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of the water. After sailing majestically up the great bay till they came opposite the mouth of a sinaller one, they turned towards it in a regular line; one, the largest I had seen any where, taking the lead, like an admiral. He had attained the entrance, with the other seven following, when some monster arose from the bottom, near the shore, where he had been lurking, opposed his further progress, and a conflict instantly ensued. The daring assailant I distinguished to be a sword-fish, or sea-unicorn, the knight-errant of the sea, attacking every thing in its domain; his head is as hard and as rough as a rock, out of the centre of which grows horizon. tally an ivory spear, longer and far tougher than any warrior's lance; with this weapon he fights. The shark, with a jaw larger and stronger than a crocodile's, with a mouth deeper and more capacious, strikes also with his tail, in tremendous force and rapidity, enabling him to repel any sudden attack by confusing or stunning his foe, till he can turn on his back, which he is obliged to do ere he can use his mouth. This wily and experienced shark, not daring to turn and expose his more vulnerable parts to the formidable sword of his enemy, lashed at him with his heavy tail, as a man uses a flail, working the water into a syllabub. Meanwhile, in honor, I suppose, or in the love of fair play, his seven compatriot sharks stood aloof, lying to with their fins, in no degree interfering in the fray. Frequently I could observe, by the water's eddying in concentric ripples, that the great shark had sunk to the bottom, to seek refuge there, or elude his enemy by beating up the sand; or, what is more probable, by this manœuvre to lure the sword-fish downwards, which, when enraged, will blindly plunge its armed head against a rock, in which case its horn is broken; or, if the bottom is soft, it becomes transfixed, and then would fall an easy prey. De Ruyter, while in a country vessel, had her struck by one of these fish, (perhaps mistaking her for a whale, which, though of the same species, it often attacks), with such velocity and force, that its sword passed completely through the bow of the vessel ; and, having been broken by the shock, it was with great difficulty extracted. It measured seven feet; about one foot of it, the part attached to the head, was hollow, and the size of my wrist; the remainder was solid, and very heavy, being indeed the exquisite ivory of which the Eastern people manufacture their beautiful chess-men. But to return to our sea-combat, which continued a long time, the shark evidently getting worsted. Possibly the bottom, which was clear, was favorable for his enemy; whose blow, if he succeeds in striking while the shark is descending, is fatal. I think he had struck him, for the blue shark is seldom seen in shoal or discolored water; yet now he foun. dered on towards the bottom of the bay, madly lashing the water into foam, and rolling and pitching like a vessel dismasted. For a few minutes his conqueror pursued him, then wheeled round and disappeared; while the shark grounded himself on the sand, where he lay writhing and lashing the shore feebly with his tail. His seven companions, with seeming unconcern, wore round, and, slowly moving down the bay, returned by the outlet at which they had entered. Hastening down to the scene of action, I saw no more of them. My boat's crew were assembled at the bottom of the bay, firing muskets at the huge monster as he lay aground; before I could join them, he was despatched, and his dead carcase laid on the beach like a stranded vessel.” – Vol. 111. 253-261.
In these extracts is much of that love and enjoyment of nature that redeem the turbulent passions and fierce contentions of other parts of the work : it is a wild beast, as we have said of the hero, but it is a noble one, and pursues his prey amidst the most glorious
wilds of unhackneyed nature. We have reserved for the last a small specimen of description, which, if it be not thought to be perfect in its kind, and worthy of the sister art of painting, we must be content to forego all credit for taste in such matters. The hero's guide and model, - a species of angel-devil or robber-philosopher, had, in the course of previous wanderings, discovered, within some week or so of Java, the hull of a foundered vessel, sunk as it w re among a cradle of rocks; and, the occasion turning up, it was determined to visit it, and try if the contents would repay a couple of idle crews for hauling it from the vasty deep. The following passage is an account of the progress and performance of the experiment.
“ We now got out our boats; after pulling about all day, under a sun so hot that our brains seeined undergoing the process of frying, we happiiy, before the night set in, hit on the very spot marked by De Ruyter ; but, the day closing, we were compelled to desist till daylight. We ran the boats on shore on a pretty island, supped, and slept; then, with the earliest dawn, we pushed on our discovery, till we came on the identical foundered wreck. The water was transparent as glass. By sounding on the hull of the wreck, we found there was not more than twenty feet water from her deck; and that, lying on rocks, but little sand had collected near her. We laid down a buoy to indicate the spot, and returned to the vessels, which were drawing near to take us on board, impelled by sweeps ; for su siill was the wind, that the feathered vanes above the lofty truck drooped motionless.
“With lines, halsers, grapnels, and the other necessary materials, not forgetting the divers, we again went towards the submerged vessel. As I gazed below, long and steadily, so perfectly was every portion of her visible, that she forcibly reminded me of those models of ships enclosed in glass cases, - the rough and jagged bed on which she lay resembling the mimic waves which sometimes surround them. Even the heaps of shellfish that now incrusted and peopled her deck with marine life, and the living sea-verdure of weeds and mosses, might have been as distinctly noted and classed as if exhibited on a table. When the dark divers descended on her decks, the glass-like element, as in a broken mirror, multiplied their forms, till they seemed to be the demons, hidden in her hold, rushing up in multitudes to defend their vessel, assaulted even under the sanctuary of the mighty ocean.
