Obrazy na stronie

32p CONG....20 Sess.

Teras Debt-Mr. Hunter.


domain in Texas?

sia by the Empress of Austria; a cession made in way was ceded by Denmark to Sweden, and Swe- consequence of the act of annexation, although her right, as Queen of Poland, to the King of dish Pomerania was taken by Denmark-I speak she lost her customs, than she would have been Prussia. That was done by the treaties of Breslau of the treaty of Kiel, in 1814—it was specially without the act of annexation, the creditors have and Berlin, about the year 1742, as the Senator | provided, as a matter of arrangement and calcu- no moral claim against us, because we have imfrom Maryland has said. But it must be ob- || lation, that Sweden, taking Norway, should pay proved their condition. How is it, sir? We all served, when you come to look at this, that the a certain portion of the debt of Denmark; and know that the effect of the annexation was to give instance referred to does not sanction the principle || Denmark taking Swedish Pomerania should pay her peace, and to encourage settlements, and facilas laid down by Vattel and Wildman in these the debt of that province. But, sir, just before itate immigration and population. We all know general views. Allow me, however, to go one that, a treaty had been made between Sweden and that the State of Texas, as a State, was amply step further before I come to analyze the instance, Russia, at Fredericksham, in 1809, under which labe to pay the debt which she had conteracted. and show what principle it does justify. I say if Sweden lost Finland. There was no stipulation

She had a hundred millions of acres of land which that principle were acknowledged by nations as about the debts, and none were ever paid by Rus. were bound for that debt. She had, last year, at they have stated it, their own case would not be sia for Sweden, because the matter was left to be the time I made inquiries into that subject, between in point here, because when Silesia was united to regulated by the law of nations, which prescribed eight and nine millions of money in her Treasury Prussia, she lost all her former nationality; if, no such thing.

and in our Treasury together, which she might indeed, she could be said to have had any; it was But how was it with us? We took a portion of have applied to that purpose. In order to show totally merged, and she had no Government left the territory of Mexico. Well, sir, if the law is these facts, I would like to have read a letter which but that of Prussia. She did not reserve an inde- || good for the whole it is good for a part. If we I received from one of the gentlemen who represent pendent Government like that of Texas, with in- would have been bound for the whole of the debt her on this floor. dependent resources left her afterwards to which of Mexico to third parties if we had taken the The Secretary read as follows: her creditors could refer. whole of Mexico, it would seem to be but obvious

WASHINGTON, August 23, 1852. But, sir, I maintain that the instance itself does | justice that we should be bound for a part of the Dear SIR: I have received your note asking, “ first, not sanction the position as laid down by these debt of Mexico, when we took a part of her terri- What is the amount of the United States indeinnity now writers. Why, sir, what was the treaty of Bres- tory. But when we took a part of her territory,

in the Treasury at Austin?

“Second. What is the estimated quantity of the public lau and Berlin? It was a treaty which closed one were we bound for any portion of its debts? Just of those long wars between the Empress of Aus- as much as we are bound for the Texas debt, in- 66 Third. Since the act of 1851, are you aware that the tria and the King of Prussia. It contained a curred before annexation. If this principle were

creditors of Texas bave by any authorized committee petivariety of mutual stipulations; it contained stip- true as a principle of public law, we should be

tioned her Legislature to pay the difference between the

scaled rate and face value of the securities and certificates ulations with regard to religious rites. It ceded | bound to pay a portion of it. How would it oper- of stock of her public debt? Silesia here, and it ceded to the Empress of Aus- ate? Suppose we were to take the position, and 6 Fourth. What do you estimate the first class, or, in tria certain rights in Bohemia there. It settled all admit that we should have been bound for the

other words, the debt for which the revenues were specially the matters in conflict between them, and it was whole debt of Mexico, if we had conquered it,

pledged, estimating the interest to the 1st of April, 1853, ac

cording to the admission of the Secretary of the Treasury of provided, inasmuch as the Empress of Austria | what is the result? Why, she could have obtained the United States ?" had made this cession, that a debt which she owed, what funds she pleased to fight us with; because By the first inquiry, I presume you desire to know what not as the owner of Silesia, but as the Empress of the creditors would know that they would be paid

amount of the $5,000,000 already paid over to Texas reAustria, which had been hypothecated upon her l in any event. If Mexico succeeded, she would be

mains in her treasury. I am informed, opon what I regard

as good authority, that she has appropriated to the payment revenues in Silesia, should be transferred to the il bound; if we had conquered and absorbed her, we of a portion of the debt decided by the Secretary of the King of Prussia. And what was more natural? should have been bound to pay the very debt she Treasary of the United States not to be included in the It was a debt due to the English and Dutch, and had contracted to fight us with. Could there be

proviso in the boundary act, $1,096,833 12, which, 1 presecured upon this branch of her revenue, not as a

sume, has been paid. I understand that about $200,000 any such principle under the law of nations ?

have been appropriated for other purposes, which would debt of Silesia, but as a debt of the Empress. And Does the history of nations show any such prac- leave in her treasury $3,704,166 88, besides the interest on it is to be observed, that the guarantor to that tice to sanction such a principle? Are there pre

the 85,000,000. The Legislature of Texas has appropriated treaty was the Government of Great Britain, cedents for it? None, sir. The only case which

$3,480,297 59, to be paid to the creditors included in the which promised to bring in the United Provinces has been produced, is one of special treaty stipu- States, on condition that the proviso in the boundary act be

decision of the Secretary of the Treasury of the United as joint guarantors with itself,

What so nato lation, and it was a case in which it was debt 50 modified by Congress as that Texas may receive from the ural as that in the arrangement of this treaty and of Silesia, but a debt of the Empress of Austria, Treasury the amount for wbich she may file the releases the settlement of these mutual equivalents, the hypothecated upon her revenues in Silesia, and

contemplated in the proviso of the said acl.

