Obrazy na stronie

ticular, were attracted by his principles concerning the philosophy of history. Cousin, Chateaubriand, Lherminier, Michelet, and, finally, the Saint Simonians studied him, and brought him into notice; the English placed his writings in their libraries; his name and his works reached even to the New World. Hegel died on the fourteenth of Noveinber, 1831, the anniversary of the death of Leibnitz: he rests by the side of Fichte, his illustrious predecessor. His loss will be sensibly felt in the philosophical world, in which he leaves a void that it is impossible to fill. Kant, in his old age, beheld the rise of Fichte; Fichte animated with his spirit the precocious intellect of Schelling; Schelling beheld Hegel growing up by his side, and after having retired for twenty years from philosophical labors, he survives his friend. Hegel leaves behind him a crowd of distin. guished disciples, but no successor. Philosophy has now completed its destined circle ; further progress can now be made only in conformity to the method marked out, with equal clearness and precision, by the great man whose irreparable loss we are deploring."

It is these last expressions in particular which have provoked the reply of M. de L-i, a reply in which, perhaps, there is a little bitterness of tone. The author objects to the too great importance attributed, in his view, to the philosophical labors of Hegel. At the same time with Hegel, he says, lived another philosopher of an original, vast and independent mind, whose system, in its principles, and in its practical results, is infinitely superior to that of Hegel. The philosopher referred to is M. Frederic Krause (now at Munich). If, heretofore, Krause has not had an extensive field for the employment of his powers, it is because the governments which he has never flattered, have left him without support, and have even endeavoured to throw obstacles in his way; but the world must soon appreciate the high theological and practical bearing of the system of Krause. We too, who also pride ourselves upon being among the disciples of this philosopher, are a party interested in this contest, and we fully subscribe to every thing advanced by M. de L-i with regard to his system and his character. This pamphlet can be regarded only as the forerunner of a greater conflict, which must soon take place between principles so different as those of Hegel and Krause. The fundamental questions to be examined and decided are clearly laid down in it. Hegel's great merit is his having contributed, by his logic, to establish philosophy upon a deep and fixed basis, and of having guarded it against the superficial tendency which threatened to prevail in Germany. All this is justly appreciated by M. L-i, but at the same time he maintains that the philosophy of Hegel, taken as a point of departure, would carry civilization several ages backward, and that the conclusions relating to the constitution of society, by which it would endeavour to limit the infinite reign of ideas to certain conditions of place and time, to exhibit human nature as having arrived at its most perfect degree of development in the institutions established on the bank of the Spree, and, in a word, to impose on philosophical science the office of being the monograph of the Prussian empire, are contrary to the true spirit of human nature;


VOL. I. - NO, I.

and, in fine, that a disciple of Hegel would do wisely to keep silence upon this part of the system of his master. The system of Krause, on the contrary, says the author, embraces human nature in all its intellectual and social aspects. The new spirit of civilization calls for this system as a guide in its future progress. With it a new era in human nature will commence.

We will not here carry out the ideas which we entertain in con mon with M. L-i. We have promised to give an exposition of the philosophical system of Krause, which will be admitted into an early number of this Review. The French public will then be able to form an opinion upon this system.

H. AHRENS, of Göttingen.


[Abridged from “ The British Critic, No. 24.”] [What follows is the most entertaining part of a long article on the works mentioned, together with an extract or two not found in the review quoted. Captain Mundy's “Sketches' are spoken of in the same style of praise in most of the other notices of them. Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali is an English lady married to a Mussulmaun of India. Evd.]

Art. VIII. – 1. Observations on the Mussulmauns of India ; de

scriptive of their Manners, Customs, Habits, and Religious Opinions. Made during a Twelve Years' Residence in their immeiliate Society. By Mrs. Meer HASSAN Ali. 2 vols..

London: Parbury, Allen & Co. 2. Pen and Pencil Sketches ; being the Journal of a Tour in India.

By CAPTAIN MUNDY, late Aide-de-Camp to Lord Combermere. 2 vols. London : Murray.

These are precisely the books from which information, on matters of ordinary occurrence in India, may be most agreeably derived; and, although differing from each other in many respects, both as to object and to character, they have quite enough similarity to justify us in classing them together.

