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dience, discretion, hospitality, alms, liberality, truth, and faith : this great work was drawn up for the instruction of the knights of that illustrious order. The Bishop, indeed, speaks too much of Jason and of the virtue of the “ jeunes princes et nobles, chevaliers de Grece, lesquels Stacius le poëthe pour la vertu de la proesse et vaillance appelle demy Dieux,” since Philip the Good declared that the Toison d'Or was suggested to him by Gideon, and not by Jason, “ who had broken his faith.” In a similar spirit, the great Alcuin composed his Treatise on Virtue and Vice, for the instruction of Count Gui, a noble warrior; and the Abbot Smaragde, in the tenth century, his Via Regia, teaching the truths of salvation to princes. Another book, written with this view, is the Songe du Vieux Pelerin, by Philip de Maizieres, who, after being Secretary to Pope Gregory XI., then Chancellor to the King of Cyprus, and intimate counsellor of King Charles V. of France, retired to the monastery of the Celestines at Paris, where he died at the end of the fourteenth century.

The Livre du Chevalier de la Tour, abounding with religious instruction, was written by the Seigneur de la Tour Laudry, of an ancient and illustrious house in Anjou and Maine. A conceited critic of the court of Louis XIV. says, “ that this book is a proof that country gentlemen four hundred years ago were of most exact probity, and scrupulously attached to good old principles; but that their books did more honour to their hearts than to their knowledge and ability.” “ The royal and noble digaity," says Gilles de Rome, in his Mirror of Chivalrous Virtue, “ arises from the fear of God.” He even goes so far as to say, “ L'honneur mondain n'est moult a desirer ains est a despriser—mais honneur qui est a garder est honneur deu a l'ame, par lequel chascun bon homme est en grant soing de garder son ame attendant en icelle l’ymage de Dieu par dignite specialle et le pris de sa redemption, le loyer de retribution. Et a grant instance en oraisons, en soupirs, gemissements, et en larmes, et sans cesser de crier a Dieu, que nous puissons parvenir a icelluy merite." Children, he says, should be taught “ les sacramens de l'Eglise, de Dieu aymer, et de toutes choses qui appartiennent a la foy. -Et avant ce qu'ils avant prins autre impression de la

mondanite en leurs pensees.” To instruct youths in these principles, there was also a book, De Nobilitate Christiana, by the Portuguese Bishop of Sylves, in the Algarves ; a treatise De Ingenuis Moribus, by Peter Paul Vergerio, who flourished at Padua in the eleventh century, which became so famous that it was publicly lectured

upon in the schools; and the Dialogue on Nobility, by Tasso. All these will shew, that the fear and love of God were the basis of chivalry. Indeed, the distinction which Joinville has recorded between the preuhomme and the preudhomme will prove in a striking manner the opinion of the chivalrous age, that a deep sense of religion was essential to a true knight. He is describing the character of Hugues, duc de Bourgoigne : « Il fut moult bon chevalier de sa main, et chevallereux. Mais il ne fut oncques tenu à saige, ne à Dieu, ne au monde. Et bien y apparut en ses faitz devant dictz. Et de lui dist le grant Roy Philippe, quant il scent que le Conte Jehan de Chalons avoit eu ung filz qui avoit nom Hugues : Dieu le vueille faire preuhomme, et preudomme. Car grant difference disoit estre entre preuhomme et preudomme, et que maint chevalier y avoit entre les Chrestiens et entre les Sarrazins, qui estoient assez preux, maiz ilz n'estoient pas preudommes. Car ilz ne craignoient ne amoient Dieu aucunement. Et disoit, que grant grace faisoit Dieu à ung chevalier, quant il avoit ce bien, que par ses faitz il estoit appellé preuhomme et preudomme. Mais celui, dont nous avons dit cy-devant, povoit bien estre appellé preuhomme, par ce qu'il estoit preux et hardy de son corps, mais non point de lame. Car il ne craignoit point à pecher, ne à mesprandre envers Dieu.” The Bishop of Auxerre, in his funeral oration on Du Guesclin, as recorded by the Monk of St. Denys, the historian of Charles VI., proves, by a reference to the duties of chivalry, that even the title of preux was not belonging to any but such as were religious as well as brave, and even these must not aspire to it in their lifetime : therefore the heralds cried, “ Honeur aux fils des Preux !" for, says Monstrelet, “ nul chevalier ne peut estre jugé preux si ce n'est apres le trépassement."

IV. As a natural consequence, the defence of religion became the office and the pride of the ancient nobility. “ The duty of a knight,” says a work quoted by St. Pa

laye, “ is to maintain the Catholic faith ;” and he presents his reader with a passage from Eustache Deschamps.

Chevalier en ce monde cy
Ne peuvent vivre sans soucy:
Ils doivent le peuple défendre

Et leur sang pour la foi espandre, Perfectly agreeable to these injunctions was the conduct of the ancient nobility. The cross of Christ was no sooner lifted up as the standard under which the defenders of the faith were to rally, than all Europe was united in a band of brothers to testify their love for the Saviour of mankind. Germany, France, and England, poured forth the flower of their youth and nobility ; men who were led by no base interest or selfish expectation, but who went L with single hearts, renouncing the dearest blessings of L their country and station, to defend the cause which was dear to them, and to protect from insult and wrong the persecuted servants of their Saviour.