“ After many fruitless efforts and long-continued toil, we succeeded in getting a purchase on her. Then by sinking butts of water, refully securing them to the tackle affixed to the wreck, and restoring their buoyancy by pumping out the water from them, at length we moved her, and passed strong halsers under her. On the second day the grab and schooner were placed on each side of her, the number of casks was increased, and we hove on many and complicated purchases, till she was fairly suspended, and, at length, her almost shapeless hull reluctantly arose to the surface. It looked like a huge coffin, in which some antediluvian sea-colossus had been entombed. The light of day shone strangely on her incrusted, hoary, and slimy hull. Sea-stars, crabs, crayfish, and all sorts of shell-fish crawled and clung in and about her, amazed at the transition from the bottom of the cool element, in which they had dwelt, to a fiery death from the sun, whose rays, darting on their scaled armour, transfixed them as with a spear. We turned to, and, by baling, partially cleared her of water; so that it
was evident, although she leaked considerably, she was not bilged. The deck and main-hold had been cleared, either by the water or by the people of Sumatra, whose fishing boats might possibly have come a thwart her; but the after-hold, which was battened securely down, protected by a double deck, and bulkheaded off, was untouched. I forgot to niention that, as we were baling, we disturbed a huge water-snake at the bottom of the hold, which the men had mistaken for the bite ot' a cable, and that he speedily cleared the decks. Either he had a taste for shell-fish, or preferred a wooden kennel to a coral cave. We made a simultaneous and vigorous attack on him with pikes and fire-arms; yet it was not till be was gashed like a crimped cod that he struck his flag, and permitted us to continue our work. The divers said he might have eaten them when they were under water; – I know not that, but can aver that the men, more ferocious and greedly than the shark, did incontinently, now that he was out of water, eat him.” -- Vol. iii. 212-215.
The mottoes of every chapter are, without exception, from one of three authors, Byron, Shelley, or Keats. Trelawney was the friend and favorite of each of these gifted men; and it is possible that previous to his acquaintance with them in Italy, he had read little, though he had done more than perhaps all these sons of Apollo put together. He has at any rate exhibited his taste in the selection of these fragments from the remains of his departed companions; and it is singular to observe how remarkably the imaginations of each in their kind had shadowed forth scenes and images of a kindred spirit with those which it has been the fate of their more muscular friend to see and struggle in.
[Translated from the “ Revue Encyclopédique, Avril, 1832."]
[The following article contains a sketch of the life of Hegel, one of the most noted of the inodern German metaphysicians, if they will consent to be called by that name. In whatever estimation one may hold the “transcendental phi“losophy," its history, like that of the philosophy of the later Platonists, with which it has many points of resemblance, forms an important article in the history of human opinions. Perhaps the best brief account of the doctrines of its different teachers is to be found in a volume entitled “ Grundzüge und Kritik " der Philosophien Kant's, Fichte's, und Schelling's," u. s. f.;-. e." The Princi. “ples of the Philosophy of Kant, Fichte, and Schelling, stated and examined. “ Second edition, revised and enlarged, with additions concerning
Hegel, Klein, “Oken, Rirner, and Steffens. By J. A. Wendel, Director of the Ducal Gymna“ sium at Coburg. 1824.” The volume, which is a 12mo of about 300 pages, would be worth translating.
Of the Life and Literary Correspondence of Fichte, the publication was commenced by his son, in 1830. The first volume contains his Life. We have seen a remark quoted from it respecting Fichte’s lectures at Jena, which will deserve preservation in the history, whenever it may be written, of the transcendental philosophy ; “ There was,” it is said, “a confident faith in Fichte such as there
never had been in Reinhold. His hearers understood him, it is true, far less; " but they believed, in consequence, the more obstinately.” (“Man versteht 16 freilich
noch ungleich weniger als diese aber man glaubt dafür auch “ desto hartnäckiger”). How important the unintelligible is to the belief of many
who are very obstinate in their belief, is a consideration which was never presented with more brevity and simplicity.
Of Krause, who is mentioned in the conclusion of this article, the two principal works, we believe, are“ Outlines of the System of Philosophy" (** Abriss des * Systems der Philosophie"), of which the first part was published in 1828, and no other, as far as we are informned, has yet appeared; and “ Lectures upon the “ System of Philosophy" (“.Vorlesungen,” us.f.), published the same year. His dialect, from the notices which we have seen of these works, seems to distinguish him even among transcendental philosophers by its technical barbarisms.
The“ Revue Encyclopédique" has passed into the hands of one sect of the Saint Simonians; and from the praise bestowed upon Krause at the conclusion of this article, his works may be concluded to favor their principles. Edd.]
Art. VII. Winke zur Kritik Hegels, etc. Hints for a Criti.
cism on Hegel, occasioned by the Unsrici tific Claims of M. G-s in the “ Prussian State Gazette.” Munich. 1832 ; Georges Tranz. 12mo. pp. 36.
