Obrazy na stronie

Colonization in North AmericaMr. Mallory.

320 CONG....20 Sess.


Mr. MALLORY. Mr. President, I desire to Cuba, should be deliberately adopted and deter- speeches on the floors of Congress. For one, occupy the attention of the Senate upon the sub minedly maintained; when it should no longer be coming from the State that I do, feeling a deep ject, but I presume it will interfere with other ob committed to partisan hands, to be used as a card interest in this question, having taken a deep injects which the Senate may have in view; and, by every aspirant for political power; but that the terest in it for years past, I do not wish to hear or therefore, I move to postpone the further consid Powers of Europe should be made to understand see the acquisition of the Island of Cuba discussed eration of the subiect until to-morrow

that whatever party may rule the political destinies in Congress. It is not necessary to discuss it to Mr. SEWARD. I hope the honorable Sena of this country, our Cuban policy is unchangeable. create public sentiment upon the subject. The tor will be allowed to proceed and close the speech | A glance at the map of the Mexican Gulf will mind'of the country is made up upon it; and when. which he commenced on Monday.

exhibit the remarkable position of this island, not ever that "overruling necessity” comes, which Mr. MALLORY. I move to postpone the only with reference to the fertile Mexican States | has been referred to in the letter of our Secretary further consideration of the resolution until to which border it-not only with reference to the li of State, no Power on earth, no party in the counmorrow at one o'clock, in order that I may have commerce of Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, and || try, can perclude us from acquiring ourselves the an opportunity to close the remarks which I com Florida--but with reference to that vast and grow Island of Cuba. menced the other day, and which may as well ing empire of the West, whose wealth seeks its | That overruling necessity will certainly have be closed upon this resolution as upon the bill then outlet to a market through the Mississippi and its come, whenever we shall be at war with any under consideration.

tributaries. This Gulf, in shape a demijohn upon maritime nation of the earth-not particularly Mr. SHIELDS. Will the Senator permit me its side, has for all practicable purposes of its com with Britain, Spain, or France, but with any naval to make a proposition to postpone this subject till merce, like the Mediterranean, but one outlet; for Power. The reason is obvious: the channel next week?

although voyages may be made through the Yu through which the trade to, which I have alluded Mr. MALLORY. The honorable Senator will catan pass, out into the Caribbean sea, and thence must pass, will afford a temptation to a maritime see the propriety of my motion. I commenced through the Mona pass to the Windward Islands, nation beyond any other on the face of the earth; my remarks the day before yesterday, and I gave such voyages are at all times tedious, and are rarely and if we were at war with any maritime Power way then for the purpose of having an Executive || attempted; and voyages out from the Gulf on the to-day, the ports upon the north side of Cuba session. My desire is simply to close those re south side of Cuba are tedious, if not impractica would be open to them, as they would be to us. marks, and I shall not occupy the attention of the ble, from the opposing winds and currents, from Neutral Spain would have a perfect right to open Senate half an hour in doing so.

January to April; and this is the season when the her ports to both belligerents. And while the Mr. SHIELDS. Perhaps the honorable Sena cotton crop and the agricultural wealth of the opening of those ports would furnish retreat, protor does not understand me. His remarks were great West is upon the sea, threading its devious visions, and water, and everything that a maritime upon another subject. We must dispose of the way to a market through the narrow pass between enemy of ours might want, they would not be of one now before the Senate before we can take up Cuba and the Florida shores.

|| the slightest use to us. We would then find Cuba another.

If our statistics are reliable, this commerce and occupying the position which Florida did on a Mr. MALLORY. I ask that it may be post navigation already reaches $300,000,000; and this former occasion, and we should find that that overponed until to-morrow at one o'clock.

aggregate is yet to be increased by our China | ruling necessity had then arrived; and no statesMr. SHIELDS. I was about to ask the hon trade; for we may fairly assume, that within man in this country could sustain his reputation orable Senator to allow me to move to postpone twenty years every chest of tea and bale of silks, | for an hour who would oppose the taking of the this resolution until some convenient day next and every other article of our China trade, in the island. week.

marketable value of which time is an important Hence I do not wish to see the question disMr. GWIN. I feel that I shall be compelled to element, will come over the Isthmus of Tehuan- | cussed. Discussion is not essential to screw up make a motion to lay this resolution on the table. || tepec and through the Florida Straits. The Uni- || the public mind upon that question. Any change It is utterly impossible for us to transact the ordi- || ted States with their tobacco and cotton, and China in the condition of this country from peace brings nary business of legislation unless we get it out of with her silks and teas, are destined to carry on with it, in my judgment, inevitably the Island of the way, and therefore I hope the Senator from a trade far exceeding our present commerce with Cuba. Florida will go on to-day. I do not want to in all the East. Tobacco is already growing into In connection with this subject, we frequently terrupt him, but I really wish to get at some prac general use in China, and is destined to supplant hear the suggestion thrown out of acquiring Cuba tical legislation.

the use of opium. Our raw cotton now goes three by purchase or otherwise, as if the acquisition of Mr. MALLORY. Then, if the Senate will in thousand miles across the sea, there to give em this colony were a mere question of dollars and dulge me, I will withdraw my motion, and pro ployment to British industry, and thence to seek cents. In my judgment, the sooner we can disceed now.

a market in Asia. Twenty years of commercial | abuse the public mind of this question of purchase Several SENATORS. Very well.

intercourse with China by ocean steamers, and a the better. It is an untenable idea; a false one, Mr. GWIN. And let us have the vote on the transit across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec must that has not a position in a single fact. Cuba is resolution, as soon as you shall have got through. inevitably transfer to us this branch of trade, and not for sale. There has been no time since 1826 Mr. HALE. Is this question disposed of? it is one of great and growing value to us. The | when it could have been purchased. It never can

The PRESIDENT. It is not. The Senator hills of Cuba overhang this vast and increasing be purchased, so long as a stable Government is from Florida is entitled to the floor upon it. wealth, and its people look down upon it as from at the head of the Spanish nation, and the affairs Mr. SHIELDS. Is there any motion before sentry-boxes.

of Europe maintain anything like their present the Senate?

