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ifands, and that that alone was the I continent, which lay beyond this |, world. Aiillotlc, with more caution, ;ad coming nearer the truth, fays, it s probable, there are many other countries, some greater, some less, beyond this our world: but in another place he is bolder; namely, that the Carthaginians dilcovered, in the sea beyond Hercules's Pillars, a desart island, abounding in all the necessaries of life; that they often sailed thither, and that some settled there : but this is all conjecture; farther than which the knowledge of the ancients seems not to have reached in this respect. But in Seneca's Medea, there is a prophecy, which is now fully accomplislied: whence this obscure knowledge was derived, whether from experience or from reasoning, cannot well be determined. It, however appears, that the New World was not entirely unknown to the ancients, and that some who sailed to and from it, spread the fame of it in the world: whether carried thither by chance, or whether they undertook the voyage on purpose, of all this we can form no certain judgment. irLASTicu.M Mare, Atlanticus Oceexus, Cicero, Horace; denominated from mount Atlas; lies between the western coast of the Old, and the eastern of the New World, extending northwards to the Hyperborean, and southwards to the Southern Ocean. Atlas, a mountain, or mountains, cf Mauretania Tingitana, distinguished by Ptolemy into the Greater, called Dyris by the barbarians, Strabo; and into the Less: the other writers mention only one, whether the Greater or the Less, is very uncertain -. fame and mythology frem to claim the Greater: but Piny*? account, in which he is followed by Solinus, agrees better with the Less. These authors fay, that •his mountain is two hundred and five miles distant from Lixum, and Ltxum an hundred and twelve miles from the Streights of Gibraltar: hut Ptolemy's Greater Atlas, is a fmt deal more distant from Lix■a. The height of this mountain
is so considerable, that the poet» feigned it supported the heavens. Pliny writes, that Suetonius Paulinus was the first Roman general that traversed this mountain a considerable way. Both these mountains run a great length, from the Western Sea into the land. This mountain gave rife to the proverbial faying, "\r\ac To» denoting an arduous and hazardous talk. Atoa, a town of Mauretania Caesariensis, Ptolemy; lying beyond the Monies Chalcorychii, far to the south.
Atracia. SeeATRAX. Atrae. See Hatram. Atrapum, a place near Thermopylae, through which Xerxes passed to attack the Lacedaemonians in rear, Appian. At Rax, cis, Atracia, Stephanus; a town of Thessaly, on the Peneus, almost ten miles from Larissa, Livy, Strabo; in the district of Pelasgiotis, Stephanus. Atracius the epithet: hence Atracia ars, Statius; denotes magic. Atraccs, the people, Livy.
At Rax, a river of Aetolia, which falls into the Ionian Sea, and from which Achaia, or Hellas, begins, Catullus, Strabo, Pliny. Atrebatae, arum, Notitiae; a town of Gallia Belgica ; now Arras, in the Artois. E. Long. 2° 50', Lat. 50* io'. The gentilitious name is Atrehas, atis, Caefor. Atrkbates, a people of Belgica, Caesar; to the south of the Morini. Called Atrcbati, Strabo; Atribatii, Ptolemy.
Atrebatii, Ptolemy; a people of Britain, next the Belgae, both of them from Belgica. Now Berk* sliire, Camden. Atria. See Adria. Atrianus, Ptolemy; so cslled from the town Atria or Hadria situate upon it, the fame with the Tartarus of Tacitus; a river in the Tranlpadana, running parallel with, and between the Pad us and Athesis, from west to east, into the Adriatic; joined to the Po by a cut; whence Pliny calls the northmost mouth of the Po, Tartarus. Arr.oPATENE, Strabo; and Atropatia, Stephanus; one of the two diO visions visions of Media, which lay westward; and the less of the two; a fruitful country, Strabo, Dionysius 1 Periegetes.
Atroth-addar. See Atiiaroth.
Atroth Sophan, or Atharolh-Sothan, a town of the tribe of Gad, beyond Jordan, Moses.