Tus little pamphlet, which is written with clearness and precision, is an answer to the assertions made by M. Gans, in relation to Hegel, his master and friend, in the “ Prussian State Gazette," on announcing in it the death of this distinguished philosopher. Before entering upon an examination of this answer, we will give some extracts from the article of M. Gans, which form a biographical notice of Hegel, and appear to us adapted to interest our readers.
"George William Frederic Hegel was born at Stuttgard, August 27th, 1770. At the age of 18, he repaired to the university of Tübingen, or rather to the theological school in that city, with the view of devoting himself to the study of theology, and afterwards to that of philosophy. He was for several years the room-mate of Schelling: and thus a small apartment contained at the same time him, who, in the enthusiasın of youth, was to give a new impulse to philosophy, and him who was called to elaborate it with the profoundness of riper years. Hegel never forgot this youthful attachment; his most intimate friends never heard him detract in the slightest degree, either from the character of Schelling, or from the merits of his system, able as he was to raise himself above it. The first period of Hegel's life coincided with an era of critical agitation. In the west of Europe the ideas of the eighteenth century had shaken the political constitution of society, and in the east, Kant, the founder of modern philosopliy, had overthrown the empty dogmatism which prevailed before him. Hegel was affected at the same time by both these coinmotions, and resolved to devote himself wholly lo philosophy. When Fichte appeared with so much splendor upon the scene, at the end of the eighteenth century, he numbered for a time among his disciples Schelling and Hegel, who were soon to oppose and to go beyond him.
“In 1800, Hegel, having come into possession of his paternal estate, repaired to Jena, a city whose university had raised itself to the first rank in Germany, as a school of philosophy. He there endeavoured to spread the principles of Schelling ; published a book upon the difference between the systems of Fichte and Schelling, as well us several remarkable articles in the “Critical Journal of Philosophy," and undertook a course in which he was assisted by men who have since gained celebrity by their important labors, as Gabler of Bayreuth, and 'Troxler of Lucerne. His residence at Jena also brought him into connexion with Schiller and Goethe, whose sagacity even then detected the fruitful germ which was concealed in bim under a somewhat rough bark. Meanwhile political circumstances long, prevented the government from doing any thing for Hegel; and when, in 1806, after the departure of Schelling, he was appointed Extraordinary Professor of Philosophy, he still received but a very moderate compensation. It was within hearing of the battle of Jena that Hegel finished his Phenomenology of the Mind, a work in which he separated bimself for ever from the school of Schelling. In this he established, in direct opposition to the principles of the latter philosopher, that knowledge does not consist in the simple intuition of the absolute, that intellectual intuition is the achievement of philosophical science in its final result, and that a reform was needed in philosophy, to remove that Pindaric style, that tone of mystical enthusiasm, which is the chief failing of the disciples of Schelling, and to restore to philosophy its true form, the scientific form.
“In the autumn of 1808, Hegel was appointed rector of the gymnasium at Nuremberg, where he married Mademoiselle de Tucher, who still survives him, after a union of twenty years. Here he displayed his talents and activity in a new department, that of instruction. The peace which fol. lowed the restoration opened a vast field for philosophical labors, and what Hegel had as yet represented only phenomenologically, by degrees assumed, in his mind, objective forms. He published his Logic, the first and principal part of philosophy. It is not composed of the forms of subjective thought alone ; for under the name of logic, Hegel also comprehends metaphysics.
“In 1816, he accepted a Professorship of Philosophy which was offered to him at Heidelberg. Here commenced the briliant period of his philoso. phico-academical career. Around him assembled a circle of young pupils in all the branches of study. The originality and profoundness of his system broke through his obscure exposition of it, and displayed themselves even to those who did not yet fully comprehend it. The name of Hegel, hitherto known only among men particularly devoted to philosophical science, became celebrated throughout Germany. But it was upon another stage that Hegel was to carry out his ideas to their full developement, and to extend his fame over Europe. On the publication of his Encyclopædia of the Philosophical Sciences, the first act of the great statesman, then placed at the head of public instruction in Prussia, was to invite Hegel to the University of Berlin. In spite of the efforts of the government of Baden to retain him, Hegel, desirous of widening his sphere of action, accepted the situation offered to him. During the first year he divided the instruction with Solger, then performed its duties alone for twelve years; and, with the assistance of his pupils, many of whom had become masters in their turn, he extended the reputation of his philosophy throughout Europe. The enjoyments of every kind which he found at Berlin, restored to hiin the ardor of youth; he delivered at the University nine courses in succession, upon logic and metaphysics, nature, psychology and jurisprudence, history, art, religion, and the history of philosophy. In the exposition of his system, he wanted that facility, that readiness of expression, which is often possessed by ordinary men; but he who did not suffer himself to be repelled by these external defects, felt himself transported into a magic circle, by the clearness which the professor was able to give to every subject, and the energy of his language.
“ In the last year of his life, the king of Prussia expressed his sense of his merit by honoring him with the Red Eagle of the third class. Then too his name and his works ached foreign nations. The French, in par.