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stood Carrae, is not so easy to determine.
Carraca, Ptolemy; a town of the Transpadana, near the LacusBenacus. Now thought to be Cara<vagio, a small town in the duchy of Milan. Carrae, or Carrhae, a town of Mesopotamia, famous in Roman history; a place of strength; afterwards a Roman colony, Coins; having been first a Macedonian, Dio: memorable for the 'defeat ar.d death of Crassus. Pliny, Florus, Lucan. The battle is thought to have happened not at Carrae, but to the north of it, because Crassus fled towards Carrae, in order to gain the bridge on the Euphrates, and escape to Syria. Here Caracalla was slain, Rufus. An ancient city, Ammian; on the Carra, Stephanus. Whether the fame with the Haran of Scripture, fee Harm. Carrcntts, and Carracus, the gentilitious names, Stephanus. Now said to be called Heren. Carrodunum, Ptolemy; a town of the Bastarnae, on the other side the Vistula: now Lemberg, Cluverius; a city of Poland, capital of Red Russia. E. Long. 240, Lat. 490. Carseoli, orum, Ovid, Pliny, Ptolemy; a town of the Aequi; an ancient colony, Livy; one of the thirty Roman colonies, id. situate beyond Praeneste, to the north. Its ruins were discovered by Holsteni \is, on the left of Valeria; four miles from a place now called Arsoli; the ruins are called Civita Carentia: Carseolani, the people; Lex Carseolana, Ovid; a law forbidding to keep a live fox, from a story which leems to resemble Samson's foxes. Carsulae, Tacitus; Carsuli, Strabo; a town of Umbria, on this side the Apennine, between Tuder and Spoletium, drawing off a little to the south, twelve miles from Narnia, and twenty-one from Mcvania, Holstenius. Now in ruins. Carsulanus, the gentilitious name, Pliny's Epist. Now calhd Carfula. Carta, Strabo; a town ot"Hvrcania, thought to be the fame with the 7-eudracarta of Arrian; the Ir.r^est city ofHyrcania,and whtre stood iia royal pa i ace.
Carteia, a town of Baetica, confounded with Tartessus and Gades, both without the Straits; because Carteia was also called Carpeffus, Strabo; on account of the extraordinary large (hell fiih there found. Its ancient name was Heraclea, from Hercules the founder; whom the Phoenicians called Melcarthus, king of the city, that is Tyre, Pbilo Biblius, quoted by Eusebios: and therefore from this Melcarthus, or Melee Cartha, the town came to be called Melcartieia, and by apberefis, Cartheia, or Carteia, near Calpe. Mr. Conduit will have it to be Rocadillo, at the distance of four miles from Gibraltar. Althaea, a town of the Olcades, near Carthago Nova, called Carteia, Polybius; ten leagues to the east of Toledo.
Cartemnides. See Gorttna of Crete..
Cartenna, ae, Pliny s Cartermat, arum. Ptolemy; a town of Mauretauia Caesariensis, a colony of the second legion by Augustus; situate to the west of Gunugi. Cartenmtanus, the gentilitious name, as appears from the Notitia of this province In Ptolemy we have the mouth of the river Cartennus, from which the town took its name.
Carteria, Ptolemy; an island lying before Smyrna.