Atta, a hamlet of Arabia Felix, Ptolemy 5 towards the Persian Gulf.
Attacana, a town of Armenia Ma• jor, Ptolemy.
Attacum, Ptolemy; a town of the Celtiberi, in Spain.
Attagus. See Atax.
Attalia, an inland town of Aeolia, in Asia the Less, Pliny; it seems to be the fame with the Ait ale a of Stephanus, in Lydia; built by An talus Philadelphus, Stephanus. Another Attalia, or Attalea, Ptolemy ; a maritime town of Pamphylia, Lake, Strabo; built by Attalus Philadelphus, Strabo.
Attalyda, a town of Lydia, Stephanus.
Attanassus, a town of Phrygia
Magna, Notitia. 'Attea, a hamlet of Asia Minor, on
the Sinus Adramyttenus, Strabo. Attegua. See Ategua. Attelebussa, a small island near
Cyprus, on the coast of Cilicia,
Attene, a district of Arabia Felix,
Atte Va, a town of Ethiopia, beyond
Atthis, or Attica. See Acte. Also
Attica Tetrapolis. See TetraPolis.
Atticita, 7 a river. See Anti
Attidium, a town of Umbria, towards the foot of the Apennine. Attidiatei, the inhabitants, Pliny, Inscription. Near the springs of the Aesis, there is now a village, called Attigio, which seems to be corrupted trom Attidium.
Attiniacum, Antonine; a citadel of Gallia Belgica: now Attigny, a small city of Champagne.
Attium, a promontory on the north west of Corsica, Ptolemy It still retains some traces of its ancient
name being now called, Punta Æ Acduoio, Cluverius.
Attuarii. See Chasuarii.
Attubt, Ptolemy; Airnamed Claritas Julia, Pliny; a town ofBaetica, near Munda, on the Singilis: now by some supposed to be the citadel, called Olivcra; by others, Esptjo, in Andalusia.
Attyda, a town of Phrygia; Hierocles.
Atuaca, Atuatuca. See Aduaca.
Atuatici. See Adva-tici.
Aturae, Aturrei, Sidonius; or Aturensium Civitai, Notitia; a town in the district of Novempopulana, ia Aquitania, on the river Aturus. Now Aire, in Gascony, on the Adour. W. Long. 20 min. Lat. 4.3* 4C.
Aturia, or Atyria, Strabo; a district of Assyria, terminated by the Lycus, and the territory round Ninus ; Assyria itself is thus called.
Aturis, Ptolemy; Aturui, Lucan; the middle u short; but in Autumns, long; unless it be Aturnut, as in some copies: a river of Aquitatania: now the Adour, in Gascony, rising in the Pyrenees, and falling into the sea of Aquitain; running first north, then west.
Atyras. See Athyras,
Atyria. See Assyria.
Atys. See Acithis.
Avalites, a port town of Ethiopia, beyond Egypt, on a cognominaL bay of the Arabian Gulf, Ptolemy; called Abalites, PHny.
Avanticum, Ptolemy; Aventicum. Tacitus; the capital of the Helvetii, Antonine, Peutinger; near the Arola, or Aar, on the south fide of the lake Morati; a Roman colony. Inscription, Coin. The inhabitants are called Avtnticcnfti, Inscription, now Wifiijburg, and by the French, Avences, still retaining something of its ancient name.
Avar A, a rivulet of the Biturigest, in Gallia Celtica: now the Eirrr, or Yevre, which, with a north-west course, falls into the Cher, and thi» last into the Loire. Afterwards called Avera.
Avar A, a town of Arabia Petraea, Ptolemy, Stephanus.
Av Ar 1 Cum, Caesar, Ptolemy; a town of the Bituriges, in Gallia Celtica,
on on the rivulet Avara: the largest and strongest place of the Bituriget, and situate in a very fertile soil, Caesar. Now Bourges in Berry. E. Long. %" 10s, Lat. 47* io». Avarum, a promontory of the Hither Spain, Ptolemy. Now Cabo dt Viana, in Portugal, to the north of Oporto, at the mouth of the Lima.
