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and when the Bishop of Gloucester, galled by his comments, ventured a sarcasm on his learning, Latimer repelled the taunt in the following indignant rebuke of the mean insolence of his oppressor.
Hugh Latimer was no common man. Nature had gifted him with great acuteness, and with a vigorous and impressive, though coarse and excursive eloquence. The singular conscientiousness and intrepidity of his character, made him a fearless and formidable monitor to courtiers, and even to kings, while his popular manner and evangelical spirit rendered him especially acceptable and useful to the common people. It was in this that Latimer excelled. He was no deep divine, he had no fertility of imagination, his language was little indebted to the refinements of classic speech, but he was a shrewd and observant man, skilled in human nature, and in the most effective methods of fixing attention, and assailing the conscience. He was a powerful disputant, not permitting himself to be entangled in the "endless mazes" of scholastic wrangling, but dealing in "active practice," he broke at once through his antagonist's guard, and "whipt him from his foining fence." There was a quickness in his perceptions, and an intense energy in his mind, that supplied the place of merely artificial qualities, and gave him a great advantage in offhand disputations or addresses, and he seldom appears to more advantage, than on occasions when he is evidently most unprepared.
"Lo! you look for learning at my hands, which have gone so long to the school of oblivion, making the bare prison, without book, or pen and ink; walls my library, keeping me so long in and now you let me loose to come and
answer to articles. You deal with me as though two were appointed to fight for life and death, and over-night, the one through friends and favour is cherished, and hath good counsel given him how to encounter with his enemy. The other, for envy, or lack of friends, all the whole night is set in the stocks. In the morning when they shall meet, the one is in strength and lusty; the other stiff in his limbs, and almost dead for feebleness. Think you, that to run this man through with a spear is not a goodly victory ?"pp. lxxvii, lxxviii.
Hugh Latimer was born in the year 1470, at Thurcaston, in the county of Leicester. parents and their circumstances, he has himself described in his first sermon preached before Edward the Sixth.
At his last interrogatory he displayed, though in his eighty-fifth year, the same firm and collected spirit, and the same skill in gaining the weather-gage of his opponent, which had distinguished him throughout life. Alone and unfriended, with the presiding bishops before him in all the pomp of their sacerdotal and judicial office, his behaviour exhibited a fine exemplar of Christian heroism. He reproved with stern contempt the glosses of the Romanists, as mutilations of Scripture, and "clipping of God's coin,"
"My father was a yeoman, aud had no lands of his own, only he had a farm of two or three pounds by the year, at the utmost, and hereupon he tilled so much as kept half a dozen men. He had walk for an hundred sheep; and my He was mother milked thirty kine. able, and did find the king a harness, with himself and his horse, whilst he came to the place that he should receive
the king's wages. I can remember that I buckled his harness, when he went to Blackheath-field. He kept me to school, or else I had not been able to have preached before the king's majesty now. He married my sisters with five pounds, or twenty nobles a piece; so that he brought them up in godliness
and fear of God. He kept hospitality for his poor neighbours; and some alms he gave to the poor. And all this he did of the said farm; whereas he that year, or more, and is not able to do any now hath it pays sixteen pounds by the thing for his Prince, for himself, nor for his children, or give a cup of drink to the poor."--pp. 79, 80.
The younger Latimer was prepared for College, by a regular course of tuition at the Grammar
School of Leicester, and in 1484, which occur in these volumes. In matriculated at Cambridge. During answer to the question of the text, his long residence in that Univer- Who art thou? He replies, “a sity, he distinguished himself as a Christian man,” and then proceeds zealous and bigoted papist, and
as follows: in a latin oration, delivered in
" Well, now it is come to this point, 1515, on the occasion of taking - that we be Christian men, Christian his
egree of B. D., before the women; I pray you what doth Christ heads of houses and the fellows, tian woman ? Christ requireth nothing
require of a Christian man, or of a Chrishe distinguished himself by a ve- else of a Christian man or woman, but hement attack on Melanchthon. that he will observe his rule. Bor likeHe refers to this in his first ser- wise as he is a good Augustine Friar, mon on the Lord's prayer, preached
that keepeth well St. Augustine's rule, in the
so he is a good Christian man that keepyear 1552.
eth well Christ's rule. “ Master Bilney, or rather Saint Bil
“ Now then, what is Christ's rule ? ney, that suffered death for God's word
Christ's rule consisteth in many things, sake, the same Bilney was the instru
as in the commandments, and the works ment whereby God called me to know
of mercy, and so forth. And because I ledge, for I may thank him, next to God, cannot declare Christ's rule unto you at for that knowledge that I have in the
one time, as it ought to be done, I will word of God. For I was as obstinate a
apply myself according to your custom Papist as any was in England, insomuch,
at this time of Christmas, I will as I that when I should be made Batchelor said, declare unto you Christ's rule, but
And of Divinity, my whole oration went
that shall be in Christ's cards. against Philip Melanchthon, and against where you are wont to celebrate Christhis opinions. Bilney heard me at that mas in playing at cards, I intend with time, and perceived that I was zealous God's grace to deal unto you Christ's without knowledge; he came to me
cards, wherein you shall perceive Christ's afterward in my study, and desired me
rule. The game that we will play at, for God's sake to hear his confession :
shall be the Triumph, which, if it be I did so. And to say the very truth,
well played at, he that dealeth shall win; by his confession, I learned more than
the players shall likewise win, and the before in many years.