Cartha, Joshua xxi. a Levitical town in the tribe of Zabulon. -•
Carthago, inis, Romans; Carchtdan, onis, Greeks; the capital of Africa Propria, built by the Tyrians, under Dido; the grand rival of Rome, namely, in power, and splendor of empire; not in model or frame of government; that at Carthage being kingly, but that at Rome consular, Polybius. Commerce was more cultivated at Carthage, at Rome warfare. The political system of Carthage, was framed with less prudence than that of Rome, Julian. After the death of Dido, the government, from regal, became popular, or rather aristocratical ; the power being lodged in the hands of a few, called Sufelcs, literally judges, and they perpetual, Livy. Hannibal, in crder to check their power, perfeired, or got a law passed for their 1 annual
lanoal choice. Carthage is of Phœnician original, both as to people and name; this last literally denoting the New Tonun, which it retained both in Greek and in Latin, with some little variation. It lies, fays Strabo, in a kind of peninsula, in compals three hundred and sixty stadia, or forty-five miles, walled round; the neck or isthmus taking up sixty stadia, where stood the stalls for the elephants. In the heart of the city stood the acropolis, or citadel, called Byrsa, which fee. Below the citadel by the harbours, and Cotbon, a small round island, encompassed with an euripns, or narrow gut, furnished on every side quite round with docks for (hips. Dido built this city, Aventy years after Rome, Eusebius; aad peopled it with a colony of Tynans. The Punic wars are a sufficient proof of the grandeur and power of Carthage: it was at length conquered and levelled with the ground. C. Gracchus advised its rebuilding; but some ominous appearance thwarted the design: Caesar entertained the fame thought, but death prevented the execution; which was reserved for Augustus, who performed it in a grand manner, erecting the new city, not on the very spot, on which the old one fiood, but as near it as possible, religiously avoiding the execrations of the old city. It then became a Roman colony, and again the capital of that country, and one of the principal cities of Africa, Coins, Strabo, Mela. Carthaginienses, and Pmi, the people ; Carthaginienses, and Punicus their epithets. Their character, Fraudulent! & mendaces, Tully j hence Pwtica fides, treachery and deceit. Carthago Nova, a town of the Hither Spain, or Tarraconensis, built by Asdrubal, the Carthaginian general, on the Sinus Virgitanus; now bay of Carthagena: called Carthage Spartaria,Anlon\ne; from the Campus Spartarius, because of Spartum, or Spanish broom growing plentifully there. It was taken by Scipio; the Romans kept up its dignity, by sending thither a colony, and by a conventus ju
ris3ictionis, or assizes, where fixtyfive different people pleaded, Pliny; with a right of coinage. Now Carthagena, in Murcia. W. Long. i° 3', Lat. 37° 37'.
Carthago Vetus, mentioned only by Ptolemy, from whom its situation appears to be on the left, or east fide of the Iberus, in the Hither Spain, on this fide the confluence of the Sicoris. Now said to be Vdla Franca, in Spain, or CantawiUa.
Carthea, a town of the island Ceos, Pliny. Hence the epithets, Larthaeus, and Cartheius, Ovid.
Car Ventana Arx, Livy; a citadel of Latium.
Caruo, Peutinger; a place of Belgica, thirteen miles below Casts a Herculis, on the Rhine.
Carura, orum, Strabo; a town of Phrygia Magna, on the borders of Caria, between Antiochia, on the Meander, and Laodicea, on the Lycus-, Peutinger.
Carusa, Pliny, Arrian ; Carujsa, Scylax; a Greek city of Paphlagonia, situate between Sinope and the river Halys.
Carya, Strabo, Ptolemy; a town of Caria, towards the coast, lying between Daedala and Caunus.
Carva, ae, Stephanus; Caryae, arium, Paufanias; a town ot Laconics, between Sparta and the borders of Messenia: where stood a temple of Diana, thence called Caryat'S, idis; whose annual festival, called Carya, orum, was celebrated by Spartan virgins with dances. An inhabitant, Caryaies, and Caryatis; Caryatii apis, a Laconian bee, Stephanus.
Caryae, arum, Livy, Paufanias; a place in Arcadia, towards the borders of Laconica. Whether from this of Arcadia, or that of Laconica, the Columnae Caryatides of Vitruvius and Pliny (which were
• statues of matrons in stoles or long robes) took the appellation, is disputed.
Car Van Da, Strabo; an island on the coast of Caria, in a bay running between Myndus and Bargylia. Scylax, who was of this island, agrees in this j adding, that it was Vj also also the name of a town and port on the island.
Caryones, Ptolemy; x people of Sarmatia Europea, situate on the left or north ficle us the Danube.
Cakystum. See Caristum.
