concerned, besides replacing the millions which government. . In consequence of that, the order

to make an appropriation to carry into effect Mr. will have passed off the stage, it will give us all of last July was issued establishirg the colony of Rives's treaty of indemnity. I am not sorry, in that the arm of Omnipotence could give us, if it the Bay Islands. Such is the account I have re raising my voice for the first time as a member of should call up from the depths of the Pacific, and ceived of the origin of this colonial organization, the Senate, that it is for the purpose of expressing join to the Union another America as populous as not however, I ought to add, from any official similar sentiments in reference to Great Britain.

If by any stroke of power or policy you source.

It is not because either in this case or in that could tomorrow extend your jurisdiction from If these facts are as I have stated, I think it I am indifferent to the interests or the honor of Hudson's Bay to Cupe Horn, and cake in every may be said that there is no violation of the stipu my country. Far otherwise, sir; it is because I State and every Government, and all their popula. lation of the treaty in organizing that colony. At do not think they are in danger. I agree with the tion, it would not give to you a greater amount of the same time, I must candidly say, that I think distinguished Senator from Minois (Mr. Douglas) population, including your own, than you will it is an ill-advised step. I have no doubt it has been chat England does not love us. In the relations have at the end of twenty-five years by the simhastily taken on the suggestion of the colonial of countries which are governed by Constitutions, ple law of increase, aided by immigration from authorities, and that it has been passed inadvert- | by Parliaments, and by Congresses, there is no abroad. ently throngh the Foreign Office at London, with. room for love or for hate, or for any senti I shall not live to see it. My children probably out a sufficient consideration of the circumstances mental influence; enlightened regard to the public will. The Senator from Illinois, in all human of the case. I think that the organization, the interest is the only rule of action. It is only un probability, will live to see it, and there is, perhaps, avowed organization into a colony of islands der absolute governments-under a monarch who, no one more likely than he to impress his views belonging geograpically-whatever may be the like Louis XIV., can say “I am the State”-that of public policy upon the mind of those growing case politically-to Central America, and within there is room for love and for hate. Between us millions, and to receive from them in return all the sight of the Honduras coast, is, considering the land England, and the rest of the constitutional || honors and trusts which a grateful penple can. just susceptibility of the American mind on this Powers of Europe, there is room only for the in- bestow upon those they respect and love. Let subject, which is not greater than would exist in Auence of the dictates of an enlightened regard to me adjure him, then, to follow the generous imEngland on a similar subject and in a parallel the public weal. But this I will say, that I am pulses of his nature, and after giving, like a true state of affairs, a very ill-advised and indiscreet persuaded at this time that with all parties in patriot, his first affections to his own country, to step. I have no doubt the consent of the Home England a mutually beneficial, peaceful intercourse be willing to comprehend all the other friendly, Government has been surprised into it, by the with the United States is considered a cardinal countries of the earth within the scope of a liberal officious zenl of the colonial authorities, and 'I en- || principle of the policy of the Government; and I consideration, and above all to cultivate the spirit tertain a strong expectation that when, through think that on our side toward England, and to- and arts of peace of peace. the dispassionate représentation of this Govern ward Europe, we ought to consider a mutually Sir, it is the opposite spirit of military aggranment it shall be brought to the consideration of | beneficial, peaceful intercourse as a cardinal prin- dizement, the spirit of conquest, that has forged the British minister, it will be retraced. I hope it ciple of our policy.

those chains in Europe which the Senator so elo. will. I think it will be as it was in the case of the

'I cordially sympathize with the distinguished quently deplores. It was this that brought down Sandwich Islands in 1843. You know that at that Senator from Ilinois, in the glowing views that he Asia to the dust in the morning of the world, and time the United States first agreed to recognize the entertains of the future growth and glory of our has kept her seated in sackcloth and ashes ever independence of those islands. A communication country. I wish I could persuade him that this since. This blasted Greece; this destroyed Rume. was made by me to that effect to the British Minis- l glorinus future of America is not inconsistent with It was not a foreign enemy that laid the ax to the ter for Foreign Affairs in London. He agreed that an equally auspicious future for the friendly Powers root of Rome's freedom; it was her own procon. his Government would recognize their independ- of Europe. I wish I could persuade him that suls coming home from the successful wars of ence, and use its best influence to induce France to that part of the world is not exclusively the region Asia, gorged with the gold of conquered provinces. do the same. The next news that came was that

of tombs and monuments that he so graphically The spirit of military aggrandizement and conLord George Paulet, who commanded the British described, but that in every country in Europe, quest have done the same for Europe. Will they squadron in the Pacific, had seized the islands, had more in some than in others, but visibly in all, not do it here if we indulge them ? 'Do not let the struck the Hawaiian flag, and hoisted the flag of there is progress; that liberal ideas are at work; Senator think that I suspect he wishes to indulge England. The first thing done by the British that popular institutions and influences are steadily them; but will they not do it? Will they not give Government was to disavow the rash and unau- forming themselves; that the melioration of the us vast standing armies, overshadowing navies, thorized act. It was the same thing with the laboring classes is going on; that education and colossal military establishments, frightfu! ex: seizure of Tigre Island by Mr. Chatfield, in 1848; social comforts are making their way there. It is penditures, contracts, jobs, corruption which it and although the case is different, these islands

true, I beg the gentleman to believe me, it is true; sickens the heart to contemplate? And how can having for a long time been in the unqualified, and nothing will promote this favorable state of our simple republican institutions, our elective though contested, possession of Great Britian, I do things more than the kindly sympathy and a salu- magistracies, our annual or biennial choice of think, under all the circumstances of the case, that tary example on the part of this country. _And I those who are to rule over us, unsupported by on a calm and dispassionate representation from will also say that there is no country in Europe hereditary claims or pretorian guards, be carried this Government, this hasty step will be retraced. that I have ever visited, whatever temporary causes on under such influences?

With respect to the transactions at Truxillo, we of irritation may have existed with this govern Do not mistake me, however, sir. I counsel no have nothing but newspaper information on the ment or that government--there is not a country pusillanimous doctrine of non-resistance. Heaven subject, and even that informs us that there has of Europe where the name and character of an forbid ! Providence has placed us between the been no bombardment, no cannonading of the American citizen is not a direct passport to every two great world oceans, and we shall always be a place, as at first reported; but Sir George Sey- 1 good office that a stranger can desire, and nowhere maritime Power of the first order. Our commerce mour, the commander of the British squadron in more than in England.

already visite every sea, and wherever it floats it NEW SERIES.-No. 19.

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