Auasis. See Oasis.
Abberium, a place os Africa Propria, Antonine.
Avchis, a town of Sarmatia Asiatica, on the river Psathis, Pliny; which falls from east to west into the Palus Maeotis.
Avdatha, a town of Arabia Deserta, Plinyj on the Euphrates.
Audena, a river of the Cispadana, in Italy, Livy; which, running from east to west from the Apenine, falls into the Macra.
Ai'dia, a town of Arabia Petraea, Notitia.
Audira, an inland town of Africa Propria, Ptolemy.
Audum, a promontory of Mauretania Caesanenfis, which terminates the Sinus Numidicus, Ptolemy.
Audbra. See Autura.
Addus, Ptolemy; a riverof Mauretania Caefariensis, running from south to north into the Mediterranean, at the promontory Audum.
Audus, a mountain in the south of Numidia, Ptolemy. See Aurasius.
AviuTES. See Sinus Avelites.
Avilla. See Abella.
Avendo, onis, Itinerary, Peutinger; seems to be the Vendo in Strabo's MSS. A town of Liburnia, distant twenty miles from Senia to the east, Strabo: the Itinerary has only eighteen. Supposed to be OuF»'.vr, in Croatia.
AvtNio, a town os the Cavares, Mela, Pliny, Ptolemy; one of the most opulent of Gallia Narbonensis, Mela; also mentioned by Strabo, and Stephan us; who calls it a town of Maslilia, on the Rhone; it is called a colony, Ptolemy; a Latin town, Pliny; rights often united in the fame city. The lower writers use Avtnnit, and hence the gentilitious name, Avennieus, Now call
ed Avignon, in Provence. E. Long. V 40', Lat. 43« 50*. Avens, a river altogether unknown to other authors, Servius on Virgil is the only one, who quotes it from Varro: on these words of Virgil, Pulcher Aventinus, he fays, that the Sabines had mount Aventine allotted to them by Romulus, which they called from a river of their own country, Avens. But Livy, Dionysius, Festus, and Victor agree, that the hill took its name from Aventinus, king of the Albani, who was buried at the foot of it.
Aventicum. See Avanticum. Aventinus Mons, one of the seven hills of Rome; so called, either from Avens, a supposed river of the Sabines, according to Servius; or from Aves, birds, which flocked thither from the Tiber; or from Aventinus, an Alban king. It was also called Murcius, from Murtia, the goddess of sloth, who had here a little chapel, Festus; also Collis Dianae, from the temple of Diana, Martial; and Remonius, from Remus, who wanted to build the city, and who was buried there, Plutarch. It was taken within the compass of the city by Ancus Martius, Eutropius. To the east it had the city walls; to the south, the Campus Figulinus; to the west the Tiber; to the north, Mons Palatinus. In circuit, two miles and a quarter. Avera. See Avara. Aver A, a town of Syria, in the Pal
myrene, Ptolemy. Avernus Lacus, or Aornus, adjoining to the Lucrinus, with a communication formerly between them, still to be distinguished, though now filled up with earth, the distance being but of a few paces, Holstenius: a lake of Campania, lying between Misenum and Decaearchia, in compass about five stadia, Diodorus Siculus, of an unfathomable depth*, Vibius Sequester, Lucan. It takes its name from the pestilential fleams (aid to arise from it, and which prove fatal to birds: but after grubbing up the wood, which stood on it, and building round it, no noxious effects were felt. VirO X gil A U