To the second inquiry : I think the public domain of the Empress of Austria should have provided for the under circumstances which showed the manifest

State is estimated ai not less than one hundred millions of convenience of the parties guaranteeing the treaty, convenience of making this special arrangement. and for the convenience of all the parties to the | Why, sir, we have come to a pretty pass, if, not

In answer to your third inquiry : I believe some three or treaty, that she would pay off her debt to England withstanding our own act upon that statute-book, stand, bave not, either by themselves or any authorized

four creditors did so petition. The largest number, I underand Holland, by simply transferring to them the where we affirm that we were not bound and would

committee, taken any such steps, and I am informed that obligation due to her from the King of Prussia ? not be bound, we are made to pay this debt upon no definitive action was had upon the petitions that were Now, sir, to have made this a case in point-and such dicta as these, and drawn from such prece


Your fourth and last inquiry presents an interrogatory these authorities seemed to be conscious of it, for dents as the history of old Roman transactions

which it is difficult to answer, as it involves several questhey say that without the treaty it would have with the Sabines and Albans may furnish us with tions, arising out of the laws of Texas, and the decision of resulted from a natural law-this ought to have upon such a subject as this. Are, then, the au- the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, of the been the state of things. If the Empress of Aus- thorities to be produced here to saddle the United

13th of September, 1851, I inclose you the joint report of tria had ceded Silesia without saying one word States with such a debt as this? I hardly know,

the Auditor and Comptroller of the State of Texas, dated

12th November, 1851, subsequently to the Secretary's deabout the debt to the King of Prussia, and the sir, how to characterize such a pretension. It is not cision, which shows that the total ostensible debt, including King of Prussia had paid the debt on the ground the law of nations; and so far as we can judge the interest, is $12,436,991 34. If you deduct from that amount that it went with Silesia, then it would have been matter, we have settled and decided that question. his decision, not to fall under the proviso, it would leave

$1,738,872 27, decided by the Secretary, as I understand a case in point to establish the law of nations, as We decided it in the joint resolutions of annexa- $10,698,119 07, not including the additional interest which Vattel has laid it down. But this was a mere tion, and we adhered to that theory of our obliga- seems to be contemplated by the report of the Committee on matter of arrangement between the parties, made tion in the terms of the boundary act itself.

Finance. not on account of any obligation under the law of That the principles to the extent to which Vat

I also inclose copies of the several acts of the State of

Texas in relation to her public debt. nations, but for mutual convenience. And again, || tel has carried them are not sustained by the prac- Yours very truly,

THOMAS J. RUSK. I say, that even if it established that, it would fall || tice of nations, and cannot be true, I think I have Hon. R. M. T. HUNTER, far short of the case now before us, because in the proved. Still, sir, there is some foundation of

Chairman Committee on Finance,

United States Senate. case of Texas, resources were left to her, which truth for them, and to some extent he is sustained were large enough to meet her debts; a separate by the practice of nations. When one nation con- Mr. HUNTER. Mr. President, so we see that and independent government was left to her; she quers another, a third party which holds a right to meet this debt, which at its highest estimate is remained a sovereign State, and there was ample of way or fishery within the limits of that con- $10,000,000, Texas had one hundred million acres security for her creditors.

quest, does not lose its rights thereby; To argue öf land, and at that time last summer, between But let us go a little further, because I wish to that, the third party must be conquered, and that is eight and nine millions of dollars in her Treasury trace this principle which has been laid down as not pretended. Its right to this use of territory and the Treasury of the United States together. one of national law, to show that it never has is as perfect as if it had held a portion of the soil | Sir, she was at that day, and she is at this time, been regarded by the nations of the earth as na- itself. This right is very different from the one in proportion to her population, perhaps the richtional law, and will probably pever be so regard- set up here. The one is compatible with the rights est State in this Confederacy. There is no State ed. There are other instances in which one nation, of conquest, the other not; the one is capable of better able to meet the demands upon it, the legal on account of conquering or obtaining by cession definition and capable of enforcement, the other is ) and just demands upon it, than Texas. How, the provinces of another, has been bound by its indefinite and incapable of enforcement.

then, can her creditors say we are morally bound, debts. But I believe I may safely assert, that in Well, sir, if we are not bound by our own stipu- | if we, by the consequences of this annexation, all these cases it was a matter of express treaty lations, and not bound by the law of nations to pay have contributed to such a state of the treasury as stipulation. As a proof that this was done by ar- this debt, how are we bound? Are we morally | exists in Texas? Can it be said that we have dirangement, and not from any view of being bound bound? Why? If so, it can only be because minished her pecuniary and fiscal ability to meet to it by the law of nations, it will be found that that the fact of our taking the customs of Texas her liabilities by this act of annexation with the whenever provinces have been taken without any has disabled her from paying her creditors, which conditions presented ? Not at all. We have intreaty, the conquering nation never has paid the l it may be maintained would not have been the case, creased that capacity; and I believe that we took public debt, or any part of it, for the nation from had she never been annexed. If, on the other away from Texas a source of expenditure fully whom the territory was wrested. Thus, in the l hand, Texas was placed in a position, and in cir- | equal, ay, sir, greater, in the event she bad retreaty between Denmark and Sweden, where Nor- l cumstances of greater ability to pay these debts in Il mained an independent nation, than her customs


32D CONG.....20 SESS.

Texas Debt-Mr. Houston, of Texas.


would have meg. How is it with us? Our cus- that; but beyond the express obligation of the her Senators at least an explanation. If they are toms, together with the receipts from the lands, | boundary aci we are not bound to pay one cent. incapable of vindicating her reputation; if she canhardly maintain this Government in the discharge Especially would I not pay it in this discourteous not be justified in the course which she has adoptof just such functions as the State of Texas was manner towards one of the States in this Confede-ed, no excuse will be rendered for it, and to deterrelieved from by the annexation. This Govern- racy.

mine upon the merits of her claims to considerment is employed in managing our foreign rela- Sir, let us look a little further into this matter, ation and to the due regard of her sister States, tions and those between the States, which would || and see to what it would lead us. If this demand it is proper that we should advert to the circumhave been an additional source of expenditure to is sustained at all, it must be upon the ground, that stances under which those debts originated, and independent Texas. To meet these obligations | inasmuch as we have the customs of Texas and under which they are held by the present claimwe have expended our whole revenue and are in are enjoying a portion of her revenue, we are ants. debt. Is it likely, then, that under the state bound to pay her creditors, because the public Texas, when she rose from her revolutionary of things which existed before annexation, the creditors are entitled to all before any portion goes struggle, did not owe much more than $2,000,000; revenue derived from customs by Texas would to domestic purposes; and that our Government in and more concurred in the opinion that she owed have sustained her army and navy and foreign || its operation upon Texas, pro tanto, is for domestic | but a million and a half than that her debt ex., diplomatic establishment ? I hazard nothing in purposes, and that therefore we are bound to pay. ceeded two millions. This constituted the amount affirming that it is not probable that the revenue I say that if it can be sustained at all, it is only of her entire liabilities at that time, and up to the from customs would have sufficed to maintain