The strait is but sixty miles wide, (available position. In a season of anarchy, of revolution, The PRESIDENT. The Senator from Florida | navigation,) and six steamers may bridge it across, of confusion, with some Prince of Peace, some has the floor.

and speak each other every fifteen minutes. The || second Godoy, at the head of the Spanish nation, Mr. SHIELDS. I wish to move to postpone mouth of the Mississippi is not at the Balize, but a Government de facto might be induced to sell; this resolutions until some day next week.

here; and the north shores of Cuba is its right but under the present condition of things, a propoThe PRESIDENT. That motion is not in bank, as the Florida Keys form its left.

I sition in the Spanish Cortes to sell “the everorder without the consent of the honorable Senator If these statements are correct, and I challenge faithful Island of Cuba” would drive every man from Florida, who has the floor.

their refutation, with what propriety can a parallel | in the Province of Catalonia to revolution. It Mr. SHIELDS. That will not interfere with be attempted between the relative value of Cuba and would drive any ministry from power, and might the honorable Senator. It is to accomplish the Canada to us, nationally? This view of the sub destroy the reigning dynasty itself. object he has in view. Let us postpone this sub- lject derives peculiar significance, not only from But though we cannot purchase Cuba, it is eviject until next week, and allow him to make his | the position recently assumed by France and Eng dent to us, as it is to Europe, that Cuba is daily speech on his bill to-morrow. I would prefer that land towards Cuba, but from the geographical becoming Americanized; that the voices of our course, unless he intends to make a speech on this positions already occupied by the latter upon this free millions are finding their echoes in her hills resolution.

continent. With that keen political forecast which || and valleys; that the principles of our free institu- . Mr. GWIN. Let us finish the resolution to | has ever distinguished her statesmen, she occu- |tions, with that centrifugal force which they have day.

pies from the Oronoca to Yucatan, and thence to always exercised, cannot be resisted or controlled Mr. SHIELDS. I would suggest that we had | the Bahamas, almost every salient or important by bayonets: nor can they be shut out by the narbetter postpone it until next week.

point where a gun can be planted or a standard row strait which divides us. And it is as evident Several SENATORS. No, no.

reared; and at the lone and distant Bermudas she to us as it is to Europe, that the independence of Mr. MALLORY: I desire to close the remarks | has an active navol rendezvous. From these com Cuba, whether under our own or a similar form which I commenced the day before yesterday, as manding watch-towers, she looks out upon our of Government, is now merely a questioh of time. I have said they may as well be made on this res. passing wealth; and should she ever acquire a And hence the extraordinary position which has olution as on the bill which was then under con- || naval position on the north shore of Cuba, in the || recently been assumed by the two controlling Powsideration. When I brought those remarks to a present defenceless condition of the Florida Straits, ers of Europe on this subject; hence the extraorclose, I had adverted to so much of the subject as and our pitiful naval force, the outlet of the Mis dinary apprehension they have exhibited, the jealrelated to the commercial restrictions upon our sissippi, with all the commerce and navigation of ous watchfulness on their part, which, in my trade with Cuba, and I had arrived at that branch the Gulf, would be as effectually sealed as if a con judgment, not only betokens a well-founded appreof it which had exclusive reference to the political vulsion of nature had reared up a mountain bar l hension, but which will tend to precipitate the conconsequences which must, in my judgment, inev rier before it.

summation of that against which they would guard. itably flow from the removal of the restrictions on By the resolutions now before the Senate, and by || Why, sir, the proposition to us, the freest people our trade. And permit me to say here, sir, that these discussions, the country has been awakened upon earth, to join in an unholy war upon the I regard this subject as claiming the consideration to the conviction that the public mind is dwelling | dawning hopes of Cuba—a war 'at variance with of every patriot heart, and as far removed from ll upon the probability or necessity of acquiring the l our political origin, and every day of our political party trammels and sectional or political bias. . l Island of Cuba; and this has been brought about history-will meet the universal rejection of every

In my judgment, we have arrived at a period || by the private judgments of distinguished individ- || patriot heart in this country; and thousands who when our policy, with reference to the Island of ll uals, by the spirit of the public press, and by ll have never evinced the slightest interest in the

320 Cong.....20 Sess.

Colonization in North America-Messrs. Gwin and Hale.


question, will find their hearts now swelling in | In my judgment he his mistaken. Separate and || not wish, before he votes, to give his views upon sympathy with every action of a people whose apart from the pride of Spain in the possession of the question. We have only about thirty days political vassalage is thus sought to be perpetuated. || this, the brightest jewel in her crown, it is to her of the session remaining in which to legislate, and No, sir; we can, thank Heaven, take no part in a source of great national advantages. Its trade yet we have passed none of the important approsuch unholy purpose; and I for one, wish to record is her school for seamen, and it is the only means I priation bills. Other measures of momentous my grateful acknowledgments to the distinguished she has of building up a merchant marine. The importance to the country are before the Senate Secretary of State for his letter on the subject. It exchange of products between Cuba and Europe for consideration, and I feel it to be my duty to is, in my judgment, the most “ manifest-destiny" and ourselves now amounts to $51,000,000 a move the postponement of this subject until the document that ever emanated from the State De year, and this trade we have thrown away. Cuba 4th of March next; and on that motion I shall partment; it is the handwriting upon the wall. It gets all her flour, most of her manufactures of cot ask for the yeas and nays. plainly indicates the vigorous march of Young | ton, and her oils, and a vast amount of the prod. || Mr. HALE. I think it is hardly courteous in America upon these continents; and that in the || ucts of Spain, from Spain. Spain takes hers in the honorable Senator from California to make paths of justice and right, guided by the spirit of return. The province of Catalonia alone would such a motion. peace, she can take no step backwards.

raise an opposition, based upon a pecuniary in Mr. GWIN. I have not spoken upon it. The acquisition of Cuba, will, ere long, become terest, which would defeat any attempt to sell the Mr. HALE. I know the Senator has not to us a political necessity; and when it does, there Island of Cuba.

spoken upon it, but he moves to postpone the will be no dissension among us upon the subject. I do not wish to detain the Senate. I throw subject until he has got rid of a considerable num. This period may yet be far distant; but, one year out these matters as suggestions which must arise ber of gentlemen who are interested in it. (Laughbefore California was acquired, it appeared to be in the mind of every reflecting Senator as to what ter. I am exceedingly sorry that, after I have a half century further removed from us than Cuba. will be the inevitable political results of repealing been so unfortunate as to introduce a practical But, sir, whether she come under the proud folds || the restrictive laws, to which I have alluded, upon measure, it has been taken up by those gentleof the stars and stripes or not, her proximity to our commerce with Cuba. We have assumed a men who are so ambitious to display their oratorfreedom is perilous to her present rulers.