fll justly ascribes the poisonous exalation, not to the lake, but to the cavern adjoining (call d Anjcrnus) or cave of the sibyl, through which is a descent to hell, Poets: and hence the proper name is Lacus A-verai, the lake near the cavern, as it is called by Cicero, Livy, Ammian: now il Lago Averno. Aufidena, the utmost town of the Samnites, beyond the Apennine, on the confines of the Peligni, on the river Sagrus, Strabo, Livy, Ptolemy, Antonine. The gentilitious name is Aufidenatcs, Pliny. Now called Aifidena, a citadel of the kingdom of Naples, in the Hither Abruzzo, at the fartherfoot of the Apennine, on the confines of the Terra di Lavoro. Aufidus, a river of Apulia, Horace, Livy, Florus; Polybius observes, that it is the only river that divides the Appenine, to make itself a passage: it runs from west to east, into the Adriatic, near Cannae. Now called the Ofaalo, in the kingdom of Naples. Aufina, Ausinum, Pliny; a town of the Vestini, between Aquila and Pinna; now Ofena, Aufinates, the gentilitious name, with the surname, Cijmontani, Pliny. Which is otherwise to be understood than of the Apennine with respect to Rome and Latium, the Appenine separating the Vestini from the Sabines. Aufona, or Awvona, a river or rivers of Britain, which Camden takes to be the true reading for Anton* in Tacitus: because in the parts mentioned by Tacitus there are two rivers, Major and Minor, the latter now called Avon, which falls into the Severn: the Greater the Not. Aucaea, an inland town of Chalcidice, a district of Macedonia, Ptolemy.
Augala, an inland to.wn of Mauretania Caesariensis, Ptolemy.
Auce A, a town of the Locri, Homer: another in Laconica, Stephanus.
Augila, a town of Marmarica, Stephanus. The people Augilae, or Auzylae, the lame with the Nasamones, Herodotus, Ptolemy; who worshipped only the manes, or the spirits of departed persons, whom they consulted as oracles, Mela.
Augi.nus, a mountain of Liguria, Livy; one of the Apennine, which
Hannibal crossed: now il Monle
Codro, in the territory of Genoa 3
Augusts, Antonine; atown ofMoefia Interior, distant eighteen miles from the confluence of the Ciabrus: the founder unknown; in ruins in Procopius's time.
Augusta, an inland town ofCilicia Trachea, near the river Pyramus, Ptolemy j called also Augujitspolis, Notitia.
Augusta Asturica. See AstuRica.
Augusta Ausciorum, Ptolemy; out of compliment to Augustus; called Climberrum, originally, Mela, Antonine; which it afterwards resumed, Itinerary; a town of Aquitania. In the middle age it took the name of the people, Au/ci, Ammian; hence Auscenfes, the gentilitious name, Sidonius: still retaining something of its ancient appellation, in the modern name, Aux, or Aujch, the capital of Gascony. E. Long. 20', Lat. 430 4.0'.
Augusta Colonia Apulum. See Alba Julia.
Aucustada. See Aucustopolis in Phrygia.
Augusta Dacica, a colony of Trajan, at Sarmizegethusa, which see.
Aucusta Emerita, atown of Lusitania, on the Anas, the capital of the province, a colony of the Emeriti, or such soldiers as had served out their legal time, were men of experience, and had received particular marks of favour, as a reward of their valour, sent thither by Augustus, Dio Casiius. To this colony coins and inscriptions bear witness : now called Merida, a city of Spain, in Estremadura, on the Guadiana. W. Long. 6a^z', Lat.380 55'.
Augusta Firm A. SceAsTici.
Augusta Gemhlla, a town of Baetica, on the north side of the Baetis, the Tucci of Pliny; Tuci of Ptolemy. In the war with Viriatus, it is limply called Gtmclla, Appian: but called thus by anticipation; because the name of the Ltgio Cemella, or Gimina, was of the time of the Caelars, and therefore in other places called Gcmclla Augufla, Pliny, Inscription. Now supposed to be Martos, above Corduba.
A.ugusta Julia Gaditana, PJiny, Inscription; a town of Roman ci rizcns, in the island Gades, at the mouth of the Baetis, without the traits: it had a conventus juridicus, or assizes, Pliny ; was enlarged with a new town, by Balbus of Gades, a man of consular dignity; ami both towns were called DoubleTrum, Strabo.
