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providential destruction, or that of mur- matism to others, while he was dogmaderers ? But what else can we draw lizing himself with the most giaring from sinking ships, or a youth betrayed license.. Remarks so uniformiy partias, to death by the hands of assassins ? and at the saine time so erroneous and These examples imply, not a mere dipping, carciess, as those which he every where and up ugain ; an immersion immediately makes ou Baptism, canuot puss without followed by an emersion : but a continued ammadversion froin some even of his and permanent imniersion; a remaining greatest admirers.”-pp. 87--89. under water. And every thing, which is thus said to be made to sink, is under

No part of this volume has stood to continue in that state, unless, like a bladder, it should rise again by its pleased us more than the obserown buoyancy. It is impossible, then, vations on Rom. vi. 4. The exto apply' such examples as a rule for pression, 66 buried with Christ in Christian Baptisın."-pp. 42–44. Baptism," has gone a great way to

We must again warn the reader proselyte many to immersion bapthat our critique can give no ade- tism. Mr. Ewing has examined quate idea of the reasonings of the passage with great attention, this work. The passages selected and has completely succeeded, as by us are necessarily weakened in we conceive, in establishing a very their force, by being detached different view of it. He considers from their connexion; while much the scriptural manner of being is omitted, which is necessary to buried—the manner in which Christ their being clearly understood. was buried--the union with Christ We are greatly pleased with some in his burial, which is signified by of Mr. Ewing's remarks on Dr. our baptism, and the design of the Campbell, whose authority, as a Apostle in reminding us of this critic, has often been quoted by sign of that union. After having Antipædobaptists. We apprehend collected the statements of Scripsome things said in this volume ture, respecting the circumstances will tend greatly to weaken the which properly constituted the strength of that authority. It is burial of the Saviour, the author not what Campbell or any body proceedselse says, that we are bound to “ Let me beg my reader to familiarize receive, but what he brings evi- this historical narrative to his mind. A dence to support.

wealthy neighbour has in his garden a hend he has failed to do, in sup- side of this rock he hewed out a tomb,

mount consisting of solid rock. In the port of such strange and uncouth which he intended for the reception of phraseology as immersion in the his own body. But a remarkable occurHoly Ghost.

rence induces him to alter his purpose.

His dearest friend suffers for his sake an * The value of Dr. C.'s assertion I accursed death; and, on the very day of wish not to depreciate. I have long ad- the execution, he obtains leave to dis. mired his superior abilities and acquire- pose of his friend's dead body. He dc. ments. Whicrever his mind was thorough- termines to bury him in his own new ly engaged in his subject, his inquiries tomb, with the highest honours. But appear to have been conducted with the the Sabbath, which is at hand, must greatest possible accuracy. But on seve- suspend the performance of the rites. ral articles of revealed religion, he has all that can be done, in the mean time, evidently written with an indulged negli- is to make a commencement, which gence. I have always had little con- shall preserve the body from decay. fidence in his making a conscientious This done, it is carried into the new confession of the whole counsel of God. tomb in the side of the mount, which is With regard to Baptism in particular, in the garden. There it is placed on the he seems to have had a vanity in patro- stone table in the centre, or on one of nizing what he did not practise. The the stone benches by the side of the apartpassage on this subject, in his Lectures

It is not interred'; for those who on Systematic Theology and Pulpit Elo- are to proceed with the funeral rites see quence, (very naturally quoted by Dr. the body, and liow it is laid, and are Ryland in his Candid Statement,) is satisfied, that nothing but getting the nothing but a specimen of the easy con. door opened will be necessary to their fidence with which he could impute dog- having access to the body, after the Sab

This we appreo

ment.

bath is over. The door is fastened, and arguments in favour of immersion all retire. On the return of the em

than by those against the infant balmers, on the third day, the door is open, and the body is gone. Reader, subjects of this ordinance, and scrutinize my representation. Have 1 many, after first doubting about suppressed any thing which the history the mode, have been led aftermentions or suggests ?

