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men are in their faculties, for they want the highest discussions and dethe greatest of all faculties- to know the

scriptions. Mr. Irying indulges living God and stand in awe of his mighty power: with the

himself in such phrases as the folone,

judgment to come is the stalking-horse of loyalty ;

lowing; muzzle free discourse" with the other, it is the food and spice of -“ power muffled with mercy”– jest-making. Barren souls! -- and is “wiped into oblivion"-"the sproutthe land of Shakspeare, and Spenser, ing of the grave with vitality". and Milton come to this! that it can procreate nothing but such profane “ her (the soul's) callow nakedspawn, and is content to exalt such blots ness sprouteth with a divine pluand blemishes of manhood into, orna

mage:

When the morning ments of the age. Puny age! when religion, and virtue, and manly freedom

stars sung together, and the sons have ceased from the character of those of God shouted for joy,” this gloit accounteth noble. But I thank God, rious concert is styled a merrywho hath given us a refuge in the great making! Nor have we any clear spirits of a former age, who will yet perception of the propriety of inEnglishmen. We can betake ourselves troducing, in connexion with judgto the 'Advent to Judgment of Taylor ;

ment to come,

references to “ the • The Four Last Things of Bates; the old English poem of the Nut-brown Blessedness of the Righteous' of Howe; Maid, or to Goethe's dramatic and the · Saints' Rest of Baxter; books which breathe of the reverend spirit of legend of Faustus. the olden time. God send to the others

These, however, are defects repentance, or else blast the powers they easily removed or excused; there have abused so terribly; for if they re- are redeeming qualities in the pent not, they shall harp another strain at that scene they have sought to val- compositions of Mr. Irving, which garize. The men have seated themselves make all minor failures or excesses in his throne of judgment, to vent from easily tolerable; but we do most thence doggrel spleen and insipid flat- earnestly deprecate the air of loftery; but the impious men have no

tiness and dictation which he has more right to the holy seat, than hath the obscene owl to nestle and bring forth assumed, and to which he will in the Ark of the Covenant, which the find few, out of his own immediate wings of the cherubim of glory did over- circle, inclined to submit. shadow.”—pp. 325, 326.

Before we close, we must hazard a few comments on certain

pecule

An Essay on Baptism; being an liarities of idiom and expression,

Inquiry into the Meaning, Form, which Mr. Irving has largely scat

and Extent of the Administratered over the pages of his

tion of that Ordinance. By lume. He is extremely fond of

Greville Ewing, Minister of introducing those out-of-fashion the Gospel, Glasgow. 12mo. phrases, which our remote an

pp. 204. Price 3s. 6d.—Loncestors delighted in, but which don: Longman; Ogle and Co. modern refinement has, properly That differences of sentiment and

we conceive, long since ba- practice exist among Christians is nished from the list of terms in more matter of regret than of

Į rede you~ere we wis- wonder. Without insinuating that and other antiquities of the same the revelation of God is either kind, have no especial charm dark or ambiguous, it is obvious that we can discern, to justify the that its information on some subaffectation of mingling the quaint jects is more full and explicit than speech of the olden time, with on others; and that the means of other forms and combinations, ascertaining its sense on certain which laugh to scorn the simpli- topics are less ample than those city of the ancient model. Neither which can be brought to bear on can we approve the employment of its grand and essential truths. familiar and coarse expressions in When, with these occasions of