Augustamnica. See Thmuis.
Augustani. See Asturica.
Augusta Nova, a town of Hifpania Tarraconensis, Pliny, Ptolemy.
Augusta Praetoria, a town and colony of Gallia Cisalpina, Ptolemy; capital of the Salami, called the boundary of Italy, Pliny; situate at the foot of the Alpes Graiae, on the Duria. Now AouJIe, in Piedmont. E. Long. 7° 14', Lat. 45° ♦9'
Augusta Praetoria Daciae, to the north of Apulum, on the Alura, Ptolemy.
Acgusta Rauracorum, Ptolemy, Peutinger; a town of Gallia Belgica, called also Rauracum, or Rauraei, cram, from the custom of giving the gentilitious names to towns, Itinerary, Ainmian. In the Notit:a, it is called Cafirum Rauracense; a colony led by Manutius Plancus, the disciple and friend of Cicero, under the auspices of Augustus, Inscription. Pliny calls it Colania Rauriœa; and Ptolemy, Augusta Rauricsruns. Now Augft, a small village, at the bend of the Rhine northwards: but from its ruins, which are still to be seen, appears to have been a considerable colony; at the distance of six miles from Basil to the east.
Augusta Suessonum, a town of Gallia Belgica, on the Axona; so called from Augustus, and with great probability supposed to be t-se fSovicdunum Suessonum of Caesar. Now called Soijsons, in the Isle of trance, on the Aisne. E. Long. 3» Lat. 49" zS'.
Accvjsta Taurinorum, a town of the Taurini, at the foot of the Alps, where the Duria Minor falls into the Po; formerly called Taurasia, Appian: it took its new name from 3 colony of Augustus, Pliny, Tacitus. In an anonymous panegyric
addressed to Constantine, the, people are called Taurinates, and the circumjacent country, Taurinates Campi. The modern name is Turin,' the capital of Piedmont. E. Long. 7° 16', Lat. 44 « 50'. Augusta Treba, a, town of the Aequi, near the springs of the An io, Pliny: from what prince it took its name Augusta, does not appear: the gentilitious name is Trebani, Pliny. The town is now called Tre<vi, in Umbria, or in the east of. the Campagna di Roma. E. Long.
J3° 35% Lat- 43°
Augusta Trevirorum, a town of the Treviri, a people inhabiting between the Rhine and the Mcuse, but especially about the Moselle : a colony of Augustus; but when settled does not appear, nor what was its ancient name Tacitus calls it barely Cohnia Trevirorum. Pomponius Mela is the first author extant, that calls it by its new name,' gufia; next comes an inscription, a coin of Vespasian, and then Ptolemy, in all which it is called Augusta Trevirorum. Ill after times called Treveri, or Treviri, Ammian: now Triers, or Treves, in the circle of the Lower Rhine, on the Moselle. E. Long. 6° 10', Lat. 49* 55.
Augusta Tricastinorum, Pliny; a town of the Tricaftini, a people dwelling on the Rhone, Now called S. Pol de Trois Chateaux, in the territory of Tricastin, in Dauphinl, not far from the Rhone, and the confines of Provence. Called also Civitai Tricastinorum, Notitia.
Augusta Veromanduorum, Ptolemy, Antonine; the capital of the Veromandui, Caesar; a people dwelling near the Isara, a river of Gallia Belgica; between the Nervii to the north, and the Suessones to the south; called allo Viromandui, Livy; and Veromandi, Antonine; still retaining their ancient name, I'errnandois. I his Augusta, Cluverius, Baudrand, 6cc, suppose to be the village Vermand, distant two leagues from S. Quintin; but Valerius, S. Qiiintin, situate between the Somme and the Oyle in Picardy, called in the lower age Virmandcnfe Oppidum, where the martyr Quintinus lies buried, Gregorius Turon1 ensis. E. Long. 30 16', Lat. 490 55'.