upon this ground, for the other pretensions are year 1838. From the period of the commenceher independence and her relation to foreign na- manifestly without foundations of justice. There ment of her separate Government, in the fall of tions. If, then, we are in any way answerable to is no such obligation under the law of nations, and 1836, down to the winter of 1838, her entire debt the creditors of Texas for having deprived them if we take this position, how will it be with our did not exceed $2,500,000, embracing all her liabilof the means of collecting their debts, it is not be- || repudiating States and their foreign debtors? May ities; and her entire currency in circulation was cause we took from Texas the pecuniary and fis- not those foreign nations, which are accustomed to less than half a million. It was from 1838 up to cal capacity to pay it, but because we took from collect the debis due to their citizens at the point the end of 1841, that the debt accumulated from her the desire to do so, and lowered and injured l of the bayonet, come forward with much more

two and a half millions to the enormous sum of her moral tone. Will that be maintained? Will reason and say to us, “Here are the States of twelve millions of dollars. This was not, as genit be said, that although Texas is able, as every- | your Confederacy that have contracted debts. We tlemen seem to understand it in most instances, body admits she is, she will not do it, because of are in the habit of dealing summarily with other

a debt created by the sale of bonds, pledging the any injury to her moral tone by annexation to the nations. You interpose between us and them, and faith of Texas for their redemption; for a little United States? That, sir, is the only ground that say we shall not collect our debts, and not only more than one million of bonds are all that are can be maintained. It is manifest, if we are to be that, but you collect your own dues from them for outstanding against Texas. The other debts have charged with preventing Texas from paying her || domestic purposes. You collect your customs resulted from her currency. The impression has creditors, that she is able to pay now, and if we from them, and yet you do not pay us one cent.

gone abroad that Texas was placed on a footing are accountable at all, we are to be charged not Now you must do one of two things: You are with other States, Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, because she cannot, but because she will not pay | bound either to pay us, or you are bound to let us Mississippi, and others, who sold their bonds at these debts.

collect our debts from these States as we collect a depreciation, and that, therefore, the question With regard to the mode which she has taken them from other nations." Would not that be a would not arise whether she received the full value for disposing of these debts, what concern is it of stronger argument for the assumption of any State of those bonds or not; but that she was bound to ours? Have we a right to intervene between a debt due abroad than the argument here urged in pay them at their face; that she had received the sovereign State of this Confederacy and its credi- || relation to the Texas debt? I think it would be. most that could be obtained for them, and that the tors, and say how it shall settle those debts? Are I think there is but one safe ground on which risk justified the depreciation of price at which we not bound by those courtesies due from one we can possibly stand, and that is, that the persons | they were purchased. Government to another, to abstain from such a who deal with the States of our Confederacy take

I know that these are the impressions which course of legislation as that would be? For how the risk, because they deal knowing the relation have gone abroad throughout the community; and could we offer a greater insult to a State than thus in which they stand to us, and to the rest of the

if Texas, when her credit was low and depressed, to put it under a commission of bankruptcy? world. And so those who dealt with Texas knew had been compelled to raise means for the support Mr. President, are our own hands so clean, ac- the risks when they were dealing with her and

of her armies and for the expenses of her civil list, cording to the history given of our previous finan- | charged her accordingly. There is no doubt that || and had for that purpose sold bonis calling on cial transactions by the honorable Senator from they charged Texas for everything furnished her

their face for a hundred cents to the dollar, and Maryland, that we can afford thus to intervene, with profits enough to cover the insurance. had oniy received fifty cenis, she would yet have in this summary and high-handed manner? Why, Sir, we tread here upon dangerous ground; let us

been bound in good faith to redeem them according he tells us we scaled our own obligations after the take care how we commit ourselves to principles

to the letter of the liability, and would have had no revolutionary war, because we were not able to which may possibly have so dangerous an appli- excuse for shrinking from punctually meeting her pay them. If we were not able to pay them then, cation in the future. The principle as laid down obligations but inability to pay her debts. But we have been since. There is a petition now be by the creditors of Texas may serve their own pur

when we look into the nature of the liabilities of fore the Committee on Finance, praying us to pay poses of present convenience; but the United States, Texas, we find that, with the exception of about one of those old revolutionary certificates accord- || I think, in view of the peculiar form of our Gov- one million of dollars, they are of a very different ing to its face. And if we are going to take up ernment, should hesitate long before they adopt it. I character from what has been generally

supposed. this principle of paying every debt due, according I do not believe myself that it is a principle either Texas issued promissory notes. Up to 1838, these to the face of the obligation, why do we not go of the law of nature or of nations; for that cannot | passed currently at par. A change in the adminback and pay our own revolutionary debts, scaled be said to be a law of nations which nations have istration of the Government then took place, and in the ratio of one hundred to one-scaled, as well never sanctioned by their usages and practices, the first act of the new Administration was to raise as I recollect, upon the principle of paying only whatever may be the opinion of elementary wri

new regiments for the purpose of defending the the specie value of the certificate at the time of the ters in regard to the subject as a matter of abstract frontiers, as it was said, and then, although the funding of the debt. Suppose we were to apply inquiry. But I will not further prolong my in- previous amount allowed to the Executive for the same principle to the Texas debt, how do we quiry into the question before us. know that it would amount to any more than It was my purpose to present as briefly as I swelled up by appropriations to the amount of a Texas has agreed to pay? But is our Government, or is Texas the only Government that has | which has led me to a conclusion so opposite to could the facts of the case, and the reasoning million and a half of dollars, and the civil list had

no less than half a million appropriated to supdone this? Did not Great Britain herself in effect that at which the honorable Senator from Mary- port it. repudiate her debt during her wars with Napoleon? || land has arrived, and having done that, I take my

The throwing of these two millions of dollars Did she not suspend specie payments by her bank,

of promissory notes into circulation, had the effect and pay her creditors in depreciated paper? What

of lowering the value of the former currency, and was that but a virtual repudiation to a certain ex

the whole depreciated at least fifty per cent., and tent? And what nation that has dealt largely in

gradually declined from that to the lowest point of paper money has not done it?

depression. Successive issues were made, and the But at the same time that I say this, I would | SPEECH OF HON. SAM HOUSTON, depreciation continued during the years 1839, express the hope that Texas, which has such


1840, and 1841; and in proportion as the issues ample means, will provide for the payment of all

IN THE SENATE, February 11, 1853,

were increased the depreciation went on. During that is justly due from her. I believe that ulti.

