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superstition of Hau-hauism. Very soon it could be said of the Maori as of the Englishman, “He swears like a trooper ;” and, as if to fix the responsibility of his profanity upon those who had taught him it, he swore in English. Whereas the Sabbath in aboriginal New Zealand had for years been observed with a strictness not exceeded in Christian England, it soon lost its sacredness in Maori estimation after British troops were seen fighting on it. The shady side of the contrast would be quickly seen by the discerning Maori mind, when the British troops took the Ruapekapeka fort while its dusky defenders were in the very act of worshiping the British soldiers' God. To inconsistency, religious division must be added as an effective cause of Maori apostasy; and if blame in this matter is to be rightly centered, it must undoubtedly be located with a pretentious Anglicanism and a still more pretentious Romanism, which obtruded themselves many years after the evangelical Marsden and his associates had extended the hand of Christian cordiality to Leigh and his Wesleyan brethren. Bishop Selwyn is undoubtedly deserving of all the commendation which has been bestowed upon him as an eminently successful missionary bishop; but it is regretfully remembered by some now venerable Methodist missionaries, who did good service in Maori evangelization years before he landed in New Zealand, that he did not always repress, either in himself or his subordinates, an arrogant bearing toward ministers who did not attach the same value as himself to episcopal teachings and orders. A yet further and final cause of disaffection and apostasy soon made itself apparent in the hostile relations established between some of the more powerful native tribes and the government of the day. The Maori had learned that his land was his wealth, and, as he reflected that it had too often been parted with for prices wholly inadequate, and on negotiations not always honorable, he resolved to refuse and defy all claimants to it outside his tribe or nation. A war-feeling grew up in his breast. Disquietude, debate, and passion took the place of security, order, and peace; and ultimately the white man came to be regarded as the Maori's bitterest foe.
With all these causes of disaffection working together among a highly imaginative race, it is not to be wondered at that relief from perplexity and annoyance should be sought for
FOURTH SERIES, VOL. XXXII.—23
in a change of religious belief and social relations; nor that it should be imagined that such relief was most likely to be met with by a return to at least some of the old superstitions. Accordingly, a wide-spread and furious spirit of fanaticism displayed itself during the last Maori war, in what is called the Pai-Marire movement, speedily followed by another, bearing the name of Hau-hau. “Pai-Marire” means “good and peaceful,” while “Hau-hau” signifies “to deal blows to.” Hauhauisın, which as a system became quite as much political as religious, was a remarkable compound of Romanism, Spiritualism, Mormonism, and Judaism. Te Ua, a fanatical Maori, bolder and more unscrupulous than the rest, and shrewd enough to discern a favorable opportunity for distinguishing himself, claimed to have received a revelation from the angel Gabriel raising him to the position of a prophet. By virtue of powers vested in him, he instituted orders of priests, and assured the discontented Maoris that if they would but place themselves under their power, following at the same time his leadership as high-priest, and paying homage to the Virgin Mary, Gabriel would assuredly grant them victory over the Pakehas. Captain Lloyd, an English officer of the 57th Regiment, fell into the hands of the fanatics, and, being beheaded, his head, after being cured, and then carried in procession, was reserved for sacred use as a medium of communication with Jehovah. Te Ua, having gathered together his priests, solemnly declared that through the poor captain's head the tenets of the new politico-religious system had been revealed in the following order:
1. All its followers to be called “Pai-Marire.” 2. Gabriel, with his legions, will protect them. 3. The Virgin Mary will be always with them. 4. The religion of England, as taught in the Bible, is false. 5. The Scriptures must all be burned. 6. No notice must be taken of their Christian Sabbath. 7. Men and women to live promiscuously. 8. Complete victory to follow the vigorous “Hau.” 9. The European population to be driven out of New Zealand. 10. This will be done when the head of Captain Lloyd) has made its circuit of the land. 11. Men will then come from heaven to teach them knowledge. 12. The priests have the power to teach the Maoris English..
