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to represent the deftruction that fames make upon fuel. If persons will not limit the sense of Metaphors by the context, or what appears to be their plain and obvious meaning, a man shall be made to speak quite different from what he really designs. So an iron heart may denote ein ther courage or cruelty. So a dove may ftand in Metaphor either for innocence or fear. Care therefore ought to be taken that Metaphors should not be wrested into meanings which were never fo much as imagined. Draw up, when you are examining a Metaphor, at once the limpid freain, and do not, under the notion of going deep, plunge lower and lower, again and again, till at last you only gather up the mire from the bottom. Let the first obvious idea be regarded; and if there is manifestly no further similitude, let the matter reft there, and proceed no farther. Some Preachers and Writers may indeed acquire the reputation of being deep by making such ifitärpretations of Scripture-Metaphors and Parables as were never designed, and which it their own fancies firft conceived, but no compliments are due to them. They rather deserve to be called muddy than profound; and may be more properly resembled to ponds or puddles, wbofe mire gives them the advantage of being thought deep, whereas in truth i wly fpreads a veil over their poverty and fhal

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lies admit à double or å treble resemblance, that they may in the same proportion be accounted beautiful. When God is called a fun in Scripture, methinks light and life and joy, permanent and unbounded, at once disclofe themselves in the Metaphor.

There is a u double beauty in images, says Mr MELMOTH, " when they are not only Metaphors but Allu“ sions. I was much pleased with an instance " of this uncommon fpecies in a little Poem, in“ titled, the Spleen. The Author of that piece < (who has thrown together more original

thoughts than I ever read in the same com

pass of lines) speaking of the advantage of « exercise in dissipating those gloomy vapours " which are so apt to hang upon some minds, s employs the following image;

Throw but a stone, the giant dies. " You will observe, ORONTES, that the Meta,

phor here is conceived with great propriety of

thought, if we consider it only in its primary “ view; but when we see it pointing still farther, " and hinting at the story of David and Go, “ LIATH, it receives a considerable improvement « from this double application t."

Mr Addison's comparison of the Duke of
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Lette

53, 54,

courage, but for his wisdom ; and at the same time very happily glances a compliment of the highest kind to the illustrious Princess whose forces he commanded, whose commission he bore, and whose orders he executed. We have an honourable notice and a criticism upon this passage in the Tatler t, which well merits our regard. “ The highest art of man, says the Au" thor, is to possess itself with tranquillity in « imminent danger, and to have its thoughts so “ free, as to act at that time without perplexity: “ The ancient Authors have compared this se" date courage to a rock that remains immove" able amidst the rage of winds and waves ; but « that is too stupid and inanimate a similitude, us and could do no credit to the Hero.. At other “ times they are all wonderfully obliged to a Li" byan Lion, which may indeed give very agree« able terrors to a description, but is no com“pliment to the person to whom it is applied. “ Eagles, Tygers, and Wolves, are made use of

on the same occasion, and very often with “ much beauty; but this is still an honour done Có to the brute rather than the Hero. Mars, “ Pallas, BACCHUS, and HERCULES, have each “ of them furnished very good similies in their s time; and made doubtless a greater impres«sion on the mind of an Heathen, than they « have on that of a modern Reader. But the 6 fublime image that I am talking of, and which “ I really think as great as ever entered into the

“ thought

+ N° 43.

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“ thought of man, is the Poem called the Camsi paign; where the simile of a ministering Angel " sets forth the most sedate and the most active “ courage, engaged in an uproar of nature, a “ confusion of elements, and a scene of divine

vengeance. Add to all, that these lines com

pliment the General and the Queen at the " same time, and have all the natural horrors

heightened by the image that was still fresh in
“ the inind of every Reader.”
'Twas then great MARLB'ROUGH's mighty soul was

prov'd,
That in the shock of charging hofts unmoy'd,
Amidst confusion, horror, and despair,
Examin'd all the dreadful scenes of war :
In peaceful thought the field of death survey'd,
To fainting squadrons sent the timely aid,
Inspir'd repuls'd battalions to engage,
And taught the doubtful battle where to rage.
So when an Angel, by divine command,
With rifing tempests shakes a guilty land
(Such as of late'o'er pale Britannia paft).
Calm and serene he drives the furious blast;
And pleas'd th’ Almighty's orders to perform,
Rides on the whirlwind, and directs the storm *.

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* Addison's Campaign.

E 3

CHAPTER

[54]

CHAPTER III.

The ALLEGORY considered.

$1. The definition of an Allegory. § 2. Examples

of the Allegory. § 3. Allegories of two forts, pure and mixed, 4. Mixed Allegories confldered, with instances of them. $ 5. Mixed Allegories defended. $ 6. Great beauty arising from the combination of the Allegory, Comparison, and single Trope. $ %. Parables and Fables to be placed under the bend of Allegory.

WE

$ 1. E have treated fo largely upon the

Metaphor, that we shall have the less to say upon the Allegory, which is fo nearly allied to it. An Allegory * is a chain or continuation of Tropes, and more generally of Metaphors † ; and differs from a single Trope in the

same

From adanyopew, I declare another thing. + Though an Allegory commonly consists of a series of Metaphors, yet there are instances of Allegories being made up of Metonymies, as that of Terence,

Sine Cerere & Baccho friget Venus. Eunuch. act. 4. sc. 5.

Without Ceres and BACCHUS, Venus dies. And SAMSON's riddle is made up of Synecdoches ; Out of the cater comes forth meat, and out of the frong sweetness,

Judg.

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