that period immense expenditures were incurred mately she will. I am not authorized to speak for On the bill to provide for the payment of such and liabilities issued, for which there was not the her. 'I do not know what is due, nor is it my con

creditors of the late Republic of Texas, as are semblance of authority. The Santa Fé expedicernéto inquire. All I know is, that there is a comprehended in the act of Congress of Sep- || tion was fitted out, and must have cost more than stipulation to which I am bound to look, that these

tember 9, 1850.

one million of dollars; and that expenditure was five millions shall not be paid without the assent of Mr. HOUSTON said:

incurred, not only without authority, but in posi. Texas and the release of the creditors. When Mr. PRESIDENT: I am very reluctant to occupy tive violation of the expressed will of the two I say without the releases of the creditors, I do a moment of the precious time of the Senate, and Houses of the Texan Congress, by a mere dictum not mean to be understood as being opposed to particularly when other matters which are, in the l of the Executive. The arms and munitions of paying those separately who are willing to take estimation of honorable gentlemen, of so much war of the country were entirely expended in that what Texas tenders, and to release the United urgency are pressed upon the attention of the body. I expedition; and accumulated expenditures were States from further demands. I am bound to that, But the bill before the Senate seems to implicate il bequeathed to the succeeding Administration. Thus not by the law of nations or the law of nature, but the character of the State of which I am in part issues to the amount of millions were made withby our own special obligation, and I will stand to ll the representative on this foor, and demands of Wout authority, and they became valueless. In



321 Cong.....2n Sess.

Texas Debt-Mr. Houston, of Texas.


December, 1841, Texas suspended payment be- a man gets his due, he is doing very well. Has not When the United States repudiated—I do not cause she was then unable to pay her debts. Texas done this towards her creditors? Texas, claim that as authority, but I wish to bring it in

But here let me ask, Who are these creditors || sir, has evinced no disposition to evade the pay- array before the public mind—it was for an amount who now come forward with such plaintive ap- ment of all equitable and just debts and liabilities. upwards of $240,000,000 of revolutionary debt. peals to this body? Who are they who are implor- I have every disposition to be very candid on Has Texas done anything of that sort? Has she ing the commiseration of Senators: “Help us this occasion, and therefore I think ií due to the repudiated one just demand, amounting to a single or we sink?"

Are they men who were suffer- || creditors, I think it due to individuals, and I think | dollar, of citizens of Texas who assisted her in her ers by the Texan revolutionary struggle? or are it due to the Government of the United States, to hours of difficulty? Not one. The United States they men who speculated upon the individuals | state plainly that I would not eschew one liability repudiated millions, and hundreds of millions, held who went through the toils and dangers of that on the part of Texas, and transfer it to the

shoul. in the hands of war-worn veterans, who had toiled revolution ? These promissory notes depreciated ders of the United States. I would say to Texas, through a revolutionary struggle of seven years. in the hands of men who had' toiled and fought “Pay away the last cent in your coifers, bank- The United States repudiated the revolutionary in the revolution, men who had there given their rupt yourself, give away your hundred millions debt of the war of Independence, which commenced services and their energies to the cause of inde- of acres of land, rather than throw the responsi- in 1776. Texas, during her revolution of nine pendence. In their hands the notes depreciated bility on the United States.” If we were to be years, did not repudiate one dollar that was held until they became valueless. They were then left 'destitute of a dollar, and without an acre of by her revolutionary soldiers. The United States, thrown upon the market, they were seized upon land available, the times then would not be as when they assumed the debts of the several States by speculators. At auctions, in the streets of our gloomy as those through which Texas has already -the old thirteen-after the war of the Revolution, cities and villages, they were submitted to public passed. I would be sorry to see Texas not meet required the States to scale those debts, and paid sale and cried off at from three cents to five cents, her just liabilities, and throw the responsibility of them at the scaled rates. If we were disposed to “Going, going, gone." Then it was that these them upon the United States, and that then, be a litle tricky, might we not follow these exspeculators came in and secured their claims to the through grace and tender mercy to the reputation amples? But if we have been tricky, I do not generosity and clemency of Texas, and the feeling of Texas, the United States should liquidate our know what fair dealing means. and commiseration of this body! There were no debts.

We do not, however, claim the benefit of the bonds sold in market for what they would bring; I am for doing justice, and nothing but justice; high examples to which I have referred; but I think but these were promissory notes sold for a mere but I am determined that something shall be un- that in view of them it comes with a very bad song under the auctioneer's hammer, and "in quan- derstood in relation to this matter, more than the grace from the United States to become adñinistities to suit purchasers,''for they were piled up as partial representation of the claimants was dis- trator on the affairs of Texas, and to determine large as cotton bales. When they were cried upposed to exhibit to the world. Who are those what are her liabilities. till they reached about three cents on the dollar, || that are most clamorous against the injustice of The amount of $5,000,000 that was reserved in they would be knocked down to the bidder, and he Texas, and the wrongs which they have sustained the Treasury of the United States, was reserved. would be told to go and select from the pile as from her? Are they men who have peculiar claims at the instance of creditors, who were importuning many as he wanted; he might take a bundle as upon the sympathy of this body? Are they men and surrounding Senators here when legislating on large as a cotton bale. (Laughter.]

who have peculiar claims upon the confidence of this subject. Some sagacious lawyer had discovThat is the way in which these evidences of Texas? Are they men who blended their destiny ered that the United States were liable when they debt were obtained. These are the liabilities for with hers in her hours of trial? Are they men acquired Texas, and received from her means which gentlemen claim a hundred cents on the who marched with her armies upon their marches ? which were intended for the liquidation of her dollar, and which were acquired at the rate of from Are they men who upon her vigils of peril watched debts. It was not intended by that reservation to one to three or five cents on the dollar. No doubt with her? Are they men who toiled or starved determine what the debts of Texas were, but only gentlemen in the United States thought the pros- for her? No, sir. They have sprung up, like the debts of a certain character for which the Gov. pect was very fine; they knew that the Texans dragon's teeth, around this Capitol within a few ernment of the United States might possibly be were descended from the Anglo-Saxon stock, and years; and we find the diffusive influence of this held liable. When were they to pay these debts? that they would maintain their liberty in defiance speculation upon multitudes that surround the When ascertained by Texas, and certified to the of every difficulty; for the American race never Capitol. Members are besieged at every step Treasury of the United States. That was the retreated, never took one step backwards, and with appeals, “Do this for us; do justice for us; object of retaining the $5,000,000, as I understood that from the day they had impressed their foot- save the reputation of Texas; be honorable, and it at the time, and I vo ed upon the subject in all steps upon a perilous soil, they would go on. Such it will do her some good.” They do not say, in good faith and confidence, satisfied, as I was, that gentlemen, perhaps, thought that if the Texans significant strains, “ Fill our pockets, fill our the amount upon which the impost duties of Texas were involved in difficulties, they might venture to pockets, will you?” though this is what they were pledged did not amount to $5,000,000, and sell real estate and get money when there was a mean. They mean nothing else than to acquire, that there would be a large residuum to Texas of prospect of investing it in Texas depreciated pa- and to take away from either Government, I will that amount. per to much advantage. No doubt under these not say ill gotten gains—but what would be clear The President and Secretary of the Treasury circumstances gentlemen in the United States pur- l gains, if they got them.