position in this question which no other nation on ical powers upon it. The motion I introduced . When we reflect on the obstacles which we earth has assumed. Why, we have practically was simply an amendment looking to Canada; have overcome; when we consider that we have said to Spain, “ Although we have this boundless and I am prepared to show, notwithstanding seen the genius of our country passing the Mis- | wealth, you shall not share in it; you shall not what the honorable Senator from Florida has said, sissippi, rearing up a boundless republic in the become purchasers of our products, unless you that, so far as the commerce of the country is West, crossing the Rocky Mountains, treading will permit us to carry goods into your colonies concerned, Canada is as four to one when comthe pathless wastes of California and Oregon, upon our own terms." All the other manufactur pared with Cuba. And when he speaks of the standing upon the distant shores of the Pacific, ing interests, all the other agricultural interests of outlet of the valley of the Mississippi, I must say and still looking southward; when we see all these, Europe have been invited to come and purchase; that I can show him that the produce of one half to doubt that the same mighty and peaceful prog. and the consequence is, as I showed the other of that very valley finds its way to market over ress which has accomplished these ends will day, that while we exported the year before last the lakes and through the New York canals. It shed over this beautiful garden at our feet the bless but $11,000 worth of American products and is but a short time since I saw an account of the ings of free government, would be as unjust to manufactures in Spanish bottoms, Great Britain sale of flour in the Boston market which was Heaven as it is to ourselves. But it is a maxim exported $4,500,000 worth in the same time. raised in Virginia, and brought to market by way in which there is much political wisdom, that . It is said to be to the advantage of the shipping of the northern lakes, and down over the VerHeaven helps those who help themselves. I do interest of this country to keep things precisely as | mont Central railroad to Boston. Virginia flour not mean that we should literally help ourselves they are. I say it is only the apparent interest of || found its way to Boston for a market by that to the Island of Cuba, but I do mean that we that class of our fellow-citizens, and if this bill is route; and I am told that the barrels were made should not cast aside the advantages of our geo opposed in Congress, the opposition will come from of Virginia timber, and certainly the flour was graphical position, our boundless wealth, and that small shipping interest which engrosses the manufactured there. agricultural products, and manufactures, and legis carrying-trade between the United States and Cu As this is a matter of so much importance, I late them directly into the hands of foreign com ba: a few vessels in Massachusetts, a few in New || hope we shall have a vote upon it. The honorable petitors.

York, and a few in Charleston. It is but as a drop Senator from Michigan certainly did not introduce Yet this has been the result of the act of 1834, || in the bucket, in comparison to the vast agricul his resolution for the purpose of making a speech. which I seek to have repealed.

tural and manufacturing interests of the country, I know I did not introduce my amendment for While we have been expending immense sums and in comparison with the political consequences that purpose. The Senator from Michigan and to open the trade of Muscat, and Siam, and China, to which I have alluded. But if we examine this myself are practical men, both of us. and while we have fitted out an expensive ex subject properly, we shall find that even the ship Mr. CASS. Exactly. pedition to Japan, here at our doors' the richest | ping interest will be benefited by the repeal of these Mr. HALE. And we want votes instead of island upon the face of the earth, with a present restrictive laws. It is well known to me, as it is speeches upon the propositions which we have trade of 'Afty-one millions, capable of sustaining a to every person who has given attention to the submitted to the Senate. population of ten millions, an island of boundless l question, that Spain is not prepared to compete in Mr. CASS. We do not want any more speechresources, with rich mines, with scarcely any of the carrying-trade with American vessels within es. (Laughter.] her resources as yet developed, with only sixty ll thirty-three and one third per cent. In the first Mr. HÄLE. No, sir; and I will agree to give miles of available navigation between her and our place she has not got the vessels or the seamen, way, although I have a great many things to say shores, has been neglected. We have contrived and she is behind American shipping at least one to the Senate. I see the Senator from California to legislate ourselves out of her market.

hundred years; and if these acts shall be repealed, wants to get on the locomotive, and ride west, Repeal the discriminating laws to which I have || only the small vessels of Cuba will engage in the and I am willing to allow him to do so. I shall referred, and what will be the political consequen- || trade; they have none which can compete with not delay him. I shall forego the satisfaction it ces inevitably to follow? Let me ask those who || our vessels of a larger class. Then, when the would give, both to myself and the Senate, to have an eye to the acquisition of Cuba, if it is not | question comes to be discussed, as I am told it make a speech upon the subject, for the purpose better to begin in time, and invite her to our shores; | will be, on the other side, I shall be prepared to of having a vote. And the first vote, let it be inform her people that we do not exclude them; || show that it is just as much to the advantage of remembered, will not be upon the resolutions of that we do not make a distinction between them the shipping interest of the country to these meas the Senator from Michigan, but upon the motion all other nations, Christian or Heathen. Ex- || ures as it is for the agricultural interest.

to refer, made by the Senator from Kentucky, amine your ports from Maine to the Rio Grande, ll Let us, then, sir, avail ourselves of eighteen | [Mr. Dixon.] If it shall be agreed to, it is probaand you will find but rarely the Spanish flag. years of experience in this unprofitable labor of ble the Committee on Foreign Relations will give

The Cubans whom you see in this country are || retaliation, to retrace our steps. Let us permit us a luminous report; and when their report shall either exiles from home, or men of wealth attached their tonnage to seek our commercial marts. De be under consideration, it will be the proper time to the Home Government, and, in either case, are pend upon it, sir, no Cuban, having lived a week to make speeches. not the best exponents of the popular feeling. You in our atmosphere of freedom, will return to her Mr. BUTLER. I think so; and I am reservcannot see them, because you have legislated them with any increased admiration of martial law. . ing myself for that. out of the country. Now, remove the restrictions But to this I will not advert; the train of conse Mr. HALE. I am told by the Senator from on trade with Cuba, and you will have the legiti Il quences is too evident. Let us remove our com South Carolina, that he has been keeping himself mate population, the merchants and traders of the | mercial restrictions, and leave the rapid strides of in reserve in the same way that I have been, for island, the proper exponents of the wishes of that | Young America to do the rest.