From her connection with the Syaads Mrs. Hassan Ali, by right of her husband, derives the honorable title Meer. The Syaads are descendants from Mohammed, and as such form the Mussulmaun aristocracy. Their genealogy is most carefully preserved; and every child born to Syaad parents is taught, as soon as it can speak intelligibly and before it quits the Zeenahnah, to recount its lineage up to Hassan or Hosein, the two sons of Ali by his cousin Fatima, daughter of the Prophet. The daughters, who by birth are hereditary Begums, or Ladies, are rarely matched out of their own race, whatever may be the wealth of the suitor; and many therefore, in consequence of this unbending pride of family, are condemned to celibacy and poverty. Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali speaks of three Syaad ladies with whom she was intimately acquainted,

young women, "remarkable for their industrious habits, morality, "and strict observance of their religious duties, handsome, wellformed, polite and sensible," and possessing, in addition, an accomplishment by no means common among the females of Hindostan, that of being able to read the Koran in Arabic and its commentary in Persian. These ladies had refused numerous offers from persons of great wealth but of defective pedigree; and they preferred the scanty subsistence which they could procure by the hard labor of their hands to the degradation of a mesalliance. “I “ have known them to be employed in working the jaullie (netting) “ for courties (a part of the female dress) which after six days' “ close application, at the utmost could not realize three shillings “ each; yet I never saw them other than contented, happy, and “ cheerful; a family of love and patterns of sincere piety.”

Much of the insight which Mrs. Meer lassan Ali obtained into the recondite parts of Mussulmaun doctrine was derived from her father-in-law, Meer Hadjee Shah, a venerable octogenarian, who had thrice achieved the pilgrimage to Mecca, and who still hoped to perform it a fourth time in company with his son's wife, albeit she was a Christian, and to lay his bones in the consecrated soil of the holy district. A mania for accommodating prophecy to passing events, and a belief in the approach of a season, resembling the supposed Millennium, in which there shall be perfect peace and happiness over all the world, appears to be no less prevalent among the Oriental devotees of the present day, than it is among some of our own fanatics; and the cause is probably the same in both cases, — namely, superabundant animal piety operating upon half-knowledge and unsound judgment. The contest between the Greeks and Turks, of which, after all, the Indian Mussulmauns possess but very incorrect knowledge, is referred by them to a prophecy which declares that “when Mecca is filled with Christian

people, Emaum Mhidhie will appear to draw men to the true “ Faith, and then also Jesus Christ will descend from Heaven to “ Mecca; there will be great slaughter among men, after which “ there will be but one Faith; " and the period of universal earthly beatitude will commence. This Emaum Mhidhie, between whom and the prophetic Elias a resemblance in some res

ects may be discerned, is in others a most ambiguous and mystic personage, admirably adapted to the use of Apocalyptical Edipi. He is called “the standing proof,” and all parties agree that he is to visit the earth at a future period. Some, however, maintain that he is yet to be born, others that he is only to reappear. One sect affirms that he is still on earth, dwelling in wilds and forests; and many believe that he annually visits the Holy House (Caaba) of Mecca, on the great day of sacrifice, without being recognised. “There is but little more to finish,” — “The time draws near,"

common Mussulmaun expressions when speaking of those which, for the sake of convenience, we shall call Millennarian prophecies. Meer Hadjee Shah, through his daughter-in-law, had


become intimately acquainted with the Bible; he acknowledged its divine origin, and he admitted it and the Koran to be the “two

witnesses of God. No slight proof of the benevolent and tolerant spirit of the amiable old man is afforded by the pleasure with which he frequently recalled two favorite texts,

“ Other sheep I “ have which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and

they shall hear my voice, and there shall be one fold and one

shepherd;" — and again, “In my Father's house are many man$ sions."

In his last serious conversation with Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, which occurred but a few days before his death, and which, she says, contains “the real sentiments of most, if not of every “religious, reflecting, true Mussulmaun of his sect in India,” he thus expressed himself:

“We had been talking of the time when peace on earth should be universal; ‘My time, dear battie, (daughter), is drawing to a quick conclusion. You may live to see the events foretold, I shall be in my grave; but remember, I tell you now, though I am dead, yet when Jesus Christ returns to earth, at his coming, I shall rise again from my grave; and I shall be with him, and with Emaum Mhidhie also.'Observations, vol. 1.

p. 145.