of the United States, after the passage of that bill, chased large amounts of the promissory notes of The largest amount of the outstanding issues determined, in effect, that the Government of the Texas at ten cents on the dollar, and now come against Texas at this time arises from obligations | United States were liable for all the debts of Texas. forward and claim one hundred cents on the dol- that were issued from her treasury, for which she It will be remembered that in the administration lar! To exemplify it more particularly, I will received but from sixteen to ten cents on the dol- of the government of Texas from 1841 down to the state, that such was the depreciation of Texas cur- lar; and now a hundred cents on the dollar is time of the annexation in 1845, there was not one rency, that, for instance, if a judge, getting a sal- | claimed for them, swelling the amount of her debts dollar of debt incurred, nor one liability created. ary of $3,000, came forward to receive it, and his to millions. No matter how irregularly the debt From December, 1841, when the exchequer sysdemand was exhibited, he would receive in Treas- l was contracted by Texas, whether there was au- tem was established, and the immense issues of ury notes $30,000, based upon no issue of bonds, thority for the obligations issued or those brought $12,000,000 were suspended, $200,000 was the but upon credit. In his hands, the money depre- || in and funded; whether they were made without amount of the currency established by law, and ciated, until, perhaps, it became worthless, and appropriations or not, Texas has estimated them, that commenced to issue at the rate of a hundred then it was thrown into the market in some vil- and placed them on a footing with the other equi- cents on the dollar. A combination was directly lage, and purchased up by speculators at from one table demands against her. She has extended formed of brokers and speculators, gentlemen to three or five cents.

equity when she might have caviled, and con- alien to Texas, who wanted to filibuster, and This is the character of the Texas liabilities. tended that, according to strict law, or common subvert the Goverment, right or wrong, who said This is the manner in which they have been usage, she was not bound. Yet we are told that that if they were not admitted into its control or bought. What justice, therefore, would there be if Texas would only come forward and redeem made participants of it, they would subvert it, if in giving a hundred cents upon the dollar for their her outstanding obligations at par, or pay all the i by no other way, by revolution. They combined, redemption, when they were acquired at rates money she has in her coffers, and the $5,000,000 | and by their combination immediately reduced the varying from one cent to five cents? Is Texas reserved by the United States, she would establish value of that currency from a hundred cents to bound in good faith to do it? Was the risk to a reputation above all suspicion; that she would seventy-five, and at one time it went down as low these gentlemen worth the difference between three then sustain herself with credit; that it would do as twenty-five cents on the dollar. By economical cents and a hundred cents on the dollar? I think her more honor, and make her a more glorious issues, by extreme economy in the Government, not. Then, let me ask, has Texas evinced a dis- nation than ever existed. Sir, Texas as a State the value rose again. But the Legislature which position to pay her debts in good faith, and ac- is only a part of this Confederacy; one of thirty- met annually consumed a large amount, and being cording to the rules of equity?

one; and she does not aspire to be more glorious opposed to the Executive, sought every possible Upon these funds thus passed away at the most than the United States, or the mighty nations of means to embarrass him; and instead of requiring depreciated rates, and that were purchased up at a the earth. We find that they have perpetrated the taxes to be paid as under the previous existmere nominal rate, Texas has determined to pay offenses against good morality and national honor, ing laws, they repealed those laws for the collecupon none, no matter for what they were boughi, which Texas scorns to do.' They have repudi- tion of taxes, or postponed their operation for six less than twenty cents on the dollar, and from that ated debts, not only revolutionary debts, but others months, so as to depreciate the value of, by lessrate up to twenty-five, fifty, seventy, and seventy- contracted in good faith. This Texas has not ening the demand for this currency, and thereby five cents, according to the dates of the issues of done, and will not do. She has not repudiated to embarrass the government in such a way that it the notes, and the value at which they were issued, one dollar of her revolutionary debt, and she will could no longer exist. However, the good fortune and also including, in most cases, the interest. not do it. She will pay a hundred cents upon that presided over Texas, and directed her path, This is the equitable principle upon which Texas | every dollar she has realized. Is not that worthy did not desert her. The currency came up again, determined to pay her debts. Does this evince a of admiration? Yet gentlemen say she would be and was at par; but after a long session of the disposition to defraud her creditors, to involve her glorious if she would pay the nominal amount of Texas Congress, it fell to fifty cents, and even as reputation, to repudiate? In these honest times, if ll her liabilities.