So from that standers and lookers upon shall do the time forward, I began to smell the
same; insomuch that there is no man word of God, and forsook the school-doc- that is willing to play at this Triumph tors and such fooleries."-pp.326,327. with these cards, but they shall be all
winners, and no losers."--pp. 908, 909. This happy intercourse with Bilney, commenced in 1523, and
The first card which he pro. was made the instrument of that
duces is from Matthew v. 22, and mighty change which transformed he plays it in the following deLatimer from a blind and bigoted
cided manner. Romanist, into an enlightened and « These evil disposed affections and zealous Protestant. Nothing inti- sensualities in us are always contrary to midated by the opposition which
the rule of our salvation. What shall he was compelled to encounter, these Turks, and to subdue them? It
we do now, or imagine, to thrust down he avowed and enforced his con
is a great ignominy and shame for a victions with his characteristic Christian man to be bound and subject boldness. About 1529, he was to a Turk: nay, it shall not be so, we appointed to preach the Advent
will first cast a trump in their way, and
play with them at cards who shall have sermons before the University, and
the better, let us play therefore on this he took a singular method of at- fashion with this card. Whensoever it tracting the attention of his hearers. shall happen these foul passions and From John i. 19., he contrives,
Turks to rise in our stomachs against we cannot say with much dex- kind words, injuries, or wrongs, which
our brother, or neighbour, either for unterity, to bring in an allusion to a
they have done unto us, contrary to onr game of cards then in fashion, the mind, straightways let us call unto our Triumph or Trump,, and carries it remembrance, and speak this question
únto ourselves, “ Who art thou?” The on to the end of the two discourses,
answer is, I am a Christian man. Then
were in like condition: this doing, I say, such men kill wittingly their children and servants, and shall go to hell for so doing; but also their fathers and mothers, masters and dames, shall bear them company for so suffering. Wherefore I exhort all true Christian men and women to give good example unto your children and servants, and suffer not them by silence to offend: every man must be in his own house, according to St. Augustine's mind, a Bishop, not alonely giving good example, but teach according to it, rebuke and punish vice, not suffering your children and servants to forget the laws of God: you ought to see them have their belief, to know the commandments of God, to keep their holy days, not to lose their time in idleness; if they do so, you shall all suffer pain for it, if God be true of his saying, as there is no doubt thereof: and so you may perceive that there be many one that break this card, "Thou shalt not kill," and playeth therewith oftentimes at the blind trump, whereby they be no winners, but great losers; but who be they now-adays that can clear themselves of these manifest murders used to their children and servants? I think not the contrary, but that many have these two ways slain their own children unto their damnation, were not the great mercy of God ready to help them when they repent thereof.”-pp. 914--917.
further we must say to ourselves, "What requireth Christ of a Christian man?" Now turn up your trump, your heart (hearts is trump, as I said before) and cast your trump, your heart, on this card, and upon this card you shall learn what Christ requireth of a Christian man, not to be angry, nor moved to ire against his neighbour, in mind, countenance, nor otherways, by word or deed. Then take up this card with your heart, and lay them together; that done, you have won the game of the Turk, whereby you have defaced and overcome by true and lawful play but alas for pity, the Rhodes are won and overcome by these false Turks, the strong castle Faith is decayed, so that I fear it is almost impossible to win it again.
"The great occasion of the loss of this Rhodes is by reason that Christian men do so daily kill their own nation, that the very true member of Christianity is decayed. which murder and killing one of another, is increased especially two ways, to the utter undoing of Christendom, that is to say, by example and silence. By example as thus: when the father, the mother, the lord, the lady, the master, the dame, be themselves overcome with these Turks, they be, continual swearers, adulterers, disposers to malice, never in patience, and so forsooth in all other vices: think you not when the father, the mother, the master, the dame, be disposed unto vice or impatience, but that their children and servants shall incline and be disposed to the same. No doubt, as the child shall take disposition natural of his father and mother, so shall the servants apply unto the vices of their masters and dames; if the heads be false
in their faculties and crafts, it is no marvel if the children, servants, and apprentices do joy therein: this is a great and shameful manner of killing Christian
men, that the fathers, the mothers, the masters, and the dames, shall not alonely kill themselves, but all theirs, and all that belongeth unto them, and so this way is a great number of Christian lineage murdered and spoiled The second manner of killing is silence. By silence also is a great number of Christian men slain; which is on this fashion. although that the father and mother, master and dame of themselves be well disposed to live according to the law of God, yet they may kill their children and servants in suffering them to do evil before their own faces, and do not use
due correction according unto their offences; the master seeth his servant or apprentice take more of his neighbour than the King's laws, or the order of his faculty doth admit him, or he suffered him to take more of his neighbour than be himself would be content to pay if he
We do not, certainly, mean to cite this as a specimen of extraordinary excellence, or even as an example of Latimer's best manner, but this style of preaching was well suited to his audience, and far more intelligible to them in its allusions, than it is to general readers of the present day. These sermons, produced an extraordinary effect.