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as

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mistake or ignorance, we combine flecting on the blinding infinence the various causes of error and of early prejudices, fixed habits, opposition to revealed truth which extensive and respectable conexist in ourselves, and which are nexions, worldly interests and continually excited and strengthen- honours, from pursuing their ined by the prince of darkness, that vestigations into the meaning of he may divide and rule those who scripture, and their attempts to ought to be one in faith, and heart, unite the followers of Christ togeand practice; instead of wonder- ther. Unmeaning exclamations ing that the divisions of the Chris- against bigotry, and foolish and tian world are so many, we ought unscriptural harangues about nonrather to bless God that they are essentials, and the impropriety of not more numerous and more contending about forms and ordideadly. The length of time which nances, will never satisfy the conhas elapsed since Christianity be- science of a serious inquirer after gan to be promulgated by its Foun- the will of Christ. They may der and his chosen servants—the produce indifference, and the apmystery of iniquity which operated pearance of liberality, but will during so many ages, corrupting never lead to cordial agreement and injuring every part of the sa- on the principles of the word of cred system, and establishing “all God. Let Christians examine with monstrous, all prodigious things” prayer, and the use of the proper in its place, account for the great means, all the will of Christ; let difficulty of getting back to primi- them preach, or let them publish, tive times and practices. “Truth the result of their inquiries; let indeed came once into the world every man be fully persuaded in with the Divine Master, and was his own mind, and act according a perfect shape, most glorious to to his convictions, and we despair look on; but when he ascended, not of the followers of the one and his apostles after him were Saviour being before the end as laid asleep, then strait arose a they were at the beginning, in wicked race of deceivers, who, as every thing of real importance to the story goes of the Egyptian their cordial union and hearty coTyphon, with his conspirators, how operation, of one heart and of one they dealt with the god Osiris, soul. took the virgin Truth, hewed her Differences respecting some lovely form into a thousand pieces, points are more vexatious and and scattered them to the four injurious than on others. If we winds. From that time ever since, should be asked what is at prethe sad friends of Truth, such as sent the most unlovely, the most durst, appear imitating the careful painful, and the most disastrous search that Isis made for the in its operation, of those contromangled body of Osiris, went up versies which divide those who and down, gathering up limb by are substantially of one mind relimb, still as they could find them. specting the rule of duty, the We have not yet found them all, rights of conscience, and the prinnor ever shall, till her Master's ciples of the kingdom of Jesus second coming; he shall bring Christ, we should not hesitate to together every joint and member, answer, in one word, BAPTISM. and shall mould them into an im- Bitter are the waters of this longmortal feature of loveliness and agitated discussion. On the two perfection."

sides of it are ranged, in constant The friends of truth, however, hostility and frequent conflict, a ought not to be discouraged by multitude of persons, whose fellow, these considerations, nor by re- ship and exertions would otherwise

be one.

An institution, peculiarly rage, without the smallest appearance of simple in its nature, designed for termination. individual observance, and that despair of any result from the existing

“ Christians are actually beginning to but once in a life time, is the occa- controversy. Even among Protestants, sion of more strife and division whose principle it is, that the scriptures than all the other ordinances of

are a sufficient rule of faith and practice,

several churches have been, of late years, Christ together. This is certainly formed on an understood acknowledgunseemlyand unnatural, The ment, that the word of God gives no exman who heals this breach, or plicit instruction to his people, on SO contributes any thing calculated 10

rudimental a subject as the ordinance of set the controversy at rest, will

Baptism. Every member is therefore

left to do respecting it that which is deserve well of the Christian com

right in his own eyes : and it is agreed, munity. We are much deceived that whatever each may think or do for if the publication now on our table himself

, that ordinance shall, in no form, will not do something to ter

and in no case, be admitted into any

part of their public worship. Thus they minate at least one part of this profess their faith and their scepticism seemingly interminable discussion. at the same time. They would preach

An author who writes on the the gospel, and make disciples out of all subject of Baptism has to en

nations; but they own that they cannot

baptize them, in the name of the Father, counter peculiar difficulties. The

and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. parties on both sides profess to be Where this principle is not avowed, the satiated with books and pamphlets practice is frequently the same, and the on the controversy: Almost every people are willing, on other grounds, to

same consequence generally follows. If Baptist minister who has appeared join the communion, no objections are as a writer has distinguished him- made on account of any sentiments they self by some publication on his may hold concerning Baptism; and it side of the question. Defences of soon becomes a delicate matter to ob

serve that ordinance, or to speak partiinfant baptism are numerous; and cularly of it, in the church."-pp. vi, vii. the very booksellers, who are constantly up to the chin in literature in this controversy arose out of

Mr. Ewing's reason for engaging pretend to be squeamish about the publication of a Greek Gramany farther additions to the bap

mar, and a Greek and English tismal controversy. On this state

Scripture Lexicon. of the public mind, the following contains a very valuable disser

That work observations by Mr. Ewing, in his tation on Bártw and Battitw, and Introduction, are worthy of atten- also remarks on some of the Greek tion.

prepositions which affect the bapThe discussion of the questions tismal controversy. To these exusually agitated on the subject of Bap- planations, several objections were tism, requires, on both sides, to be made, first in manuscript, and discussion is itself an evidence of its in- afterwards in a publication by Dr. sufficiency. When a point is thoroughly Ryland. In the part of his work investigated, it is set at rest: when it objected to, Mr. Ewing had been ceases not to be agitated, neither party furnished with the aid of one of has yet been able to ripen it for decision.