The new belief spread like wild-fire among the disaffected and belligerent tribes, many of whom, including the more powerful and intelligent, had renounced their allegiance to the
Queen of England; set up their own king, in 1858, in the person of Te Whero Whero, or Potatau, an old chief of high rank by birth, and widely respected, to whom they required all Europeans, the missionaries included, to promise allegiance or quit their country; enacted laws disallowing European magistrates, forbidding the imprisonment of natives, and prohibiting the construction of roads; and, in 1864, renounced Christianity, and threatened the extirpation of all European inhabitants. Some of the tribes retained their friendly relations to the English government, and displayed fidelity and disinterestedness rarely equaled by such as have for centuries been under the influence of Christian doctrine and motive. But for ten years fierce warfare prevailed in the fairest portions of the land, involving the loss of hundreds of lives, the destruction of contented and happy homes, the expenditure of millions of money, the confiscation of tracts of fair and fertile country, and the engendering of bitter feeling not likely to admit of the restoration of completely amicable relations for many years yet to come; and all this, it may be admitted, with defeat of the Maori, but certainly not his conquest, as its result. Of obtuseness, incapacity, and blundering on the part of the British army there were more than enough; while there was little that added to its luster or increased its renown. Saddest of all is the reflection that the Maori campaign, with its decade of suffering and loss, was by no means unavoidable, and that it can never claim a place in the list of those wars which men agree to call either “necessary” or “righteous."
As might be expected, the force of so violent a reaction as lay in the uncontrollable wildnesses of Hau-hauism was felt by no class of settlers more keenly than by the missionaries. Formerly trusted as their most judicious advisers and constant friends, the Maoris now showed them the most bitter hatred. Not merely had they to abandon their stations, but, as in the case of Bishop Williams, some had to save their lives by hasty flight. Two valuable lives were sacrificed to their insatiate vengeance—those of the Rev. C. S. Volkner, of the Episcopal, and the Rev. John Whiteley, of the Wesleyan, mission—both eminently devoted men, who had spent many years in ungrudging service of their murderers. Mr. Whiteley was specially respected and trusted by a large section even of the more turbulent natives, at the same time that he was implicitly confided in by the government because of his wise counsels, and esteemed by the settlers because of his transparent and saintly character. Yet these considerations were not sufficient to shield even him from the blood-thirsty frenzies of Hau-han fanaticism. As was his wont, he had gone to one of his distant preaching appointments on the Saturday of February 13, 1869, to be ready for divine service on the following Sabbath, and on his arrival found the place—Puke-aruhe, in Taranaki—in possession of an armed party of natives, who had murdered every one of the settlers that had taken shelter in the redoubt. Approaching them, as is supposed, with full confidence in his influence over them to prevent further murders, he was fired on while yet at some distance, his horse first dropping under him, and himself speedily falling pierced with no less than five bullets. The government evinced its appreciation of the good man's services in its behalf by voting his widow an annuity of £100, which she still enjoys.
The worst is past, and better days are dawning. There will be no more Maori war, for the “King” party is fast losing its influence, and, indeed, can scarcely be said to have an existence. Of those who were hurried away by the terrible fanatical force of Hau-hauism, many are returning to their “right minds." The Scriptures are once more finding their way among those who had so grievously departed from their teaching, as was seen but recently, when two cases of copies were readily disposed of at an influential meeting of the “Kingites" with the premier, Sir George Grey; while there is clearly discernible a growing desire for the return of missionary agency among them. Henceforward such agency will be native, and to provide it both the Wesleyan and Episcopal Churches are engaged in training young and intelligent Maoris of promise. Six Maori chiefs have seats in the two Houses of Parliament-two in the upper and four in the lower house ; while many fill honorable positions as native magistrates or assessors. When it is added that about two thousand Maori children are being taught English in schools, and that the outward condition of the race, as a whole, as to diet, clothing, and general habits, is greatly improved, it will be seen that there is yet reason for hope for the future of the Maori. Unfortunately, the race is decreasing;
but with a census return that can show a total of over 42,000, there is presented to the Churches of New Zealand, for many years to come, no little scope for all its energies upon Maori evangelization. And the Maori, with his high capabilities of intelligence, and especially his ready discernment between right and wrong, is worthy of it all.
