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Appia AqtTA. See Claudia.
ArpiA Pout A. See Capesa.
Appia Vja, a way reaching from Rome through Capua to Brundufium, between three hundred and thirty and three hundred and fifty miles long. Appius Claudius, fursiamed Caecus, in the year of the city four hundred and forty one, carried it from the Porta Capena to Capua, Livy, Frontinus. It was afterwards carried on to Brundusium, but by whom, or when, is uncertain. It was laid with a very hard stone, brought from a great distance, large, and squared, Diodorus; and it was so wide, that several waggons could go a-breast. Statius calls it the Queen of Roads. Its course is described by Horace, Stra■ bo, and Antonine.
Appiaria, a town of Moesia Inferior, on the Danube, Antonine, Agathodaemon, Peutinger, and the Notitiae.
Appii Forum. See Forum, Apri, a Roman colony, Ptolemy; on the river Melas of Thrace; called also Afros Colonia, singular, Pliny, Stephanus; this colony is supposed to be established by Claudius. Now ~ Aprio. E. Long. 150 4', Lat. 420 'SO'.
Aprositos, one of the Fortunate Islands, Ptolemy; supposed to be the same with Ombrios, which see.
Aprusa, a river of Gallia Cisalpina, Pliny; now the Plufa, rising in mount S. Marino, then running north for twelve miles, falls at length into the Adriatic, near Ariminum.
Aprustum, Abryjlum, Pliny; or Abyfirum, Ptolemy; a town of the Brutii, Pliny; to the north of Thurii, the last town of Lucania, Ptolemy.
Apsalus, an inland town of Macedonia, near Europus, on the river Axius, Ptolemy.
Apsorus. See Absorus.
Apsus, a river of Macedonia, Strabo, Ptolemy, Lucan, Caesar; running from east to west into the Adri
atic, between Dyrrhacium and A» pollonia, on the coast of Illyricum.
Apsyrt.s, \ See Absorus.
Apta, or Afta Julia, Pliny; now Afte, in Provence, on the river Calavon, seven leagues to the north of Aix, and nine to the north of Avignon. In the Nytitiaeit is called Cvuitas Aptenfium : Pliny reckons it among the Latin Towns. That it was a co!ony appears from an inscription on a stone found at Aries, Sirmond. E. Long. 5* 56', Lat. 4.3*
Aptera, Strabo, Stephanus; Apleron, Pliny; Apteria, Ptolemy; an inland town of Crete, whose port was Cisamus, on the west side of the island, Strabo; twelve miles to the south of Cydonia, towards the Montes Leuci, and as many from the Sinus Amphimales. So called from the Sirenes, who being there vanquished in song by the Muses, stript themselves of their wings, and out of grief leapt into the sea, Stephanus; who lays, there was a town of Lycia of the fame name. E. Long. 150, Lat. 350 50'.
Aptuchi Fanum, Ptolemy; called Aptungis by St. Augustine, a town of Cyrene on the Mediterranean.
Apua, a town of Liguria, on the borders of Tuscany. The gentilitious name is Apuani, Livy. Now Pontrtmoli, at the foot pf the Appenine. E, Long. io°, Lat. 43*
Apulia, now Puglia, a territory of Italy, bordering on the Adriatic, and extending from the river Frento to Tarentum in length, and fl ora the Adriatic to the Lucani in breadth. Aptli the people, Horace: divided into the Apulia Daunia, now called Puglia P'ana, or the Capitanata; and into the Apulia Peacetia, now Terra ili Barri, Pliny, Ptolemy. Apulia abounded in sheep, which yielded the finest wool, Martial. Peucetii, the people, Pliny; a branch of whom were called Poediculi, Strabo; Pediculi, Fliny.
Apulum, Afulum Augttjlum, or Apulenfis Cobuia. See Alba Julia.
Apuscidamus, a lake of Africa, in which all bodies float and none sink, Pliny.
Apyrae. Apyrae. SeeApERRAE.
Aqua Clooia. See Claudia.