Greek I am aware, that many have been long the most accomplished ago shouting victory in this contest. scholars in the kingdom; to whom The duty of immersing in water those he is also indebted for a very who are to be baptized, and of requiring able and learned letter, subjoined that none shall be baptized till they have made a profession of the faith, is alleged to the present publication. In the to be so plain an article of Christian prospect of a new edition of the doctrine, that the man who hears the Grammar and Lexicon, he felt gospel and rejects that article, must be himself called to enlarge and dewilfully disobedient. But it may well abate this confidence, and should humble fend the views formerly published us all, to see the battle continuing to respecting Baptism. Thus origiCONG. MAG. No. 69.

3Q

nated the present work, which we the works of the late lamented trust will render a very essential Professor Murray of Edinburgh, service, both to religion and learn- have not received all the attention ing.

which their merits and importance From the very great condensa- deserve, and which they are yet tion of the argument, and the destined to receive. On his pringreat quantity of minute, but ac- ciples Mr. Ewing analyzes the curate, learning which pervades term Bartw; he endeavours to the Essay, it is a very difficult discover and trace its primitive, task to analyse it. But, in brief, and thus to account for its varied it may be thus described. The applications. The following pasauthor first explains the terms, sage will explain the principle on then inquires into the meaning which he proceeds. and form of the ordinance-pro

" I have been led to question these ceeds to consider objections-offers suppositions. Neither fáttw nor Barmiscellaneous remarks on the hy- Ticio signifies to immerse, more than to pothesis of immersion—and then pour out. Nor are the circumstances of examines the extent of the ad- the connexion more needful to affix to ministration of the ordinance.

baptizing the idea of pouring out, than Under the last is included the de

the idea of immersing. The words are one, and their meaning one.

Let us fence of infant baptism.

venture to analyze them. The following It is in the discussion respecting are admitted as general rules for reducing the mode of baptism that we think words to their first principles. Let those the chief strength and originality the signs of derivation and infection, be

letters and syllables, which are merely of this Essay consist. And we cut off. Let intermediate 'vowels, emhave no hesitation in saying, that, ployed for the purpose of enunciating if we are capable of estimating the consonants, be disregarded, or considered force of argument, the body, of Let those consonants also, which are

as easily changeable into one another. evidence which the author has pronounced by the same organ of adduced completely overthrows speech, (as the lips, the teeth, or the the doctrine of immersion. We palate,) be freely interchanged, as we are not aware that ever the mean

find them actually to be, in the practice

of speaking. That part of the word, ing of the terms has undergone so which remains unvaried after these opeaccurate and so extensive an in- rations, falls to be considered as the vestigation. We do not expect to

radical term. Apply these rules to the see the author's views successfully nations, and you have the syllable, bap;

words in question. Discard the termicombated; but, for the sake of change the intermediate vowel a into , truth, we should be very glad to and the labial consonant b into the labial see what can be said on the other P, and you have the term pop, which is "side by some scholar of equal

the root required.”—p. 22. eminence with Mr. Ewing. Those After showing that pop is the who would judge of the justice of root of the words proposed to be our opinion must not depend on analyzed, and giving some illustraour testimony, or the extracts tions of the extensive diffusion of which we may give, but have this radical, he says, recourse to the work itself; the

• Keep in mind, now, the above exspirit and temper of which are planation, and apply it to Baptism (popas excellent as the argument is tism, and you are furnished with a key, strong

which will naturally and consistently ac

count for all its much disputed acceptaMr. Ewing is a disciple of Horne tions. You have only to observe, that a Tooke, we mean of course the phi- person or thing may be either popped into lology,not the politics of that cele- water, or any other fluid, or may have brated, but eccentric, genius. His water, or any other fluid, popped upon, or views of the philosophy

oflanguage, mystery vanishes.

popped into him or it, and the whole since powerfully corroborated by “ Having thus translated the word

water.