Carystus, a town in the south os Euboea, built bv she exiled Dryopes, Diodorns Siculus; situate between the promontory Capharaeus to the east, and the town Geraestus to the welt, Ptolemy, Stephanus; who fays, it was situate on ■ the Mjrtoan sea; with marble quarries, e::treme!y fit for hewing coljmns, Mela. Hence the Coiumnae Caryfiiae, Strabo. Carifiacus is also the epithet, Ovid. This marble was green, or of a sea cast, Siatius. The territory was also famous for the Jjhistos, or Lapis Amianthus, called also Caryflius, Strabo.
Casae, Antonine; a villa of the Anieii, to the welt of Sabrata, in the Regi'j Syrtica.
Casae Calventi, Antonine; a town of Mauretania Caefariensis, to the « est of the mouth of the Savus.
Casae Nicrae, Notitiae, Augustine; a town of Numidia; the particular spot not mentioned,
Casc Antum, Coin, Ptolemy; an inland town of the Vasconcs, in the Hither Spain, situate between Tutela and Turiaso, on the right or welt fide of the Iberus. Now called Cascante, in Old Castile. Cascantcnset, Pliny; the people.
CASIMNUM, Cicero, Livy; a town of Campania, situate on both fides the Vulturnus, to the east of Capita. The inhabitants, Cafiliner.fts, Cicero; Caf.linctes, Val. Maximus. Now Nezu Capua.
Casinum, Cicero, Livy; a town in the north of New, or Adjected Latium, beyond the Liris. A municipal town, Inscription. The inhabitants Ca/mates, Inscription; Casmas, atis, the epithet, Livy. Now Ca/mo, in ruins.
Casiorum Insulae, Strabo; a cluster of small islands, near Caius, in the Fgean sea.
Casiotis, or CaJTiotis, Ptolemy; a district of the Lower Kgypt, toward Palestine,reaching from Gerra to Rhinocolitra; so called from CuCium, a town, or from mount
Cafluis, or Casms. Also a targw inland district of Seleucis, in Syria, id.
Casium, or Cajjium, Ammian ; a town of the Caliiotis, where stood the monument of Pompey.
Casius, Strabo; a mountain of the Caiiutis, resembling heaps of sand, and running out into the sen, dry and without any water; in it the body of Pompey lies, and on it stands the temple of Jupiter Casius, id. Casius, a mountain of Scythia extra Imaum, running a great way from west to east into Serica, Ptolemy. A third of Syria, in the south of Seleucis, Strabo, Pliny; wasticd by the Orontes, Ammian. From which Salmasius gathers, that it is situate between Seleucia to tiie south, and Antiochia, on the 0rontes, to the north. One of its tops is very high, Pliny; so that 3t the fourth watch, or second cock crow, the sun may be seen rising; a thing affirmed also by Spartian. and Ammian. Uut this is impossible from the height of the stand; according to Pliny but sour miles. Mela erroneously ascribes this to mount Calius in Egypt, which is greatly short of the height of the other.
Casmena, Stephanus; Crs/ntvnry Herodotus ; a town at the Iprings ofthe Hipparis, in the south-eastof Sicily; built by the Syraculans, ninety years alter Syracuse, ThucydiUes; iit hundred and forty-five years before Christ. Now Cotniji, Cluveiius.
Casperia, Virgil; Casperu.'a, S.lini Itaiicus; a town in the east of th: territory of the Sabines, near the Himella, or its springs, Vibius Sequesters the name alludes to tiie original of the place from the Ca!'pii. Now Aspra, a village in the territory of the pope.
Casfiae Portae, Strabo, Ptolemy; denies in the Farther Moiis Cal'pi. us, separating Media from Paithiaj or in the extreme parts of Media to the east.
Caspiana, Strabo; a district of Albania, on the other tide the Cyrus, towards Media: Ptolemy rec kons it in Armenia: it is so called iVom the inhabitants the Cafpii.