Aqua Contradiction is, a rock in the wilderness of Zin, to the south •f Edom, from which Moses brought forth water; still extant, with channels! hrough which the water issued, to be plainly seen; called also Meribak.
Aqua Ckabra. See Crabra.
Aqua Martia. See Martia.
Aqua Virgo. See Virco.
Aquae Apollinares, Antonine; a place of Etruria, near Mons Argentarius, between Rome and Cofa, now extinct. Cluverius confounds it with the Aquae Caerttanae, the former being at a greater distance from Caere, as appears by the Itinerary.
Aquae Aucvstae, Ptolemy; Aquae Tarktllicac, Antonine; Aquenfis Ci•vilaj, in the Notitia. Now Acqj,or Dax, a town in Gascony, on the river Adour, famous for its baths. VV. Lon?. i° 40', Lat. 430 56'.
Aquae 61LBILITANAe, Antonine; baths twenty-four miles to the welt of Bilbiiis : now Bane* de Alhama, in Arragon.
Aquae Calidae, Ptolemy; Aquae Selis, Antonine; a place of the fSelgae in Britain, famous for its hot waters: now Bath, in Somer(et(hiie. W. Long, i" 5', Lat. 51" 10'.
Aquae Calidae, Ptolemy; Aquical— dnjes, Pliny; formerly in great repute, and a public bath; whose ruins still remain testimonies of the Roman grandeur. Now Oreitse, in Gallicia, still famous for its baths; on the river Minho, fifty-four miles south-east of Compostella. \V. Long.! S* 30', Lat. 41s 30'. Also a place in the bay of Carthage, Strabo Other Aquicaldenjes, to the north of Gerunda in Catalonia, Ptolemy. Aquae Calidae, a colony, between the rivers Serbetes and Savus, in Mauretania Caesariensis, Ptolemy. Aquae Celeniae, Ptolemy; or Ciknae, Antonine: now Caldas, a hamlet on the Minho, in Gallicia. Aquae Ciceronian Ae. See Aca
Aquae Convenarum, a hamlet of Gaul, in Aquitaine, Antonine; and on the borders of the Convenae, or le Cominge, at the foot of the Py
renees, near the source of the Garonne. Now Bagueres. W. Long. 30 39', Lat. 410 2cA
Aquae Cumanae,.baths near Cumae, reckoned salutary, Livy.
Aquae Cutiliae, a lake of theSabines, in the territory of Reate, Pliny ; Lacus Cutilienfis, Varro; with a moveable island in it, Seneca, Pliny; Supposed to be the centre of Italy, Varro. The waters are medicinal, and extremely cold, good for a weak stomach and in weak nerves; they seemed to act by a kind of suction, which approached to a bite, Pliny. Vespasian used them every summer; and there he died, Sueton, Xiphilin from Dio. Now Lago dt Contigliano.
Aquae Dacicae, fourteen miles to the east of the metropolis Sarmizaegethusa, Ptolemy, Peutinger; with an illustrious Roman monument, inscribed, A J Aquas.
Aquaeductus Roman I. These Aqueducts greatly added to the magnificence of Rome. The waters were conducted fiom a great distance, and where the nature of the situation required, the channel of the aqueduct was raised on arches. The principal were the Aqua Appia, called also Claudia, from AppilM Claudius. The others were the Martia, the Virgo, and the Aitio Vctus; which see under those names. There were seven in all, till the time of Caligula, who began two new Aquaeducts, which his fuccellbr Claudius completer! and dedicated; the one was called Claudia; the other, the Anio No-vus. There was another called Aqua Kral/ra, conducted from the territory of Tilsculum, Cicero: but Agrippa distributed this water among the villas of Tuseulum, Frontinus.
Aquae Flaviae, a town on the confines of Gallicia and Portugal, so called from Vespasian and situs. The inhabitants are called Aquifia•virn/es, Coins. Now called Chiavcs, a mean hamlet: but the ruins of its bridge testify its former grandeur. W. Long. 6° 6', Lat. 41" 40'.
Aquae Flumina, the ancient name of Selrucia, in S^ria, a strong fortress, and impregnable city, Strabo. See Se Le uc 1 A.