Have I added

wards to relinquish infant baptisin any thing which the history does not express or imply? Is there a conception entirely. Besides, it is not every which the rest of the scriptures, the Christian, or Christian minister, classical historians, and the most en- who is able to treat this part of lightened travellers into the Holy Land,

Land; the controversy with the learning do not confirm ? Is there at'ý colouring, any artifice ; or any inalvertence, any

and ability which are displayed mistake? If you detect any thing of this by Mr. Ewing. On this account, kind, deduct it from my argument, and we again renew our hearty com-, place it, if necessary, on the other side

mendations of the Essay, and our of the question. But when ail is done, tell me, may I not turn to the advocates

sincere wishes, that, if it do not of immersion Baptism, and say, “ Is

terminate the discussion, the arthere a single point of resemblance, be- gument may be carried on in the tween the burial of Christ and your same Christian manner. method of baptizing ?

Is there one shadow of proof, or even of possibility, that the history of the one should enjoin,

The Christian and Civic Economy or so much as countenance the practice of the other?” The inference so fre- of large Towns. By Thomas quently drawn from the passage before Chalmers, D.D. Vol. 2. 8vo. us, is a fair specimen of many cases, in 8s. 6d. London: Whittaker, which a superficial glance seems per

1823. fectly decisive on one side, while a thorough investigation proves really de- However close may be the concisive on the other."-pp. 102, 103. nexion between the Christian and

We should be very glad to fol- Civic - distinguishing the latter low our author through the rest of from municipal regulation --- ecothe work, but we must forbear. nomy of towns, they are, in their We wish particularly to call atten- elements, distinct; the first retion to his discussion, respecting lating to religious instruction, and the mode of Baptisın. On the the latter, so far as the subject other part of the subject he has immediately before us is concerned, also offered many things worthy providing for the exigencies of the of attention, and calculated to destitute poor. We have already show that the subject is still de- given a general outline of Dr. serving of consideration, and more Chalmers's educational system, connected with other parts of truth and we should now proceed, in than

many seem to think. The course, to detail and discuss his mode, we are aware, is generally plans for the amelioration or rather considered the least important part the abolition of pauperism. We of the discussion. In some re- have, however, several reasons for spects it certainly is so. But when declining to pursue this line of it is maintained that baptism by inquiry to any considerable extent. pouring is not baptism, that, We shrink from the encounter of though thus performed, even on a subject which takes in so large a an adult profession, it must be field of experimental investigation, repeated by immersion, when epi- and admits such a host of uncerthets of contempt are frequently tain speculations; we are, moreemployed, respecting this mode of over, deterred by the consideracelebrating the sacred institution, tion of the disproportionate space, the matter ceases to be unim- which must be occupied by a portant. Many persons we know regular disquisition on these knotty have been more stumbled by the and doubtful points. If we were inclined to take side in so compli- and for a great deal more; the additional cated a question, our leaning interest that was felt in the school, when would be to the views of the aboli- nursling and a dependant of his own ;

each was thus led to regard it as a tionists, with exceptions in favour the unexpected support that was given, of age, disease, and orphan in- not one family being deficient of its fancy. Our review of this second quota, though the very poorest of the volume of a work, in inany respects air and consequence of patronage where

territory bad to share in it; the certain most admirable and useful, will, with this proposal invested all the contherefore, be confined to generali- tributors ; the delight expressed hy them ties; but, previously to any fur

at their own independance, not unmixed, ther comment, we must be per- disdain towards any obligation of the

perhaps, with somewhat of a generous mitted again to touch upon the sort from their betters in society,—these statements of our former article. were the tokens of a sufficiency and a Our readers will remember that in spirit that still remain with the very

humblest cot our last number we extracted,

our peasantry, and are

enough to indicate such elements of from the first volume of the pre- moral greatness, as only need to be sent work, a brief account of the called back again from the dormancy successful exertions of an individual into which they had been cradled by the who had appropriated to himself anew, and in the bosom of our commu

hand of pauperiem, when they shall rear a small district, and introduced nity, all those guarantees for the sus, into it the almost pastoral dis- tenance of our people that this cruel cipline recommended by Dr. Chal- foster-mother has destroyed. mers. We have no doubt that the good an example is now beginning to be

“ We are glad to understand that so following interesting details have copied, and that about ten of the Sabbath reference to the same case, though school districts, in that neighbourhood the mention of the Saltmarket of the town, have been recently Jaid

under the same system of management. might seem to connect it with a

There is a most willing concurrence, in meritorious association which has them all, on the part of the population; undertaken the moral culture of and fitted as such an economy is, both to that demesne.