the report. I think that is the time when the people, here among you. You will establish with Mr. GWIN. I know that there are a number speeches should be made, and I hope the vote will them the ties of commerce, and the ties of mar- of Senators who wish to address the Senate on be taken upon the reference. riage. You will educate their children; you will this question before the vote is taken on the reso- || Mr. SEWARD. I have a note from the honsend them abroad as proselytes of your institu- ll lution. I know that a number of Senators claim llorable Senator from Alabama, (Mr. CLEMENS, tions; you will teach them the value of the ballot-11 the right of addressing the Senate, and therefore | who is detained from his seat by sickness, asking box, of trial by jury, of habeas corpus; in fact, you I move to postpone the further consideration of me to obtain the consent of the Senate to postpone will hold up to them an image by which they can the resolution until the 4th of March next. I will the consideration of this resolution until next contrast their own political condition, and then, give my reasons for it. We shall then have an Tuesday, at which time he hopes to be able to and when you shall have done this, the annexa Executive session, and we shall then have this address the Senate upon it. tion of Cuba will have commenced.

subject properly before us. It is intended, I be Mr. MANGUM. " I am glad to hear from the The honorable Senator from New York threw || lieve, for senatorial action alone, and not for the gentleman from New Hampshire, and to hear the out an intimation that Cuba was an expense to the legislative action of the two Houses of Congress. remarks assented to by the honorable Senator Spanish Government, as the colonies of England || It is well adapted to an Executive session, and Il from Michigan, that they are both practical men. and France had formerly been to those countries. Il there is scarcely a member of the Senate who does Il Now, I desire to cut out a little practical work for


32D CONG.....20 SESS.

Colonization in North AmericaMessrs. Mason, Gwin, Underwood, &c.


these gentlemen to perform to-day-a little real legislation by Congress on this question. I did of the session and dispose of it. I hope the course work. Let them stop talking upon the subject. not understand him to say that any legislative | I have suggested will meet the approbation of the I think the resolution has been debated quite question would come before Congress, connected Senate. I trust the subject will be referred, and enongh; I think the country will derive very little with this debate, or the subject brought to the that the discussion will be postponed until the reservice from the debate; and, therefore, as a test attention of the Senate, by this resolution; and, port of the committee shall come in. question, at least as far as I can make it so, I

therefore, I have been very anxious to progress with Mr. SHIELDS. I made an attempt, a short move that the resolution lie upon the table. That the business which we wish to bring to a conclu time ago, to posipone the consideration of this reg• will cut off' debate, and upon that question I ask sion during the present session. But if the Sen olution until next week, for the purpose of making for the yeas and nays.

ator intends any legislation in which both Houses a few observations upon it. I did not intend to Mr. GWIN. That will do.

of Congress are to participate, I shall not inter- make a speech. I am not, as the Senate very Mr. MASON. If the Senator will withdraw pose any obstacle in the way of his presenting it; well know, accustomed to occupy their time in the motion, I will renew it if he desires.

but if he is going to do that, it must be upon some making speeches. I try, as well as I know how, Mr. MANGUM. Very well.

of the appropriation bills. If he intends to press to do a little work here, and I am rather astonMr. MASON. The object of this motion 1 positive legislation on this subject to the Congress ished that my friend from California should enpresume is to arrest the debate. The debate has of the United States, instead of an abstract debate deavor to throw me completely aside, and out of gone to some length. It is one that has become in the Senate alone, it is his duty to ask to be heard, the question in this matter. I have not made a very interesting to the country. That is shown and it is his privilege. If he intends anything speech this session, nor did I make one at the last by the public press from every quarter. And al like legislation, I shall not interpose any objection; session, and I do not mean to make one now. My though I have as little disposition as most gentle but if his motive is simply for the purpose of only object was, so far as I knew how, to give this men to enter into or protract a debate which ap speaking to a question about which we are to have debate a practical application, and I intend to do pears to be of an abstract character, yet it is very no legislative action, with all the respect I enter that in a very few observations. I trouble the certain that there is one subject at least of very tain forthat gentleman—and he knows I entertainas Senate very seldom with speeches, as that honorgreat practical interest to the country, which if much as any other Senator does— I must insist on able Senator well knows. not immediately connected with the resolution, is my motion, that this question be postponed until I agree with the Senator from Virginia that it is worthy of engaging in public debate the attention the 4th of March. I think that is the first ques. now too late to arrest this discussion; it would be of the Senate. It affects a ground, and a very tion; but if the Senator intends to propose practi- | arresting it only midway. Two years ago, I material ground, which is covered by one portion of cal legislation, I shall withdraw that motion. brought forward, as will be recollected by the Senthis resolution. I allude to the message of the

Mr. MASON. I said this: The message of ate, a proposition in relation to Central America. President, which is now before the Committee on the President in reference to the alleged establish I took the initiative in that respect, and perhaps I Foreign Relations, although, since it went there, it ment of a British colony on the coast of Honduras may claim it, if there be any honor in that. I have has been the subject of some debate in the Senate. is before the Committee on Foreign Relations; but not interfered in this debate, because I did not beIt is in reply to a resolution of the Senate asking the President in that message declared himself un lieve I could throw any light upon it. But I know for information concerning a recent proclamation able to give any certain information on the sub- it is a matter of great importance to my constitthat appeared in the public journals, issued by the ject. Ii presenis itself in such a form as to im uents, and having brought forward the proposition British authorities at Balize, declaring a colony press me, and doubtless others, with the belief to which I alluded, I did intend to say a few words established--not about to be established—but a Brii. that the proclamation alleged to have been issued upon that branch of the subject, and as to the neish colony established in certain islands designa by the British authorities at the Balize, and which cessity of giving the debate some practical apted, which lie off the coast of Honduras. That be we have seen in the public journals, declaring the plication. But I shall not force upon the Senate comes a question of great practical interest. With colony there established, is official and is true. It any observations of mine. I am as anxious to in the last few days we have received intelligence is more than probable, indeed it is almost certain, gei at practical business as is the honorable Senator that a British colony is about to be established at in the present state of that question, that the Com- from California. I think, however, that the chair. the Balize. The President of the United States, mittee on Foreign Relations will feel themselves man of the Committee on Foreign Relations is it appears from his message, does not consider called upon to make a report upon it; and if a re fairly entitled to be heard upon this subject. I that there is any source of official communication port be made, it may probably be necessary to care nothing about the treatment I myself may reopen to him by which he could inform us whether follow it by legislation. Therefore, I am here ceive, for I have no claim upon the Senate in this or not the report in reference to the establishment free to declare, as one of the Senators of the Uni- || particular matter; but I think it would be treating of the colony of the Day of Islands is true; but it ted States, if it be true that the Government of him very badly, after this discussion has gone so comes in such a shape as to make it necessary that Great Britain has established a colony at the place far, not to permit him, as chairman of the Comits existence for the present should be assumed by designated, whether it be or be not in contraven mittee on Foreign Relations, to present his views the Legislative branch, as the Executive branch is tion of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, that colony upon it. uninformed, and seeks no information. must be discontinued. I am prepared to say that