Il low as thirty-seven and a half cents; but it rose

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again, and continued at par, in spite of all the com- ernment of the United States was solemnly bound | justly owed. So she will., But if that message is binations and machinations of faction, corruption, by treaty with Mexico to defend Texus against read, let it be remembered that not a word of the and treason. When that administration ended, in the Indians, to reclaim them to the territory of the extract is recognized until the whole message is 1844, the government of Texas had not only accu- United States, and to inhibit their crossing the produced here upon the floor, and the whole instrumulated in the treasury $25,000 of par funds in frontier. Instead of that, what did the United ment construed together. It was then laid down gold and silver, but it had paid all just and unavoid- || States do? I intend no reflection upon them, but as a principle that the Government of Texas able demands to foreign nations, and to support the li I intend to vindicate Texas, now a part of the would equitably redeem every dollar that she Santa Fé and Mier prisoners in Mexico, and to pro- United States, but then a part of Mexico. The owed. cure their release, not less than $70,000. So that United States had solemnly pledged their faith, She had evinced a disposition to do it by subthe Texas debt, with the exception of $2,500,000 || by treaty, to give protection to the boundary of mitting her public lands to entry at two dollars per accrued between the years 1838 and 1941, not a Mexico; but instead of that, they treated with the acre when her notes were selling at three cents on solitary cent accrued in the administration which Caddoes and acquired their territory, forced them the dollar; and she had kept them open for years lasted from the end of 1841 to 1844. It will thus be into the boundary of Texas, and paid them in subject to entry at that rate. She has gone seen the debt of Texas did not grow out of her ne- arms, in munitions of war, in powder, in imple further, and says it will be just to redeem money cessities, and that the present creditors who come ments of slaughter and massacre, and those In- || issued at a depreciation at the full value at which forward here with their demands, and who, accord- dians drenched our frontier in blood. Weak as it issued from the Treasury with interest thereon. ing to their saying, helped Texas in her hours of we were-pressed upon by Mexico on the one That is the act of Texas. What the refractory trial and threw their money into the lap, instead hand, and the wily and sagacious Indian on the conduct of her creditors may do with the feelings of doing that, threw it into the lap of speculators. | other hand, watching his opportunity to maraud of Texas I cannot say. Within a few years a Not a dollar of it went to Texas which will not upon our frontiers and slaughter our men, butcher total revolution has taken place in her population. only be paid in par funds, but which will also 1, our women, massacre our children, and conflagrate The number of emigrants since annexation, I suptrust, be paid with interest, and at a premium. the humble hamlets in which they had dwelt in pose has more than doubled or quadrupled the preThere were bonds issued, let them be paid to the peace, we incurred expenses to keep them off, and vious number of inhabitants. The interest on the letter and to the last farthing; but let ihose who for this the United States are responsible, as they money retained in the Treasury here will diminhave accumulated these obligations by specula- are for a hundred other violated pledges in relation | ish the necessity of taxation by her. What her tion, and that too of a most enormous character, to Indians,

people may deem to be politic and expedient herereceive, like Shylock their “pound of Aesh," or But what is the real history of this matter? | after in relation to their debts I know not. I do two pounds if you please, but "not one drop of When the scaling of the debt of Texas took place, not encourage repudiation. I hope it never will Christian blood.” Sir, if these men were the as- in 1848, there was an almost entire acquiescence take place; but if it should, let those be accountsignees, or the descendants of Shylock, they would on the part of her creditors. Some three or four, or able for the result who invoke and provoke their reflect just credit upon his reputation. (Laughter. perhaps five, were somewhat refractory, and hav: destiny. Let the sin lie at their doors. I hope it

But, Mr. President, it is thought that it is im- ing more sagacity than the others, they concluded will never lie at the door of Texas; but those who moral in Texas-that it is not a clever thing in that there was some important advantage which have advanced, or who have contracts with her, her not to pay her debts. Now, I should like to they would gain by coming here, and therefore they shall be paid to the last farthing of what they have ascertain by what standard of morality we are to had recourse to ihe Government of the United advanced. arrive at the adjustment of her debts? Is it that States. They might then have had in view the idea A law was passed by the Legislature of Texas, standard of morality that pays a man not only of a reserved $5,000,000 fund out of which they after annexation to the United States, in 1848, by what he has given, but a hundred per cent, in ad-would be enabled to get their demands by appealing which it was provided, that any person coming dition to that? Or is it the standard it is proposed to the sympathy of members; by trying to show forward and depositing fifty cents at the treasury to establish here, that when a man has given three thatthey were bankrupted by their liberality in their of Texas, should take a receipt from the treasurer, cents for a dollar he is to get a hundred cents ? Is anxiety to help Texas in the time of her direst need. and for every fifty cents received at the treasury ii that rule by which we are to judge of the mo- They thoughi that if they could represent success- he should be entitled to one acre of land. Certifirality of Texas, and the advantage of her credit- fully to the Congress of the United States that cates to the amount of more than half a million of ors? That would be a very agreeable one to the || they had been munificent and liberal towards Tex- || dollars were deposited under this law, as I was increditors, but I cannot see that it would be com- as, it would entitle them to some extraordinary || formed, and land drawn, or land warrants issued, plimentary either to the heart or the head of Texas. I interposition of the Government of the United to that amount. These gentlemen have gone quietiy I do not think there is anything smart in it. It States. They came forward after the compromise and located their lands, and now realize several may be smart for the creditors, but certainly most was proposed, but not until that time. They re- hundred per cent. How are the benefits of this stupid for Texas. They are for fixing their stand-ceived a new impulse by the proposal of the com- | bill to be extended to them? How are they to be ard of morality for Texas, and she is for fixing promise. Most of them had acquiesced prior to recompensed for the losses which they have susher standard of equity and justice for them; and that time, and we now find that hundreds came in tained, according to the plan of this bill? Are they the United States have no business at all with it who were not then interested in the debts of Texas. to fall back upon the United States? Are they to one way or the other.

Strangers have come in as participants in the in-become recipients of the benefits proposed in this If, however, the United States are bound for the terest and are to be the recipients of its benefits. bill, or, are they to be excluded ? debts of Texas, they are bound for much more This is the case, and none will deny that there has But I am sure that the honorable gentleman who than this bill proposes to pay. The independence been a most extraordinary change. If it had not introduced this bill cannot object to the principle of of Texas was not recognized by Mexico when it | been that the compromise of 1850 passed, the Texas scaling. She is to be the judge of her own was annexed to the United States. The domestic Texas creditors would nearly all have received matters. She knows very well under what cirdebt of Mexico was then about a hundred millions their money, or their proportion of it, by this time, cumstances the debts or liabilities were contracted. of dollars. They claimed that Texas should pay and would have been at rest and quiet, each man She knows their character perfectly; and we find a part of it. Propositions were even suggested consoling himself in the advantage of having made that the honorable gentleman who introduced the before annexation, that if Texas would assume a handsome speculation upon his adventure. But bill has not determined to pay according to the face her proportion of the national debt of Mexico, the it was thought proper that there should be an ap- of the paper, or of the demands of the creditors; but independence of Texas might be acknowledged. | peal to the generosity and magnanimity of Texas, he, too, is for scaling the liabilities. He proposes If the United States are now bound by the act of and after her to the United States, and that they that a certain amount shall be paid, and that, if annexation for the debts of Texas to the extent might make something, and could lose nothing by that does not cover all the liabilities, the creditors that the means taken by the United States would that course. In that way it is that these claim | shall receive it according to the proportion of their have gone, the debt to the Government of Mexico ants have not only multiplied, but they have be- demands, and shall give a receipt in full. Now, is a prior one, and the United States are bound to come more urgent in their pursuit for gain, and Mr. President, as for the morality of the thing, Mexico for a much larger sum than they are bound are now resolved that nothing will satisfy them whether one cent or one dollar, one degree or ten to these creditors. Would you be willing to go but the hundred cents on the dollar, according to degrees of discretion at all changes the standard of back and settle that amouni? Yet it has a pri- the face of the paper.