"It would ask a long discourse," says Fox, (Acts and Monuments, 3d vol. p. 379, ed. 1684), to declare what a stir there was in Cambridge, upon this preaching of M. Latimer. Belike Satan began to feel himself and his kingdom to be touched too near, and therefore thought it time to look about him, and to make out his men of arms.
"First came out the Prior of the Black Friers, called Buckneham, otherwise surnamed Domine labia,
who thinking to make a great hand against Mr. Latimer, about the same time of Christmas, when Mr. Latimer brought forth his 'cards to deface, belike, the doings of the other, brought out his Christmas Dice, casting there to his audience cinque and quater, meaning by the cinque, five places in the New Testament, and the four Doctors by the quater; by which his cinque quater, he would prove, that it was not expedient the Scripture to be in English, lest the ignorant and vulgar sort, through the occasion thereof, might haply be brought in danger to leave their vocation, or else to run into some inconvenience: as for example,
"The plowman when he heareth this in the Gospel, No man that layeth his hand on the plough and looketh back, is meet for the kingdom of God; might peradventure, hearing this, cease from his plough. Likewise the baker, when he hears that a little leaven corrupteth a whole lump of dough, may perhaps leave our bread unleavened, and so our bodies shall be unseasoned. Also the simple man, when he heareth in the Gospel, If thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee, may make himself blind, and so fill the world full of beggars. These, with other more, this clerkly
frier brought out, to the number of five, to prove his purpose."
Latimer was an overmatch for Buckenham, both in argument and in buffoonery, and took an opportunity of assailing the friar with such power of sarcasm, as fairly to drive him out of the field. Disappointed of success in this mode of conflict, his enemies prevailed on Wolsey to interfere, and he appointed a commission to examine Bilney and Latimer, who were persuaded to recant. The former retired to Norfolk, where he retracted his recantation, and on the 19th of August, 1531, was brought to the stake. In the mean time, King Henry was preparing not only to throw off the supremacy of Rome, but to place himself at the head of the English church, and Latimer distinguished himself as an advocate of that strange tenet. He was, consequently, introduced at Court in 1533, preached with great applause, and was presented to a living. Here he was in his element, and distinguished himself as a conscientious pastor and useful preacher. It was while engaged in these duties, that he wrote the celebrated letter to Henry, which may be seen at length in Fox, and which we should but injure by mutilation. (To be continued.)
The Abridged Bible Catechism.-Price Fourpence.
We have been uncommonly pleased with these catechetical manuals of CONG. MAG. No. 68.
Scripture instruction. They must have cost the author much thought and pains in the compilation and arrangement, and it is an additional recommendation, that while he has largely illustrated the great truths of evangelical religion, he has judiciously avoided unnecessary interference with points of unimportant variance. We quite agree with him respecting the peculiar
adaptation of the "plain and ner-
the Vicarage. An additional interest
A slight alteration in the wording of some of the questions, would make them more consecutive.
AT a period when the arts are em ployed by some to illustrate and give increasing fascination to poetry, which must pollute the minds and deprave the morals of the rising generation, it becomes the friends of religion to patronize those artists, who, by the pencil and the graver, seek to embellish the works of such of our poets as have embodied sound principles and right feelings in elegant and impassioned verse.
The unassuming work before us is designed to illustrate the poems of one "whose virtues formed the magic of his song," and contains fifteen elegant little views of interesting objects in Olney or its vicinity, which are either celebrated by Cowper in his poems, or are illustrative of his history, viz.-Yardley Oak-The Peasant's Nest-The Rustic Bridge-View from the Alcove--The Avenue Monumental Urn in the Wilderness-Weston Lodge-Weston Hall-The Elms-The_Shrubbery Town of Olney and Bridge. The Market Place, with Cowper's Residence-Cowper's Summer House and
The sixty pages of letter-press which accompany the engravings, are occupied by a preface-a short memoir of the poet's life, and suitable explanations of the plates, illustrative of various passages quoted from the Task and other poems. A neatly engraved fac simile of Cowper's hand writing
adds much to the interest of this little volume,
There is a singular blunder at page 46, where the writer is correcting Cowper's mistake in calling Poplars "our favourite Elms,” and yet, by mere inadvertence, he confirms the error by saying, The scenery about these Elms, erroneously called Poplars by the poet."
We ought to add, that there are larger editions of this work to bind up with the varied editions of Cowper's works.
The Teacher's Farewell, intended as a parting Gift to the Elder Scholars on leaving the Sunday School. 12mo. 2s. 6d.—London: Westley, 1822.
THE design of this book is good, and its execution respectable; it would, however, have been more appropriate to the class of readers for which it seems to have been exelusively intended, if greater regard had been paid to simplicity in its composition. For young persons in general, we think it likely to prove useful, as a well written and attractive manual of judicious counsel and admonition.