Mr. BUTLER. I think this is a case which Before the debate ends upon this resolution, I at once. I do not know whether a colony has calls for reference. I am unable to give any judgwant to be heard practically in reference to this been established, but I agree that the probability ment on the subject, unless I have the requisite matter of colonization as connected with one branch is that it is so, and that before the close of the ses information. The honorable Senator from Virof the resolution of the Senator from Michigan- sion there must be actual legislation upon the sub- 1 ginia, the chairman of the Committee on Foreign that which affects future colonization upon or near ject. All that I mean to say at present is, that I Relations, has made inquiries, and I have no either of the American continents. It is a matter think it would be desirable for the country that || doubt those inquiries will enable bim to bring forof very great interest to the American people, this debate should not be arrested, as the Senator ward much information upon which Senators can one that was broached thirty years ago, and never

from California proposes. For myself, I ask form a judgment. Ordi rily, subjects of this practically brought home to them, as far as I ani only that I may be heard upon the general ques- | kind come before the Senate through Executive informed, until the present time. I should, there tion involved in the resolution of the Senator from communications, and I think it much the safest fore, regret that the honorable Senator from North Michigan on Monday next; and if it is in order, mode; but as this subject has been brought up for Carolina should persevere in his motion, or that pending the motion of the Senator from California, discussion, and as we are to take jurisdiction of it should prevail. It is my purpose to ask the 1 ask that the question may be put on my motion matters of negotiation of this kind, I want to learn Senate to indulge me, for not more than an hour, to postpone the subject until that day.

one important fact, and that is, if Great Britain on the general subject, when other gentlemen may Mr. 'UNDERWOOD. My colleague [Mr. has committed a trespass upon the rights of any. have participated in the debate, if they think proper Dixon) has put a practical question before the || body, upon what political community she has to do so.

Senate upon this subject, for he has made a motion committed this trespass. Now, her 'settlement Mr. MANGUM. I believe there are matters to refer the resolution and amendment to the Com- | upon the Bay of Honduras, if a trespass, is one now before the Committee on Foreign Relations, mittee on Foreign Relations, with certain instruc either upon Guatemala or upon Honduras, or upon which the honorable Senator from Virginia tions. The gentleman from Michigan, who intro some other Central American State. The honorcan be heard, when they shall be reported upon. duced the resolution, has informed us that he able Senator from Virginia no doubt can give us a My sole purpose is to open the way to some real moved in the matter in consequence of the appre great deal of information as to the true character business. When a report shall be made from the hension that Great Britain was violating the Clay- || of these States or communities; and it may be Committee on Foreign Relations upon any of these ton-Bulwer treaty, in reference to the establish- that, in the end, I shall be compelled to vote for subjects, the honorable Senator from Virginia can ment of colonies on the coast of Central America. something that would look like a mission to accompany the report with a speech, and I shall The chairman of the Committee on Foreign Rela Guatemala, with a view to guaranty her rights so hear him with great pleasure upon them; for I tions has informed us that the President does not far as our interests and policy are involved; but think my own opinions, taken on the whole upon know how the fact is. I think, with the chairman, before I can do that, I want information. How this subject, do not differ very widely from those that it will be important if we could ascertain what can I give a judgment until I have information ? of the honorable Senator; but with the view that the fact is. I think, therefore, that the best course And therefore I would suggest that the reference we may go to work on other matters, 1 renew the which we can pursue is to make the reference should at once take place, and that the honorable motion.

which has been proposed by my colleague, and let chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations Mr. MASON. I would ask the Senator to the whole subject go before the Committee on should give us the information in a report, even withdraw his motion to lie on the table, and allow Foreign Relations. When the committee shall before he makes his speech; and I will promise, me to move that the further consideration of the report, the chairman can accompany the report I though I intended to speak upon the subject, if he subject be postponed until Monday next. I shall with any remarks he may be pleased to make, and gives full information in regard to it, such as I can then ask the Senate to hear me for an hour. I the debate can be resumed." I hope this course understand, and upon which I can form a judgmake that motion.

will be pursued. I am like the gentleman from ment, that I will not make a speech. I will be Mr. GWIN. I did not understand the Senator California; I feel very much disposed to begin to entirely satisfied with his explanation. If we refrom Virginia to say that the Committee on For act upon other matters, and I am inclined to think fer the matter at once, I think we shall accomplish eign Relations intended to propose any practical Il it is time for us to take up the ordinary business something; but if we carry on this debate in this

32d Cong.....2d Sess.

Colonization in North AmericaMessrs. Gwin, Davis, Cass, and Dawson.


cursory manner, shooting at a barn door all the think that they meet the question at issue at all. Mr. CASS. Thirty years ago Mr. Jefferson while, and having no mark, I do not know what The real question for the consideration of the said that this question of European influence was may not be brought within its scope. The hon Government is one growing out of a treaty be- || the most momentous question that had been preorable Senator from Florida, in discussing another tween us and Great Britain; and we need some sented to him since the 4th of July, 1776. It is

subject, I thought, made it very germane to this. further information before we undertake to give an just as momentous now as it was then. But I - It strikes me, however, that the whole question interpretation to that. The great question, in my desire to correct the idea which gentlemen seem

ought to be referred to the Committee on Foreign mind, is whether or not Great Britain has organ to entertain, that this is a mere abstract principle. Relations, and let their report be the vehicle of ized a colony in what is called the Bay of Islands? I consider it one of the most practical principles information upon which we shall pronounce a re

If she has done that, the next inquiry is, is that, presented to the American Congress—practical in sponsible judgment, for we are in some measure or is it not, an infringement of the late treaty its application from day to day as a guide to the involving ourselves in Executive business. I say, which has been made ?