Caspium Cvspium Mare, also Hyrcanum, or Hyrcanum, Diodorus Siculus, Straba; From the Caspii on the southwest 9 the Hyrcani, on the southeast. Opinions greatly diti'er as to its figure and origin: most of the ancients imagined it to be a bay of the Northern Ocean, Strabo, Pliny; with which it communicated by a very narrow month or strait : Arrian, that its beginning orrisewas not yet discovered: and yet Herodotus had, many years before, said, that the Caspian was a separate and detached sea, unconnected with any other: and he has also well described its magnitude and figure ; making its length from west to east, fourteen days foil; its breadth from north to south, eight days; had he bat inverted the order of the dimensions; as was found to be the cafe, on a survey by the czar, Peter the Great. Caspius Moss, Strabo; as there were a twofold people called Caspii, lt> a twofold Moris Caspius; the one near Armenia, the other near Parthia, Ifidorus Characenus; in which last lay the famous Portae Caspiae, in the Mans Caffius, separating Media from Parthia. Cassandrea.lsv) ; Cajsandria,Pliny; Potidaea, so called from Cassander, who either enlarged or rebuilt it; in the territory of Pallene, in Macedonia: a Roman co'.ony, Pliny; called Julia Augusta, Coins. The inhabitants CaJJ'andrenses; who enjoyed the jus ltalicum, Paullus. Cassia Via. See Via. Cassii Forum. See Forum. Cassiopaeum, Ptolemy; a promontory in the north-west of Corcyra. So called from the town Cassiope. Cassiope, Ptolemy; Cajsope, Strabo; Ccjsofia, Stephanus; a port-town of Cliaonia, in Epirus: the people, Caffhpaei, Coin; orCaffiopaei. The town called from a temple of Jupiter CaiEus; to the north of Buthrotum. Another Cajsiope, near the promontory Cafliopaeum, in the north of Corcyra. Cassiotis. See Casiotis. Cassiterides, a cluster of islands to the wtst of the Land'* End; opposite to Celtiberia, Pliny; famous for their tin, which he calls candi
dum plumbum; formerly open to none but the Phoenicians; who alone carried on this commerce from Gades, concealing the navigation from the rest of the world, Strabo. The appellation is from Caffiteros, the name for tin in Greek. Now thought to be the Scilly Islands, or Sirlings, Cainden. •
Cassium. See Casium.
Cassope. See Cassiope.
Castahal A, orum, Ptolemy ; a town of Cilicia, to the south-east of Mopsuestia, near the river Pinarua, not far from the sea : Castabalum, i, Cur
'tius. Another of Lappadocia Magna, Strabo, Pliny; between Tyana to the east, and Iconium to the west. Here stood the temple of Diana Perafia; because brought over sea, Strabo; the votaresses of this goddess walked over burning coals unhurt.
Castalius Fons, Strabo, Pauftnias ; CaJIalia, Pindar, Virgil; a fountain at the foot of mount Parnassus, in Phocis, near the temple of Apollo, or near Delphi; sacred to the Muses, thence called Castalidcs,Martial. Its murmurs were thought prophetic, Nonnus, Lucian.
Castanaea, Lycophron, Mela; Stephanus; Cafihanaea, Herodotus, Pliny; a town in Magnesia of Thessaly, near the Peneus: Caftanaeus, Stephanus; the epithet; hence the nuces Castaneae; of two sorts, Virgil, Scholiast on Nicander.
Castellani, Ptolemy; a people of the Hither Spain, a branch of the Ausctani, situate between the Ausetani to the south, the Cerretani to the north, and the Lacetani to the west. Now a part of Catalonia, towards the springs of the Rubri
■ catus, between the Pyrenees to the north, and the river Ter.
Castellum Ad Aenum. See Ba« Tava.
Castellum Firm An Orum, the dock or station for ships of Firmum, a town of Picenum, at the mouth of the Tinna, Pliny.
Castellum In Tauno, Tacitus; a citadel built by Drusus on mount Taunus, over-against Mentz.