honour them, and to fasten, more te na

ciously than before, the roots of each “ That district of the Saltmarket, little association, among the families which is referred to in the second chapter that are thus admitted to nourish and of this work, has now, for several years, to uphold it, we would earnestly recombeen under the superintendance of the mend the same practice to every other same teacher who originally assumed it. local teacher, who may have obtained a In respect of poverty, we should regard sufficient intimacy with the people, to it as rather beneath the average state of bave made sure of their confidence, and our operative population; and, accord- of the satisfaction which they feel in the ingly, it was proposed, at the outset, kindness and usefulness of his labours.” that all the expenses of the little institu. pp. 79–81. tion which has been reared in it, including the rent of the room, with the

There can, unhappily, be no cost of the fuel and candles, and a small doubt of the injurious effect of library of books, should be defrayed by a legislative system of pauperism the subscriptions of the charitable. But this had not been prosecuted with vigour once separates society into two

on the morals of a people. It at enough to meet all the charges of this humble concern, and the teacher resolved classes, not those of the patron to throw himself on the good-will and and the client, not those of the resources of the parents themselves. It liberal sympathizer with misery, is true, that by a small monthly payment, and the grateful receiver of which is most cheerfully rendered on the part of bis scholars, he has been enabled freely bestowed bounty, but those to overtake and to overpass all the ex- of the taxed and amerced conpenses of his little seminary. The mate- tributor, and the fierce and jealous riel, it may be thought, of this free-will claimant on the ground of right. offering is so insignificant as to prove It dams up the generous stream of nothing. But the alacrity wherewith it was rendered; the conscious ability that beneficence, and gives plausibility was indicatcd for the required sacrifice, to the cold and selfish plea of

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avarice. The fine feelings both of ledge, vigilance, and kindness, charity and of independence are yielding nothing to rapacity or destroyed; the parish dole be- indolence, but providing for the comes an estimated item in the absolute necessities of poverty, anticipated resources of married and leaving every thing else to the life, and, in England at least, we unfettered impulses of neighbourly believe that many a wretched charity. union is formed, on the mere calculation that, let poverty and idle

" When one applies for admittance,

through his deaconi, upon our funds, the ness bring in what ills they may, first thing to be inquired into is, if there the overseers' allowance will, at be any kind of work that he can yet do, least, shut out the evil most to be so as either to keep him altogether off, dreaded, that of absolute starva- or, as to make a partial allowance, serve tion. The system is, moreover, his relations and friends are willing to do

for his necessities. The second, what every way unequal in its operation; for them. The third, whether he is a it taxes the means of those in hearer in any dissenting place of worship, mere circumstances of competency, to his relief. And, if, after these pre

and whether its Session will contribute more heavily than it does the vious inquiries, it be found, that further abundance of the wealthy; it relief is necessary, then there must be a crushes landed property, while it strict ascertainment of his term of redoes not touch the interest of sidence in Glasgow, and whether he be money or mercantile profits. But yet on the funds of the Town Hospital, there is little necessity for recapitu- parish.

or is obtaining relief from any other lating the inflictions of a scourge “ If, upon all these points being ascerconcerning which it may be said tained, the deacon of the proportion where that all feel it, all would wish it he resides, still conceives him an object

for our assistance, he will inquire whether removed, but few are agreed as to

a small temporary aid will meet the the mode or the practicability of occasion, and states this to the first ordiits extirpation.

nary meeting. But, if instead of this, In Scotland the public provision he conceives him a fit subject for a refor the relief of the poor, in smaller sistance of another deacon to complete

gular allowance, he will receive the ascommunities, arises from voluntary and confirm his inquiries, by the next contribution only; in large towns ordinary meeting thereafter, at which compulsory assessments have been time, the applicant, if they still think

him a fit object, is brought before us, superadded. Dr. Chalmers con- and received upon the fund at such a rate tends that the latter are unneces- of allowance as, upon all the circum. sary, and injurious, and that the stances of the case, the meeting of deaformer, under an enlightened super- cons shall judge proper.”—pp. 151, 152. intendence, is amply sufficient. It The effect of his system is thus would be little to the edification of described. our readers were we to go through