Executive of the opinions of the American Conat once, then, let the subject be referred.

Mr. SHIELDS. Will the honorable Senator | gress. No principle can be more practical; and Mr. HOUSTON. I am not in favor of refer- permit me to correct him in one point? It is not none is more liable from day to day to be called ring this subject to the committee. I am anxious the Bay of Islands," but the islands in the bay || into actual use. It is an entire mistake to call it to hear the honorable chairman of the Committee of Honduras which the British have erected into a an abstract question. And allow me to say, with on Foreign Relations on the subject. Other gen colony.

reference to what has been said by the Senator tlemen have spoken upon it, and I desire some Mr. DAVIS. It is quite immaterial which from Massachusetts, that I cannot for my life uninformation which may be important to the decis form of expression is used. There is a colony || derstand the necessity of sending these resolutions ion of this body. I want the privilege of speaking | by some such name, as it is said, and a colony re to a committee. They have no reference to the upon it myself. I have occupied bui very little of cently organized. Now, I do not know that it is colony of the Bay of Islands, or any other colony; the time of this body at this session, or at pre entirely easy to ascertain all the facts which have | They assert a great and important principle; and vious sessions; and though I am as anxious as a direct bearing upon this question. I am anx whether the British have the right to establish a any Senator to see the Pacific railroad bill pro ious that the facts in regard to it should be pre colony there or not, and whether they have estabgress, I imagine we shall not bring it to any satis sented to us in a reliable form. I understand that lished one or not, is perfectly immaterial to this factory conclusion this session; and until a report is | by the treaties of 1783 and 1786, between Spain and question. The principles which guide us are made from the special committee on the subject, I Great Britain, the latter expressly renounced all | everlasting in their nature, and call for the declado not think thai we can progress with it at all. ! claim to every part and portion of this country, ration of the American Congress, which Mr. Jefshall, therefore, vote against any reference until I except that conditional titie which was granted to ferson said ought to have been done in 1823. The can hear the chairman of the Committee on For- her, in what is called the Balize. If she renounced reference is not to establish the fact with respect eign Relations.

that—and the islands, as it appears to me, from to the colony of the Bay of Islands. I repeat, the Mr. GWIN. I did not wish to prevent any examining the treaties, constitute no part of the resolutions do not refer to that, but they are upon Senator from speaking by making the motion Balize-then she renounced all right to them. a great principle, and every gentleman who is willwhich I have made. The honorable Senator from Then, where do they belong? If I comprehend ing now to say that that shall be the principle of Illinois knows well that I would be very much de the facts correctly, the boundaries of Central the American Government, is prepared to vote lighted to hear him; but there are many in his America, of the five States constituting Central upon them. They need no reference. The estabcondition. I do not know a member of the Senate America, are coincident with the old kingdom of lishment of no fact that can be investigated by the but will be compelled to say something about this Guatemala, with this exception: there was a Committee on Foreign Relations can touch that question before we come to a final and decisive small province at the lower end, called Chiapas, great principle. It remains everlastingly the same. vote upon the resolution.

that was taken off and annexed to Mexico. “ If, Establish your principle; apply it to cases as they Mr.'SHIELDS. Will the Senator permit me then, those boundaries are coincident, the Bay of arise; and then, before questions arise with foreign to say that I have no wish whatever to trespass

Islands was renounced in the treaties, and belong nations, ascertain the facts. What objection there upon the time of the Senate? This is a much to Central America, and probably to that portion can be to establishing the principle now, or what larger and much more important subject than that of it called the province of Honduras.

reference the resolutions have to any individual Senator seems to imagine. I have the honor to I wish to have these facts ascertained. I wish case, I cannot understand. represent, in this body, the Committee on Mili for a reliable report from some source or other, Mr. DAWSON. I desire to be heard upon this tary Affairs, and I wanted to convert this into

which shall determine whether we are correct in question at the propor time. I am a little surprised what I deemed to be a practical subject—a subject this; and if it turns out to be true that the islands that the Senator from Michigan, who speaks so that interests him. I mean the fortification of the which are now claimed as a colony, were part often and so interestingly upon this subject, should coast of his State, the fortification of the southern and portion of Honduras, or of the Mosquito coast say that there is no necessity for having a practical coast, and some other matters. I felt that in doing for both were alike renounced-then I appre- | question to act upon. As I understand it, the in80, I should give it, perhaps, about as practical hend that Great Britain had no title to them what troduction of the resolutions was founded on the an application as it would receive in this body. ever; that they were a portion of the country to facts, supposed to be true, that there was such a Whether I shall be permitted to do so or not, I which she renounced all sovereignty, and 'that colonization going on within the limits of Central care not. I shall do my duty in my own humble they did belong to what is called Central America America. Hence the propriety of their introducway, anyhow.

-that is, they were a part and portion of the tion. Now, the consequences growing out of their Mr. ĠWIN. The honorable Senator must ancient kingdom of Guatemala.

introduction are to be vastly important, and already recollect that I am chairman of the Committee on am, therefore, with the honorable Senator

are they assuming a very portentous aspect. Some Naval Affairs, and that I understand the bearing from South Carolina, in favor of referring this language which I have heard uttered here to-day of this question probably as well as he does. The subject to the committee, that they may present is well calculated to strike the minds of the AmerState of California would be as deeply interested to us the facts which belong to it; and when they can people. The chairman of the Committee on in a controversy with England as any state in this have presented them, we shall have a tangible | Foreign Relations—the man, above all others, to Confederacy. 'I have no doubt that this resolu- 1 subject to act upon. I think, as other gentlemen whom we look for information upon foreign aftion is to have an important bearing upon the fu- do, that it is a subject of a good deal of import- | fairs-has uttered words and sentiments to-day ture foreign intercourse of this country, and ance; for if what I suppose to be true turns out to that will be noticed throughout the civilized world. therefore we must give our reasons for our votes; be so, a great question arises, whether or not the He said that he believed British colonization has and the question presents itself, if no practical treaty, in its very terms, has not been violated. taken place in the Bay of Islands, and that if that question of legislation comes up in connection That is the subject with which we have to deal. be true, " it must be discontinued.” Hence, if all with these resolutions, whether we had not better There can be no question but that, when there is a | the facts be true, action becomes necessary; What let them go over for an Executive declaration. | governmental difference of opinion between us action? Congressional action; war, in the view That was the very question I had in view. I and Great Britain, it is an important question. Il of the peace-abiding gentleman from New Hampknow the Senator is examining this question with The dignity, and character, and power of each of shire, (Mr. Hale.) Before we proceed an inch, regard to the military defenses of the country, and the countries make it important. But I do not in the language of my friend from Massachusetts, he has collected a great deal of the most valuable wish to make any mistake in the matter. I desire, should we not be able to place ourselves upon firm information on the subject, and I hope the result when I move in it, to move understandingly; and ground, and move, not only understandingly, but of his examination and his labors will be put in