Castellum Memapiorum, Ptolemy , a citadel of Belgica, situate
on on the Mosa. Now Kejsel, on the Meuse, in Brabant.
Casstellum Morinorum, called simply Castellum, Antonine; situate in Belgica. Now called Mount CasJel, in Flanders.
Casthanaea. See Castanaea.
Castor Um Nemus, Tacitus ; Castoris Nemus, Suetonius; a place in the "Iranfpadana, twelve miles from Cremona.
CastRA, Roman camps; without which the Romans never passed a single night in any place, Livy; nor ever sought a battle, without first fortifying a camp; which, in case of a repulse, might afford a retreat, Caesar, Livy. The Roman camps were generally uniform, and of a square figure; and divided into summer and winter camps. The summer again were either for one night only ; and then they were called Mansttmes, Lampridius; at least in the lower age; or for more nights, and then they were called Stativa, Livy: the Hiberna, or winter camps, were carefully supplied with every necessary; such as an armom y, a forge, or work place, an hospital, &c. And such encampments gave rife to many towns at this day extant. The camp was always encompassed with a rampart stuck with pallisadoes, sharp and forked a-top; without the rampart went round a ditch.
Castra, Livy; encampments or days; as quart'is, undecimis, Sec. lastris; the army came after so many encampments, or days, from one place to another.
Castra Alata. See Alata.
Castra Caecilia, Pliny; Catcilia. na, Antonine; a town of Lusitania; between Cetobriga and Salacia.
Castra Hannibalis, Pliny; a town and port in the Bruttii, on the Sinus Scylaceus.
Castra Herculis, Peutinger; a place in Belgica, on the Rhine, nine miles below Arenacum.
Castrum, Ptolemy, Velleius; Castruin Na-vum, Pliny; an ancient colony, settled in the first Punic war, in Picenum, on the Adriatic, twelve rniles from the Castrum Truentinum, Itinerary; twenty-four from
. Aternum, Peutinger. Castrani, the inhabitants, Castranus the epithet.
Castrum Ebredunense, Notitia; a town of Gallia Narbonensis. Now Embrun, in Dauphine. E. Long. 6" 6', Lat. +40 35'.
Castrum Inui, Virgil; explained Castrum Panos, Servius; Itius, being the Latin name for Pan: a town of Latium, on the Tuscan sea, to the north of Antium.
Castrum Novum, Livy, Mela; a colony, Livy; situate on the seacoast of Etruria; distant six miles from Pyrgi.
Castrum Truentinum, Pompey to Domitius, Mela; a citadel on the coast of the Picenum, near the Truentus, to the south of Firmum.
Castrum Ucecense, Notitia; a town of Gallia Narbonensis. Now Uzes, in Languedoc, three leagues from Nismes, to the north. E. Long. 4» 30', Lat. 44°.
Castulo, Omu, haec, Livy; a town of Baetica, oa the Baetis, towards its head, famous in the Punic war; the country of Imilce, Hannibal's consort, Livy, Sil. Italicus; a colony of the Phocenses, either real or pretended. The mountain on which it stood was bivertex, or with two tops; hence the epithets, Farnastia, and Cast alia, Sil. Italicus. Its name is Arabic, Castala, noise of water against rocky banks, Strabo, Bochart; which prevent the navigation of the Baetis there. An ancient city, and a municipium. Castulonenfes, Pliny; the inhabitants.
Castulonensis Saltus, Livy; a forest near Castulo, in which the river Baetis takes its rife.
Cas us, Homer; an island os the Egean sea, near Crete, to the west of Carpathus, seventy stadia; with a cognoroinal town, Strabo, Ptolemy.
Casyrus, Pliny; a mountain ofElymais, mentioned by no other author, at which stood Seleucia.
Casyste, Strabo; a port of Ionia, in Asia, at the foot of mount Coricus.
Catabania, Strabo; a district of Arabia Felix, extending to the straits of the Arabian Gulf, and produc