Aquae HELVETiAE.delbibed by Tacitusas a municipal town,and much frequented for its excellent water, and though he does not mention its name, Cluverius supposes it to be Baden, in Swisserland, on the rivulet Limat, which soon after falls into the Aar. It is called the Upper, to distinguish it from another called the Lower Baden, in Alsace. E. Long. 8° 49', Lat. 470 55'.
Aquae Merom, Joshua; famous for trie defeat of Jabin; supposed to be the lake called Samachomt 'u, or Semechoniiii, by Josephus; into which the river Jordan falls, before it comes to the sea of Genesereth, or Galilee.
Aquae Moesicae, Antonine; Ad Aquas, Peutinger; placed by Procopius next to Trajan"s bridge; a town of Moesia Superior.
Aquae Nisincae. See Alisincum.
Aquae Pannoniae, famous baths of Austria, now called Baden, twenty-eight miles to the south of Vienna.
Aquae Patavinae, are baths in the territory of Venice, near Padua, Pliny; called Fcnles Afoni, Livy, Martial; now Bagni d'Abano. E. Long. 13" 48', Lat. 450 15'.
Aquae Querquernak,Antonine; a place in Gallicia, in Spain.
Aquae Quintianae, put by Ptolemy in room of the Aquae Lilinae of Antonine. Now supposed to be Sarria, a town of Gallicia, on a rivulet of the siine name, three leagues to the south of Lugo.
Aquae Regiae, a spring, or perhaps a bath, below the citadel of Chimera, in Acroceraunia of Epirus, Pliny. Also a town of Africa Propria, to the south west of Adrunietum, Antonine.
Aquae Sextiaf., a colony, to the north of Marseilles, so called, both from the sounder Sextius Calvinus, and from its quantity of water, and number of cold and hot springs; built after the defeat of the Salyes, or Salvii,whose territory in the south of Provence reached from the Rhone to the borders of Italy, Livy, Vetleius, Strabo, Ptole'my. By an inscription the colony appears to have been either increased or renewed by Augustus. In the Notitia it is
called Ci-vitas Aquenfi:, now Aise. Here the Teutones and Cimbri were defeated with a great slaughter by Marius. E. Long. 6" 4', Lat. 48« 4'
Aquae Sinuessanae, salutary waters oiSinuejsa, in Campania, Livy; which cured barrenness in women, and insanity in men, Pliny, Martial; situate between Sinuessa, and the Ager Falernus, on the borders of Campania, Livy. And from those hot waters, Sinuejfa is called Trpcns, Sil. Italicus; used by the emperor Claudius, Tacitus.
Aquae Solis. See Aquae CaliD Ae of Britain.
Aquae Statiellae, or Statielhrum, Pliny; a town in Liguria, on the river Bormia: now Acqut, a town of Montferrat. The gentilitious name is Statielli, or Statiellatei, Livy; or Staliellenses, Pliny, Cicero: the epithet is"Statiellas, atis; as in agro Statiellati, Livy. E. Long. 8° 40', Lat. 44° 45'.
Aquae Tarbellic Ae. See Aquae Augustae.
Aquae Tauri, hot waters or baths, iu Tuscany, at the distance of three miles from the sea, said to be discovered by a bull, hence the appellation. There, are still to be leen the ruins of these baths. The people are called Aquenjes Taurini, Pliny. Now Acquapendente, in Orvieto. E. Long. 12* 40', Lat. 42" 40'.
Aqua Voconiae, Antonine: now Caldes de Malavella, in Catalonia, towards Barcelona.
Aquae Volaterranae. SeeVoLA
Aquenses Taurini. See Aquae Tauri.
Aquensis Civitas. See Aquae Augustae, and Aquae Sex
Aquicaldenses. See Aquae Ca
I,iDae of Spain. t Aquiflavienses, See Aquae Fla
Aquilaria, a place of Africa Propria, twenty-two miles from Clupea, with a commodious road in summer, contained between two high promontories, Caesor.