"We have now breathed in both these the different gradations of manage- elements—that of a parish, whose supment by which the Scottish system plies for the poor were enforced by stout is distinguished. The Kirk Ses- legality, and that of a parish where this sion, the General Session, the way of it has been totally superseded by Town Hospital, have each their the gratuitous system. and, certainly,

our feeling is, that the air in which we distinct office and jurisdiction, now move, is of a softer and more benigbut notwithstanding the imposing nant quality than before. Nor is it diffiaspect of an ascending scale of cult to comprehend why, in this new inspection and control, the plan have subsided. When a people are more

state of things, many asperities ought to seems to us, from its complication, thrown upon themselves, they soon find, even less effective than the exist- that, as it were by expression, they draw ing law of England.

In lieu of additionally more out of their own proall this, Dr. Chalmers would sub- per resources, than they ever drew from

public chạrity--sd as to be positively in stitute a system of local know- circumstances of greater comfort and

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sufficiency than ever. But more impor- by giving up all connexion with tant still : whatever of intercourse there

the Town Hospital, placed them. is between the rich and the poor under this reformed economy, is purified of all

selves out of the range of compul. that soreness and bitterness which attach sory assessment, and three others to the ministrations of charity, so long have partially adopted the same as the imagination of a right is made to

system. adhere to it. There no longer remaineth this freezing ingredient, either to chill

In his plans for the alteration, the sympathies of the one party, or the and ultimately for the entire regratitude of the other. And, on the peal of the English Poor Laws, whole, there is nothing more certain, Dr. Chalmers is fully alive to the than that when compulsory pauperism is abolished in any parish, and the interest expediency of proceeding cauit would provide for is left to the opera- tiously, and of allowing sufficient tion of spontaneous charity, then does the time for a fair trial of the change tone of this little commonwealth become of system. He proposes that the less harsh and less refractory than it was

General Act should in the first in-a kindlier spirit is felt throughout; and it soon becomes palpable as day, stance be framed so as to provide under which of the two systems it is for three distinct objects. 1. The that we have the more humanized, and

substitution of gratuitous for legal under which of them it is, that we have the more hard-favoured population.”

. charity in any parish of which a pp. 163-165.

given majority shall petition for

licence to adopt the free system. « Coldness, and cruelty, and hardi- 2. While preserving their actual hood, are the inseparable associates of legal charity, and it is under the weight rights to all such poor as have a of its oppressive influences that all the claim under the present laws, it opposite characteristics of our nature- would be expedient to take away its tenderness, and gentleness, and com- both the jurisdiction of the magispassion, have been so grievously over

tracy, and the parochial power of borne. These, however, are ready to burst forth again in all their old and making a rate, and to give a fresh native efilorescence, on the moment that constitution to the vestry. 3. It this heavy incumbrance is cleared away would be necessary to appoint from the soil of humanity. It is indeed

a Parliamentary Commission, to strange, that the advocates of pauperism should have so reproached its enemies watch over the progress, and defor all those stern qualities of the heart, termine the efficiency of the new wberewith it is the direct tendency of system. their own system to steel the bosoms of

Dr. Chalmers is sanguine in his its hard and hacknied administrators ; because the latter have affirmed that expectations of success.

He is so the cause of indigence may safely be far from any apprehension of de confided to those spontaneous sympathies falcation in the fund of voluntary which nature has implanted, and which charity, that he anticipates a surthey should therefore have been charged plus applicable to the important by the former with a conspiracy to damp work of general instruction, and and to disparage these sympathies--with thus multiplying the securities an attempt to eradicate those very principles on which they repose so much of " against pauperism, by widening, their dependence, and to the power of through education, the moral distance which, and the importance of which, between the habits of the people, and a they have rendered the award of a most condition so degrading. And there is high and honourable testimony."-pp. something more to be taken to account 158, 159.

than the eventual good of such a destinaThe plan of Dr. Chalmers ap. to your present administration. It en

tion. It lends a most important facility pears to have been adopted in ables you to meet every applicant for reGlasgow to a considerable extent. lief, with an argument that will moderate The General Session has resigned the tone of his demand, and perbåps to the different Kirk Sessions the

shame him altogether away from it. management of the collections, bearance, he leaves you in better con

You can then tell him, that, by his forwhile two out of ten parishes have, dition for the relief of families still more

or,

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