Baptisin (which we have been often There are many instances, in which challenged to do) we are prepared to Battiğw signifies to immerse, that is, to show that it signifies the application, pop in, to plunge or sink completely under properly the sudden and slight applica

Thus, ουδε γαρ τοίς ακολύμtion, of water, or some other liquid; but, in a more lax sense, the application βοις βαπτίζεσθαι συμβαίνει ξύλων of it, in any manner, or for any pur- Tpórov érintolásovoi, s to those who pose ;-byeffusion, affusion, perfusion, or are unable to swim it does not happen to infusion; by sprinkling, daubing, friction, sink under water, (Gr. to be baptised) or iminersion ; wholly or partially, per- they float like wood.” Strabo, lib. 6. manently or for a moment ;--for purify- ούπω μέλλοντος βαπτίζεσθαι τού ing or defiling, ornamenting or bespatter- okápovs, “the vessel not being at all ing, washing away what was found ad

about to sink.” Joseph, de Bell. IV. 3. hering, or covering with what was not there before,—for at once washing away

βαπτίσθεντος γαρ ημών του πλοίου the filth, and inducing the new beauty ;

κατά μέσον τον 'Αδρίαν δί όλης for merely wetting the surface, or caus- της νυκτός ενηξάμεθα, « our vessel ing the liquor to sink into the inmost having sunk (foundered) in the middle of core, not only to refresh the living, but the Adriatic sea, we swam the whole to act, in the moment of creation, as an night.” Joseph. Vit. § 3. Stephens element of life.”-pp. 27, 28.

quotes as an example of the word sigWe are aware that this deri. nifying to dip, the following from Pluvation of the term is likely to occa

tarch de Superstit. την περιμάκτριαν sion some ludicrous associations ;

κάλει γραϋν, και βάπτισον σεαυτόν and that jokes of various sorts εις θάλασσαν και καθίσας εν τη γη are likely to be produced by it, skilled in baking, and baptize thyself in

“6 call an old woman partly at the expense of the au- the sea, and sitting down on the ground thor, and partly as an easy way of remain all day :”—but in this passage getting rid of the force of the búntloov evidently seems to mean no argument. There is no avoiding more than wush thyself. Josephus uses it this

twice concerning the death of Aristoin philological consequence speculations. It ought to be ob- bulus, the brother of Mariamne, who

was drowned through Herod's instigaserved that Mr. Ewing thus ana- tion at Jericho, by certain Greeks, who lyzes the vowels, in order to ac- enticed hinı into the water to swim, and count for their varied conventional ther, under pretence of play, immersed

him or kept him under water, till he died. meanings. It seems to us impos- βαπτίζοντες, ούκ άνηκαν έως και sible to dispute its diversified appli- mavránaolv år

Oviđai, Jewish Antiq. cations. Let those, then, who dis- B. XV. chap. iii. § 3. Again, in his pute the analysis now proposed, wars of the Jews, B. I. chap. xxii. 5 2. substitute, if they can, a better “ The young man was sent to Jericho, one in its place, or endeavour and there, according to his orders, being otherwise to account for the vari

immersed in a fish pond, he came to his

end :” βαπτίζομένος εν κολυμβήθρα. ous meanings of the disputed words. We must also observe, stances of Immersion baptism. As in

These, I conceive, to be genuine inthat the scriptural and classical the case of Bartw, I have been obliged illustrations of these meanings, ad- to go for them to Josephus, and to other duced in the work before us, are writers of merely human authority, beentirely independent of the analy

cause I have not been able to meet with

an instance of Immersion Baptism in the sis, and of every system of phi- Holy Scriptures. There is one point in lology. They must be tried on

which some of these instances differ from their own grounds; and we think the example given of the same meaning of that many of them will furnish βάπτω. In that, it was applied to' hard task to show that they can

what a man did to himself. Here, it admit of the idea of immersion in

must be confessed, that, in some of the

cases, there are dippers as well as dipped, any possible modification. After and the other cases also, are not those of illustrating the various modes in voluntary plunging, but of fatal sinking.' which Bartw is employed, the au

Is this the pattern of baptizers and bap

tized ? Shall we illustrate the office of thor proceeds to Battiğw, and John the Baptist and of the apostles and among other things observes-

evangelists of Christ, by the work of

a

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