Aquileia, a large city of the Carni, or Veneti, and a noble Roman colony, which was led thither between
the tfc* first and second Macedonian war*, Livy. It is washed by two riven, the Natiso and Turrus, Pliny. The reason of leading this colony was, in order to be a bulwark against the neighbouring barbarians. The colony was afterwards nicreased with fifteen hundred families by a decree of the senate, Livy. From which it became a very famous port-town, Herodian. The emperor Julian ascribes the appellation to the augury of an eagle at the time of building it; but Isaac Voffius on Mela, to the great plenty of water, as if the town were called Aquilegta. The harbour, at the mouth of the Natil'o, is distant sixty stadia fiom the city; so that (hips of burden are towed up the river, Strabo. It is still called Aquileia, but greatly fallen from its former splendor. E. .Long. 15° 31', Lat. 45* 45'
A;y;2LO Ventus, a north-east wind, Seneca; so called from the impetuosity of an eagle, Festus. See its description in Virgil. Those winds are also called Aquilones, which for almost eight days precede the rising of the dog star, and continue blowing for forty, called Etesiae, and Prodromi.
Aouincum. See Acincum.
Aqjuisum, a large and considerable town, Strabo, Sil. Italicus; municipal, Cicero; ami a Roman colony, Tacitus: a town of the Latins, on the borders of the Samnites, washed by the river Melpha, Strabo. T he birth-place of Juvenal, as he himself testifies. The inhabitants are called Aquinaies. Now Aquino, ->jt almost in ruins, in the territory of Lavcro. E. Long. 170 11', Lat. 35'
Atcitania, one of the three principal divisions of Gallia Ccmata, Caesar; bounded by the Garonne, the Pyrennes, and the Ocean; this :t the Aquitania Cacfcriana, or Vent. Augustus set different boundaries, viz. the Loire, the Cevennes, the Pyrenees, and the Ocean, Strabo. It was called Gallia AquitsMica, Pliny; and in the old Not:tiat, Previnria Aquitanica. The people are called Aquitani, Caesar. Xow comprising Guiennt (which
seems to be a corruption of AqiR* tania), and Gascony.
Ar, the metropolis of Moab, in Arabia Petraea, Moses; and the royal, residence, situate on the east fide of' the river Arnon: It was called also Rabba, Joshua; and to distinguish it from Rabba of the Ammonites, Rabbat Moab, and on coins, Rabbath Moma, Reland. Euscbius fays it was called Areopolis in his time, .from Ar and Polis. The inhabitants are called Areopolitae.
Ara Amoris, a promontory of Egypt, on the Arabian Gulf, in the Troglodytis, Ptolemy.
Arab, a town in the tribe of Judah, Joshua.
Ar Abe La, or Arbela, an ancient town of Sicily, Stephanus; but its situation unknown. The inhabitants were accounted silly and spiritless: hence the proverb, What nxiillyon come to, if you go to Arbela, id.
Arabia, an extensive country of Asia, reaching from Egypt to Chaldea; and on the other fide, from the Euphrates, which washes Syria, to the mouth of the Arabian Gulf, where it joins the ocean. It is divided into three greater parts; viz. Petraea, Deferta, and Felix, and forms a peninsula, between two great gulfs, the Arabian to the welt, the Persian to the east, and the ocean to ths south. Ptolemy is author os' this threefold division, before whose time it was only divided into Deferta and Felix. The origin of the appellation is variously aiiigncd; namely, as denoting either a champaign and desert country, or a mixt people, or promiscuous, unlawful copulations. Some imagine that the 'Ejijttfoi in Homer, denotes the Ar abs, as if they were called 'H;i|U«J, black, dark. Dc la Cerda pretends, that by Arabs are meant robbers $ as by CanaaniteS, merchants, and by Chaldeans, astrologers. It is not for nothing, fays Ilochart, that an Arab, the evening, and a raven are ail from the fame root.