Godefrey of Bouillon, Robert count of Flanders, "the sword and lance of the Christians,” Robert duke of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror, who hung up as a trophy, the standard and sword of the Sultan in the vault of the Holy Sepulchre, and who refused to be king, pronouncing Godefrey more worthy, Hugues de Saint Paul, Conon de Montaigu, Raimond I. viscount of Turenne, Gaston de Foix, Geoffroi de la Tour, who slew the enormous serpent and delivered the Lion, Raimond count of Toulous, duke of Narbonne, and marquis of Provence, whose long white hair floating over his armour, joined with the enthusiasm of youth, made him appear the father and the model of the Paladıns, he who had fought under the banner of the Cid, and been conqueror over the Moors in Spain, the first to take the cross and to rouse the youth of Languedoc and Provence, the mightiest of the French princes, and both the Achilles and the Nestor of the Crusaders, Hughes the Great, the hero of Antioch, Stephen count of Chartres and Blois, who possessed as many towns as there are days in the year, Tancrede de Hauteville, “qui in bellis dominicis titulum sagacissimæ juventutis meruit," and of whom another historian says, “mens pecuniæ contemtrix,” Baldwin and Eustache, Jos

i Rad. Cadom.

selin de Courtenay, Boemund prince of Sarento, Gerald founder of the hospital of St. John at Jerusalem, Raimond Dupuy the first military grandmaster, Hugues de Payens founder of the Templars, that renowned order

quorum virtutes et prælia et gloriosos de inimicis Christi triumphos enarrabit omnis ecclesia Sanctorum,” the lionhearted Richard of England, Saint Louis the hero of France and the honour of the world, Alpbonso count of Poitiers, Robert of Artois, Peter count of Brittany, Hugh duke of Burgundy, Dampiere count of Flanders, Hugh de Lusignan count of la Marche, William Longsword earl of Salisbury, the counts of Bar, Dreux, Soissons, Retel, Vendome, Mountfort, Folques count of Anjou, Errard and Andrew de Brienne, the Joinvilles, the Chatillons, the Coucys, who were the light and glory of Europe,—these with others, among the bravest and most noble of their generation, quorum nomina solius Dei notitiæ sunt credita,” hastened to proclaim to the world by their deeds and devotion that the Saviour of mankind was dear to them. What instances of sincerity and faith do these annals furnish! Witness the heroism of Renaud de Chatillon, Grandmaster of the Templars, who refused life upon condition of apostacy, and was beheaded by the hand of Saladin. Witness also that of the crowd of knights of the two orders, who suffered themselves to be massacred in prison by order of the same infidel rather than renounce Jesus Christ. Vertot relates, that the Chevalier de Temericourt, after gallantly defeating the Turkish fleet, was forced by a tempest upon the coast of Barbary, where he was taken prisoner. He was led to Tripoli, and thence to Adrianople, where he was presented to Mahomet III., who asked him if he was the man who had fought five of his great ships. “Moi-meme,” replied the knight. “Of what nation are you?” demanded the Sultan. François,” said Temericourt.

“ Then you are a deserter,” continued Mahomet, “ for there is a solemn league between me and the king of France." « Je suis François," said Temericourt, “mais, outre cette qualité, j'ai celle d'être chevalier de Malte, profession qui m'oblige à exposer ma vie contre tous les ennemis du nom Chrétien.” He was conducted to prison, where he was at first well treated ; every expedient was tried to prevail upon


a youth of twenty-two years to renounce his religion : he was offered a princess of the blood in marriage, and the office of grand admiral. But all in vain ; the Grand Seigneur became irritated; the prisoner was thrown into a dungeon, where he was beaten with rods, and tortured ; but this generous confessor of Jesus Christ did only invoke his name and pray for his grace. Finally, he was beheaded by command of the Grand Seigneur. The emperor Commenus was taken at the surrender of Trebizonde, whence he was conducted by Mahomet to Constantinople. Here new terms were forced upon him, either to renounce the faith or to die. The Greek emperor, who had. sented to surrender his empire to the conqueror, now recalling the ancient sentiments of religion which ambition had suppressed, preferred death to apostacy; and he had the consolation to witness seven of his sons possessed of the same fidelity.

Among those knights who gladly chose death rather than deny their faith, the monk Guibert speaks of one

whom,” he says, “ I have known from a boy, and seen grow up to manhood; being both from the same town, and our parents being also familiar with each other. noble born, and distinguished for virtue. Being taken by the infidels, and required to renounce the faith of Christ, he prevailed on them to wait till the approaching Good Friday. When the day arrived, he astonished them by saying, with noble firmness, that he was ready to be put to death: 'I will render up my life to Him who, as on this day, laid down his own life for the salvation of all men.' His head was cut off with one blow of a scymetar.”

When the day of the battle of Antioch arrived, Hugues the Great was entreated by his friends and vassals to remain on his bed, to which he had been confined by a burning fever. No, no,” cried he; " I will not wait in cowardly repose

for a shameful death : it is amongst you, brave companions in arms, that I wish to die this day with glory for Jesus Christ.”2 The conduct of the brave mareschal, Gaspard de Vallier, governor of Tripoli, is well known : that of the chevalier, Abel de Bricliers de la Gardampe, during the memorable siege of Malta, is also most noble.

He was

Gesta Dei per Francos. 508.

? Maimbourg, 152.

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