morality, I am not prepared to say. I think ority over the present demand. Mexico never Well, sir, Texas has incurred liability. She Texas is the best judge of this matter; so that the recognized the debts that Texas incurred by her issued bonds to a certain amount. Let her pay | United States would incor an additional reproach revolution, and if you recognize that you are bound those bonds with interest, since she made a tender upon herself, if she were, by this law, to take it to pay them, you should also pay to Mexico the of them in the market. Let her pay for her ves- out of the hands of Texas to adjust her own afproper proportion of Texas to the one hundred sels-of-war or navy; let her pay all the just con. fairs. Texas knows what her liabilities are: she millions of the domestic debt of Mexico.

tracts she has made; all the equitable liabilities knows all the circumstances surrounding them, It is true, the Government of the United States arising from the currency which she threw into under which they grew up, under which they might justly bear a part of the liabilities incurred circulation. That currency became valueless in dragged along, and by which they were managed. on the pari of Texas, because a portion of the the hands of her own citizens, and was then She knows, too, the influences and the means of debt of Texas was entered into for the purpose of grasped at by greedy speculators. Let her treat their acquisition. But she is not acquainted with defending her frontiers against the Indians. What them, as she has done, with justice and fairness. the means and influences that surround this CapIndians were these? Were they indigenous to It was twice in prospect to repudiate the debt of itol, and which grow every day. I know it is Texas? No, sir. Who were they? The Shaw- Texas. But did she do it! It was talked of, and perilous, eminently perilous, to oppose an influnees, the Kickapoos, the Choctaws, the Anada a little encouragement might have produced the ence so overwhelming as that of the claimants here. coes, the Kechies, Wacoes, Caddoes, and other result. The conduct of the refractory creditors | I have stood in perilous positions before, but when Indian tribes from the limits of the United Statet, I had no doubt stimulated it. But Texas did not I felt badly, nobody knew it. I feel well on this who settled in Mexico, and made war upon Texas. repudiate a cent. Her Executive discountenanced occasion, and proud that I have a colleague who It was therefore necessary for Texas io defend a it. It may be that an extract will be read here has realized all that experience could teach or suf. frontier of six hundred or eight hundred miles from the message of her Executive, in 1843, show- | fering inflict. against the inroads of these Indians. The Gov- Il ing that she would pay the last cent which she Personally, to those who are the Texas creditors, 320 CONG.....2n Sess.

Colonization in North America--Mr. Clemens.


I have no objection. Ilook upon them as I look Mr. President, there are periods in the history | pensed with but for ulterior objects. Let it be upon other speculators. I look upon them as I do of nations, as of individuals, when one false move conceded that it was intended to intimidate the on men who go into the market every day-men must be followed by years of suffering; when the United States—to give us notice that France and who wish to make, in their estimation, honest neglect or improper use of the right moment, or England were watching Cuba, and were detergains, and who would not have their consciences the right occasion, infuses a poison into the body. || mined to resist any efforts upon our part to acSmitlen if they made one hundred per cent. every | politic no remedy

can reach. We are approach- | quire its possession. But, sir, while conceding day. That would not involve their bonor, but it ing such a period, if it is not already upon us. all this, I do not agree with that Senator as to the would, in their estimation, sustain the honor of From the line of conduct now to be adopted, much mode in which it is to be met. I do not think it those on whom they make the one hundred per that is good, or much that is evil, will surely en- is the part of wisdom, or sound policy, lo permit cent. I want no more sympathizers with Texas. sue. To render all I have to say perfectly intelli- l ourselves to be hurried into intemperate action, I do not want them to appeal in behalf of Texas, gible, it will be necessary to enter upon a brief | because France and England have made a foolish to rescue her honor. Her honor, her safety, her review of the past.

parade of their future purposes. existence, her liberty, her independence, were once Heretofore the advice of Washington has been To redeem a threat from contempt it is neces. involved, and I did not see, in her direst need, and respected, and we have succeeded in steering elear sary that the party making it should possess the when clouds enveloped her in darkness, the face of the tangled web of European politics. Be- power of carrying it into effect. As long as English of one of those men who now claim to be her ben- || sides, the growth of the American Union has statesmen keep their senses, a thousand Cubas efactors or her 'sympathizers. It was not until been so rapid as to defy the calculations of Euro- could not induce them to declare war against the the last enemy had marked her soil-it was not pean statesmanship. The merchant, when he United States. Withhold the exports of our cot. until our star had risen in the east, and until it found a rival taking away his most profitable traf- ton for one year, and their starving millions will was attaining something like its meridian splen- | fic, the manufacturer, as year by year the demand be in open rebellion. We have heard not long dor, that the speculators were attracted by the for his productions diminished, the fisherman, since, in a time of profound peace, of banners hopes of gain." Then, in that proud day, they when he saw Yankee sails invading the haunts of borne by her peasantry with the

fearful inscription, were willing to unite their destiny with her; but the great monsters of the deep, all these under- “Blood or bread.” Who doubts that that cry to grope their way in darkness, to peril their lives stood that a new power had sprung into existence, would be reawakened, and who doubts that blood in condict, to confront and grapple with the enemy, and felt that they were engaged in a rivalry in would furnish the first, the second, and the third not one was there. Let them not talk of Texas' || which European energy and European intelligence course of the banquet to which she would be invi. honor, Texas' renown, and Texas' escutcheon were destined to be overshadowed. But kings ted at home? Add to this the certainty of seeing cleared. She cleared them herself, sir. It was and cabinet ministers could not comprehend that one hundred thousand American bayonets glitternot a speculation; it was a real transaction; and a few scattered colonies, but a short time since a ing in the sunlight of Canada, and a thousand she will keep it clear. It is her best guardian under || feeble dependency on the Crown of Britain, had American vessels cutting up her commerce on the ægis of the Constitution. I desire justice and indeed become a powerful nation. The monarch 1 every sea, and you have an amount of danger and liberality to all who aided Texas; and no matter who looked back upon a line of a hundred sires, suffering no nation will willingly brave. A member bow they have acquired their demands, give them could comprehend no stable form of Government of this body, not long ago, declared that England an earnest for everything they have, and upon save that which was endeared to him alike by inter- || had given bond and security to keep the peace tothat earnest give them interest, and, if you please, est, and by educational prejudice. If, in his impe | wards the United States. “Yes, sir, and that ses be liberal, but let Texas have the credit of doing rial dreams, the vision of America ever rose before eurity is her life's blood, her very existence; not justice to her creditors, and let not the United his eyes, it was only as a people whose own un- merely her provinces and dependencies, thoug States intervene to save her soiled honor, as it is bridled passions would drive them into anarchy, | I faney she would consider it a poor exchange to called. She will take care of that article herself, whose turbulence and whose dissensions would secure Cuba to Spain and lose Canada herself; and she will take care of her money, too, I trust, | furnish another reason to the world for commit- but she has something more at stake, and I regard and make a useful application of it in paying all ting all government to sceptered hands.