Arabia Deserta, now called Ardcrt, one of the grand divisions of Arabia, extending from the deserts of Palmyra, On the south of the Euphrates, to Chaldea; having on the west a part of Syiia and Arabia1 K Petraea j Petraea; on the north, a part os Mesopotamia, from which it is separated by the Euphrates, as it bends eastward; on the east, by Chaldea, or Babylonia, from which it is parted by a range of mountains; on the south, by Arabia Felix, separated from it also by mountains, Ptolemy. From Thaplacus, at the east bend of the Euphrates, Ptolemy begins Arabia Descrta, which he makes the first town, situate on the iiuphrates j and famous for a passage and bridge, which both the last l)ai ius and Alexander crossed: but we have followed Pliny and StephaIjus, and have begun it in the Palmyrene.
Akadia Felix, Eudaemon, Pliny: now called A)man, or jfemin, lying to the south of Arabia Deserts and Petraea, is confined to a sort of peninsula by the Persian Gulf on the east, aud the Arabian on the west, with the ocean to the south; and called Felix, 01 Eudaemun, f>om the great produce of perfumes; for which reason i."s more southerly part is called Aramatophorui, Strabo; the country of the Sabaei: the epithet EuJaemon is peculiar to it.id The an cients prior to Ptolemy, and especially Eratosthenis, accounted all Aiabia, which was without the limits of Arabia Felix, to the Deferta, a> it really is , because what Ptolemy and others called Petraea, is for the most part rugged and uncultivated.
Arabia Petraea, Dioscorides; ly ing in ire to the welt, called also Nabatnaee,'VWny ■ The appellation Petraea, is from Petra, the capital and royal residence; which cannot be older than the time of the Macetlonians, as Pelra is deck. It is bounded by the bay of the Red Sea, and by the iithmut of Egypt on the v.elt; on the north by Palestine, and Coeielyria; by AraSia Delerta ou the east; and on the south by a chain of mount iins, which separate it lioni A: ahia Felix
Ak-/.bi« Piulaoelpu ENSis.the more w.itr U par' of Arabia Petraea, C-Hiutiilinv ihec)untry of the AmUiouito a.id M-nbites, lying along loe east fid • ot the i iv r Jordan; so called troin PhiUdtlhia, the uu>*«; j
modern name of Rabbath Amman, Josephus', Ptolemy. Arabia Scenitarum, is the lower and more southerly part of Mesopotamia, to the north of the east bend of the Euphrates, inhabited by the Arabes Scenitae, Xenopbon, Strabo.
Arabiae Nomos, is a nomos of Egypt, without the Delta, towards Arabia, Ptolemy.
Arabicus Sinus, the Arabian Gulf, stretching out from north to iouth between Asia and Africa, for eleven hundred miles, with Arabia Petraea and Felix on the east, from which it has it name, aud with Egypt and Ethiopia to the west. Its greatest breadth is two hundred and fifty miles, and it is separated from the ocean, by the stra.t of Babrlmandel. Its navigation is dangerous on the account of the soelves, slioals, and rocks towards each side, but especially towards Arabia. Dionylius, and the author of the book de Al undo, with most Greek writers, always distinguish this Gulf, from the Mare Ruhrum, which they make a part of the Ocean between India and Ethiopia. And some Koman authors, extend the name Mare Ruhrum, to the Arabian and Persian gulfs, which aie arms of that Ocean; as Seneca, who by Frctum Ruben:, means the Persian Gulf, into which the Tigris tails; and Pliny, by Mare Rubrum, often means the Arabian iit common with the Persian Gulf, as do also the Seventy, and the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews; as being parts of the Occanus Rube, as it is called by Horace, or Marc Rubruin, Solinus. And though the Seventy translate 'Jam Saph, the Hebrew name of the Arabian Gulf",
'tf 6;« So'Xarira, yet til IS IS not tO.be
understood as if both names were of equal extent; bur that the one is a part of the other. It is now called Mar dt Mceca.
Araeis. See Arabius.
Arabissus, a town of Armenia Minor, on the confines of Corna^enc, Antonine.
Arabius, Arrian; a nver ofGedrolia, called also Arabis, Ptolemy; Arb 'u, Strabo j Artab,i, Marcianus -y