ART. VIII.—SYNOPSIS OF THE QUARTERLIES AND OTHERS OF
THE HIGHER PERIODICALS.
American Reviews. AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN, October, November, December, 1879. (Chicago, Illinois.)
-1. The Mound Builders ; by J. E. Stevenson. 2. Alaska and its Inhabitants; by Rev. Sheldon Jackson. 3. Antiquity of the Tobacco Pipe in Europe. Part II.-Switzerland; by Edwin A. Barber. 4. Fort Wayne, (Old Fort Miami,) and the Route from the Maumee to the Wabash ; by R. Š. Robertson. 6. How the Rabbit Killed the (Male) Winter; by J. 0. Dorsey. 6. The Delaware Indians in Ohio; by S. D. Peet.' 7. The Silent Races; by L. J. Dupre. 8. Sacrificial
Mounds in Illinois and Ohio. AMERICAN CATHOLIC QUARTERLY REVIEW, January, 1880. (Philadelphia.) 1. Pre
tended Unity of Modern Philosophy; by Rev. J. Ming, S.J. 2. Vocations to the Priesthood; by Right Rev. Thomas A. Becker, D.D. 3. Socialism at the Present Day; by Rev. Aug. J. Thebaud, S.J. 4. The Necessity for Infallibility; by Dr. Daniel Gans. 6. Archbishop Gibbon, and his Episcopalian Critic, Dr. Stearns; by A. de G. 6. English Manners; by A. Featherstone Marshall, B.A. 7. Is Froude a Historian! J. Gilmary Shea, LL.D. 8. Insanity as a Plea for Criminal Acts; Insanity as Emotional or Affective ; and whether Insanity can be of the
Will alone; Rev. Walter H. Hill, S.J. 9. The Stack-O'Hara Case; by S. L. M. BIBLIOTHECA SACRA, January, 1880. (Andover.)-1. Calvin's Ethics; by Rev. Frank
H. Foster. 2. Recent Works Bearing on the Relation of Science to Religion ; by Rev. George Frederick Wright. 3. Method of the Theological Use of the Bible, Especially of the Old Testament; by A. Duff, Jun., Ph.D. 4. Do the Scriptures Prohibit the Use of Alcoholic Beverages ? by Rev. Á. B. Rich, D.D. 5. The Meaning of WDS; by Rev. Wm. Henry Cobb. 6. The Sabbath in the Old Dispensation, and in the Change of Observance from the Seventh to the Lord's Day; by Rev. William De Loss Love, D.D. 7. Dr. Dorner's Christian Theology;
by Dr. D. W. Simon. CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN QUARTERLY, January, 1880. (Lebanon, Tenn.)-1. A
Chapter from the Evidences; by R. Beard, D.D. 2. Scientific Theism ; by J. I. D. Hinds, Ph.D. 3. Sanctification; by S. T. Anderson, D.D. 4. Baptismal Regeneration-Part I; by S. G. Burney, D.D. 5. Individual Immortality: The
Problem of the Ages; by A. B. Miller, D.D. 6. Exegetical ; by R. V. Foster, LUTHERAN QUARTERLY, January, 1880. (Gettysburg.)--1. Mr. Ruskin and the
Lord's Prayer; by C. A. Stork, D.D. 2. Is Conscience Infallible? by M. Valentine, D.D. 3. The Lutheran Church in Columbia County, N. Y.; by Rev. William Hull 4. Secular Education; by A. A. E. Taylor, D.D. 5. The Historical Character of the Book of Genesis ; by Rev. Dr. Geo. H. Schodde. 6. Assurance: by Rev. Joel Swartz, D.D. 7. Phillips Brooks' Influence of Jesus ; by C. A. Stork, D.D. 8. The Principle of the Reformation; by Prof. W. H. Wynn, Ph.D.