The life of Meer Hadjee Shah was strongly tinctured with eastern adventure. Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali intends, at some future time, to write a detailed biographical memoir of her father-in-law, and we shall here abridge her present abridgment. Meer Hadjee Shah was the eldest son of a Kauzy, or Judge, in the city of Loodeeanah, the capital of the Punjaab territory, and he was destined by his father for his own profession. An uncontrolable spirit of enterprise, however, directed the youth's course to another path, and this spirit was strikingly manifested by an incident of his boyhood. On one occasion, during his play-hours, he attempted, in company with some school-fellows, to possess himself of a flock of wild pigeons which lodged in an old well without the town; and on account of his well-known courage he was selected as the hero who was to descend, seated on a piece of board, to snare the birds, by groping for them in a hole which gave them refuge. He had already deposited several of these prizes in a bag slung round him for the purpose, when something met his grasp which he felt as. sured was not a bird; and which, on extricating his arm from the hole, he discovered to be a large and living snake. With great presence of mind he determined not to alarm his play-fellows, who in their terror might have let go the rope and precipitated him to the abyss below; but calling out to them to draw him up quickly, he continued to grasp the snake firmly behind the head, so that it could neither extricate itself nor injure him, unless by the severe pressure of its coiling. During his ascent he rubbed the venomous animal's head against the side-wall, and after he had borne it triumphantly to the summit, the other boys dispatched it with stones. Yet so violent had been the snake's struggles and so powerful its

compression, that the skin peeled entirely off the boy's arm, which was useless for many months afterwards.

At seventeen, he determined to engage himself in the military service of a neighbouring Rajah who was levying troops; and on presenting himself at the Durbar he was accepted and enrolled among the Chief's immediate followers. During several years he accompanied his master to the field, and obtained considerable distinction by the prowess which he exhibited against the Sikhs. He was yet in very early youth when he nndertook his first pilgrimage to Mecca; and while in Arabia his funds were wholly exhausted without his possessing acquaintance with a single individual by whom they could be replenished. From this fearful difficulty he was extricated by a lucky incident, which might have happened either to Sindbad or to one of the monocular Calenders; and in the recital of which some allowance perhaps must be made for the romantic coloring which is, for the most part, thrown over oriental histories. A rich Arabian widow, who had been long tormented with a grievous disease which medical art had failed to relieve, dreamed one night that a certain Syaad pilgrim from India, then abiding at the Serai without the town of her residence, possessed an infallible remedy. Meer Hadjee Shah answered the description of the dream; he was summoned to the Begum's presence, and there disavowed all acquaintance with medicine, but offered a powder which he had about him, and which had greatly benefited a brother pilgrim. Such a testimonial for the efficacy of his drug was quite sufficient to justify an Arabian she-dreamer in swallowing it; and either her own faith or Meer Hadjee Shah's physic entirely cured the sick Begum's complaint, and as a consequence replenished the pocket of her Médecin malgré lui-même.

We pass over the rout of a pack of wolves by the Hadjee's staff; and the sabring a tiger by a weapon, which having, in the hands of his grandsire, severed the head from the carcass of a like animal, at a single blow, was preserved as a proud family memorial. These are little more than every-day events in Indian life; and where Captain Mundy is in reserve, it would be most unjust to anticipate tigers. A dream once saved Meer Hadjee Shah from the plague. In the night-season it was whispered to him, “Go not to * Shiraaz, where thou shalt not find profit or pleasure, but bend “ thy steps towards Kraaballah.” He obeyed, in spite of the sneers of his comrades, and escaped the contagion, which they afterwards learned was raging at Shiraaz. Once was he captured by Arab pirates, but he harangued them so pathetically in their own language, that they not only released him and his whole ship's crew, but even forced presents upon them in compensation for their inconvenient detention. It would have been remarkable, indeed, if the marriage of such a personage as we are describing had been the result of common-place courtship; and one of his brides, Fatima, was thrown into his arms by a train of circumstances in full accordance with the remaining tenor of Meer Hadjee Shah's ad

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