if there has been a colony organized contrary to firmly to the consequences, whatever they may the form of a law before this Congress adjourns.

the terms of the treaty, as I am rather disposed be? But the chairman of the Committee on For. I am sure that will be done, so far as the commit

to think there has been, I am willing, for one, lo eign Relations proposes to postpone this subject tee is concerned, for we have had an indication of meet the question in the manner which becomes until next Monday, when he desires to be heard their intentions.

the dignity, and honor, and character of the coun upon these important questions, without the preAs to any discourtesy to the chairman of the || try. It seems to me that we cannot approach this sentation of a single fact arising out of the comCommittee on Foreign Relations, I never thought subject understandingly until we have this inform- | munication from the President of the United States; of it. I never dreamed of it when I made the ation. I shall, therefore, believing it to be the and when his speech shall have been made in this motion to postpone the resolutions until the 4th of best course we can pursue, cheerfully vote for the instance, what becomes of the reference of the March. I'made that motion because I believed we commitment of this question to the Committee on message of the President?-and where are the facts could not come to a vote on them before the 4th of Foreign Relations. If the honorable chairman of

to go before the country upon which we are finally March. That is my belief. I am perfectly will

that committee desires to make his remarks before to act ? Nowhere. ing that they should go to the Committee on For the commitment, I shall not interpose any objec I maintain that these filibustering resolutions in eign Relations, with the understanding that they | tion, though I think it is obvious, for many rea relation to foreign relations are incompatible with will come back in a form in which we can discuss sons, that it would be better for him to reserve his

the dignity of the body upon an occasion like this, them with a practical end in view.

remarks until the committee shall have reported. and that we should never deal in abstractions, and Mr. DAVIS. While these resolutions declare It seems to me that this will be the better course declare what shall be, and what shall not be. general principles which I approve, I do not for all of us. I hope, therefore, it will be taken. When we intend to act upon facts already ascer

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tained or supposed to be ascertained, let us call || Central America. That is the idea. Why not, I During the last session, the Senate passed a upon our Committee on Foreign Relations to lay || as practical men, investigate the question, ascer- | resolution requesting the President of the United them before the body. Let us have all the facts lain the existence of the facts in the case, and then Suates to communicate to the Senate all the corconnected with

apply the principle to it? Why send out in ad- respondence and documents, which had passed whether in Honduras, or in any other section of || vance these speeches to the country-and they are between the Government of the United States the country; and whenever those facts shall be read, I know, with the utmost anxiety, for people and the Government of Mexico, concerning this presented to us, we can act. What do I know || suppose there is something concealed, and that right of way across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. about it? What does any Senator on this floor || war is in our front; that the cloud is gathering. The correspondence was sent in at a late day of know about it? The President tells you, in the We are thereby affecting by this discussion the the session, and referred to the Committee on language of the chairman of the Committee on great commercial interests of this country. We || Foreign Relations. That committee took the subForeign Relations, that he has no facts which he are probably bringing ruin upon many great in Iject nnder consideration, and before the close of can communicate to us. The chairman, then, must terests of the Union, when I know it is not the the session, but too late to be acted upon, made do the best he can; and if it so turns out that there intention of gentlemen to involve the country in a report, accompanied by several resolutions. That are no facts to establish the position that an or a war.

report has been before the Senate, therefore, since ganization or colonization has taken place, what I repeat that the remark of my honorable friend | the last session of Congress, and it will be found is the result? Why, that no organization or col

een estab by those who have looked at the resolutions, that onization has taken place. But if it be true that

lished in Central America, and that it must be ll the committee considered the subiect as one of

I the committee considered the subject as one of no it has taken place, give us the facts, and then the discontinued,is the strongest allegation which l little interest and moment to the Government. I Monroe docirine will come in, and come in as it || has yet been made that war is before us, or that will ask permission to read them. The report was intended to come in by the honorable Senator there is danger, because a great principle has been concludes by recommending to the Senate the from Michigan, founded upon the idea that this violated. But I think the country will see that adoption of the following resolutions: colonization had already taken place. But that the filibustering portion of the Congress of the

" Resolved, (as the judgment of the Senate,) That in the fact is not officially ascertained. Let us get the United States do not want to act upon the case present posture of the question on the grant of a right of official information, and then act upon it.

presented; they want to commit a majority of way through the territory of Mexico, at the Isthmus of TeLet these resolutions be laid upon the table. Congress to certain principles, and then they will ||

huantepec, conceded by that Republic to one of its citizens, What are they? Abstractions; a reaffirmation of

and now the property of citizens of the United States, as the present a case so that the majority cannot back

same is presented by the correspondence and documents the Monroe doctrine, which, although never in out, but war must follow. That is the idea; and accompanying the message of the President of the United troduced by way of resolution before, has been you cannot conceal it from the public mind, for States of the 27th July, 1852, it is not compatible with the firmly fixed in every American statesman's mind the commercial, agricultural, and manufacturing

dignity of this Governinent to prosecute the subject further and determination. There is no necessity of re

by negotiation. interests are too sensitive not to perceive that * 2. Should the Government of Mexico propose a resolving that we will do so and so, in such a state legislation like this would be destructive. Hence newal of such negotiation, it should be acceded to only upon of affairs. Let us ascertain the state of affairs it is that I say, come boldly up to your principles; distinct propositions from Mexico, not inconsistent with the which exists, and then resolve, if it displeases us, and I stand upon them myself. I would permit

demands made by this Government in reference to said

grant. that it shall not exist as it is. Let the resolutions no foreign country to colonize this continent if we