any threats from that quarter as the veriest gas. just demands, but not the demands of Shylocks. In the mean time, the neglected and despised conade in which any Government ever permitted Sir, I have done.

Republic was moving steadily and rapidly along itself to indulge.

the road to wealth, to power, and to honor; but France is in scarcely a better condition. She COLONIZATION IN NORTH AMERICA.

its strength was unmarked and its vigor unknown has recently erected an imperial throne above the

abroad. The war with Mexico followed. A little crater of a volcano, and he who occupies that seat DEBATE IN THE SENATE, handful of citizen soldiers overran a nation of must watch by day and by night, or an eruption

seven millions of inhabitants, and dictated the will soon come to bury him and his fortunes beSATURDAY, February 7, 1853.

terms of peace from her national capital. Here neath a burning food. Even if the great EmThe Senate having under consideration the res- was a lesson which even kingly dulness could not peror himself now held the reins, a war with olutions respecting colonization on the North | misunderstand, or ministerial servility misinter- || America would be destruction to France. To land American continent by European Powers, and re- pret. Suddenly the whole tone of the public jour- an army on our shores would be to devote it to the specting the Island of Cuba:

nals of Europe was changed. Prior to that time sword; and the ocean is not an element on which Mr. CLEMENS said:

they had derided our progress and laughed at the any great portion of French glory has been acMr. PRESIDENT: When the Senator from Vir- | feebleness of our military force. It was assumed | quired. I am not unaware that úpon paper the ginia (Mr. Mason) introduced his resolution in to be impossible for a Government like ours to naval power of France seems to be immensely surelation to the tripartite convention proposed by carry on a war of foreign conquest. Foolish ed- perior to ours; but those who so calculate, lose England and France, I was confined to a bed of itors, writing at the dictation of stil! more foolish sight of a great truth: guns and vessels do not consickness; but I gathered from the reported debates masters, argued theinselves and their readers into stitute a navy. If every vessel on our naval rethat he had consulted with no one but the Senator the conviction that the first summons of the drum | gister were, to-morrow, burned to the water's edge, from Michigan (Mr. Cass) and the Secretary of

to an aggressive war would be the signal of ruin France would no more be capable of contending Slate. Now, sir, I do not deny the individual and destruction to the Union. That summons | with the United States upon the ocean than the right of those Senators, under ordinary circum- came; a powerful nation was vanquished; and 80 oak of the forest is capable of resisting the thunstances, to exclude whom they please from their little were the energies of our people taxed, that at | derbolt of Heaven. It is seamen who make a consultations; but this is not an ordinary occasion, || home it would scarcely have been known a war navy; and wherever they are found vessels will nor are they ordinary men. One (Mr. Mason) is was going on save for the reports of battles and not long be wanting. In this, the main element of chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, victories which floated upon every gale from the success, we are far in advance of every European the other (Mr. Cass) has had bestowed upon him South.

Power. Our fisheries turn out annually a body of the title of Pater Senatus. Whatever they do Thus vanished one delusion, and with it the old hardy mariners, unequaled for skill, for energy, commits the party to which they are attached, and system of political tactics. It was no longer our and for daring. It must be remembered, too, that I think it but fair that those of us who are expected

weakness, but our strength which became the sub- our tonnage greatly exceeds that of any other to be bound by their action, should have had some ject of comment. The aggressive spirit and the Power. And as long as these advantages remain notice in advance of what that action was to be. Igrasping ambition of America were portrayed in to us, the crumbling dynasties of the Old World think, moreover, that the wishes of the President the darkest colors, and Europe was called upon may build war-steamers without number; but, elect should have been ascertained; that prominent to interpose some check to the territorial aggrand- | whenever a contest comes, the best of them will members of his own party should have hesitated || izement of the great Republic. Wrong in their soon be found sailing under Yankee colors. Vesbefore placing him in a position so embarrassing apathy, they were roused from it only to involve sels-of-war, manned

by peasantry, are feeble

foes. as that in which he now finds himself. If it should themselves still more deeply in error by their ac- Mr. President, I have referred to these things turn out, as I sincerely hope it may, that he does not tion. From newspaper articles they progressed with no view of encouraging a spirit of aggression, accord with many of the opinions which have been to diplomatic notes; and now, as we have been but the reverse. The proposition of England and advanced upon this floor, he is placed, in the very informed by the President, France and England of France has been seized hold of to infame the outset of his career, in direct opposition to leading have made a formal proposition to the United popular mind, and I had some apprehensions that members of his party. If, on the other hand, he States, that the three Powers should unite in as- the indignation and resentment excited by it might should concur with them, it would have been more suring to the Crown of Spain undisturbed posses- lead to offensive acts which could have but one respectful to let him take the first steps, and not sion of the Island of Cuba, through all coming termination. It is this which I wish to avoid. I to have snatched, with such impatient hands, the time.

wish to show that we can afford to laugh to scorn wreath, (good or bad,) which his were already ex- Now, Mr. President, I am willing to go with the implied threat hanging over us, and that this tended to grasp. On this, and on other accounts,

the Senator from Michigan, and to say that this is better policy than yielding to the dictates of a the resolution of the Senator from Virginia seemed proposition meant something. I am willing

to say hasty resentment. Cuba will be ours whenever to me impolitic, and those of the Senator from that it did not mean what it imported on its face; it is right and needful for us to take it. WhenMichigan, which are based upon it, equally inde- that it was known it must be rejected; and the idle ever the might of this Republic is put forth in a fensible.

form of making the offer would have been dis- ll just cause there is no human power which can


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