3. That the Government of the United States stands be laid upon the table, or referred to the Commit have power to prevent it. Stand upon that prin committed to all of its citizens to protect them in their rights, tee on Foreign Relations; let the distinguished ciple, but do not be continually speaking of it, and. abroad as well as at home, within the sphere of its jurisdicSenator at the head of that committee bring in repeating it. It is like saying to a man, “ If you

tion; and should Mexico, within a reasonable time, fait to

reconsider her position concerning said grant, it will then his report, and accompany that report by the say so and so about me I will flog you. I under

becoine the duty of this Government to review all existing speech which he desires to deliver; and I will ask stand you have said it, and I believe it, and I have relations with that Republic, and to adopt such measures as now what speech is it he desires to deliver? A ll made up my mind to flog you, if you have done it.” will preserve the honor of the country and the rights of its speech upon colonization in the abstract-not upon You should first ascertain the facts and then apply

citizens." existing colonization, because he says he knows your principle to them,

The Senate will see from the character and tone not whether it be true or not that a British colony || I do not make these observations with the most of these resolutions, that the Committee on Forhas been established in Central America, though distant apprehension that there is any danger of a | eign Relations have considered that this subject, he thinks it is true. Why should the chairman || war. I do not wish any interests of the Union to by the action upon it of the two Governments, of the Committee on Foreign Relations make a feel alarmed upon this subject. I see no occasion and by its intrinsic importance, has been elevated speech of that kind unless it be based upon facts, || for believing that there is to be a war. I see no || into one of very grave consideration. Mr. Presiand unless the facts be such as to authorize it? disposition in foreign countries to interfere with dent, the acquisition of California, lying upon the Should we influence the kingdom of Great Britain any great American principle. On the contrary, Pacific border, and of the intervening territory, or any other, by saying that if they do a certain || I believe that the industrial interests of the world, at the close of the war with Mexico, placed this thing we will do so and so? Let us ascertain and especially of the European and American peo. Government in the embarrassing position of havwhat has been done, and then, if we dislike it, ask ple, are now the controlling power; and that com ing some of its most important dependencies-for the Government of Great Britain to disavow it; mon sense, common honesty, and common justice California was then a dependency--at the distance and if she will not do so, then let us decide what will prevail, and keep down everything in conflict of some three thousand miles from the Atlantic course we shall pursue.

with the rights and happiness of the people. Il settlements, and inaccessible unless across deserts Mr. MASON. I think if the exact posture of look upon the scene which has occurred' here upon and mountains, requiring months to pass them. It the question were understood by the Senate, there | this resolution, and the speeches which have gone is known to the Senate, that in the instructions would be no difficulty in disposing of this subject. forth, as evidence of the belligerent disposition of which were given by President Polk to the comThe message of the President of the United States,

// some gentlemen, or as an outburst of that desire missioner of the United States, by whom the treaty in connection with this alleged colonization on for war which now and then will occur, especially of peace was negotiated—a President who closed the coast of Honduras, is now before the Com | in a Republic like ours.

a very successful, and indeed brilliant administramittee on Foreign Relations. There is, therefore, I concur with the Senator from California--and tion, by the successful issue of the war with Mexbefore them, a distinct question upon which they we do not agree very often--that this subject ico-he was directed, in view of the high and great may, and probably will, report. The resolution should be put out of the way, and that practical importance of obtaining an accessible way to those of the Senator from Michigan covers certain great legislation, affecting the interests of the country, Pacific possessions, to offer Mexico for the right principles of American policy, alleged by him to should be taken up. Let us proceed to business of way a very large sum of money. The propohave been laid down as early as the year 1823— affecting the people for whom we have to act, and sition was declined on the part of Mexico, because, thirty years ago. What I meant to say was this: if there is any violation of our principles of foreign as was alleged, that right of way was no longer It seems to me that the debate which has com policy, let the chairman of the Committee on For within her control-that she had parted with it. menced, should go on in reference to these general eign Relations ascertain it, communicate it to us Since the acquisition of California-since it was principles of American policy, and upon them I officially, and I will be one of the first to suspend erected into a State—and more especially since the wish to be heard. The report that may, and prob all other business and act upon it.

discovery of the immense deposits of gold which ably will be made upon the message of the Presi On motion by Mr. HÀLE, the Senate ad have attracted the attention, not only of the peodent of the United States, in reference to a specific journed.

ple of this country, but of the entire world, the colony, affects the application of certain of those

way to get access to California has filled the public principles, and certain of them only. I see no


mind. The enterprise of our people, with their necessity for the reference of the resolution of the

capital, was embarked in seeking a right of way Senator from Michigan-none in the world, so far | SPEECH OF HON. J. M. MASON, some two thousand miles distant from our coast, as regards the specific question now before the


where the continent, or rather the isthmus that committee.

connects the two continents, was contracted to its Mr. DAWSON. That is the very ground upon

IN THE SENATE, February 1, 1853,

smallest extent, across the Isthmus of Panama; which I go. I would say again, that I presume || On the Resolutions reported from the Committee and within a very short time, by the investment there is scarcely a dissenting voice in this body, || `on Foreign Relations, in regard to the Tehuan

of a very large capital, and with some risk on the with reference to the mere abstract questions which || tepec Grant.

part of those who did it, a communication was are involved in the resolution of the Senator from || Mr. MASON said:

opened there, in order to give us access to our Michigan. But why this constant repetition and |Mr. PRESIDENT: What I have to say on the Il possessions on the Pacific. That communication declamation upon principles in regard to which we subject of this right of way across the Isthmus has continued since in the course of successful all agree? I cannot see the necessity of it. Yet, I of Tehuantepec can involve but little more than | use. underneath this, it is clearly to be perceived that dry detail; but yet, in my apprehension, and in Under the convention made between the Govwe are going on to a particular object on the alle- || the judgment of the Commitee on Foreign Rela- || ernments of the United States and Great Britain, gation that there has been a violation of these prin- | tions, to whom this subject was referred, it is one another communication was intended to be opened ciples, by the establishment of a British colony in ll of very great importance to the country.

how far it has yet been opened I am not fully

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