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I fhall only add, that the very fensible and ingenious Monsieur ROLLIN fays, "That the Metaphor gives most ornament, strength, and grandeur to a discourse. The most exquisite exprefsions are generally metaphorical, and "derive all their merit from this figure. It in"riches a language in fome measure with an infinity of expressions, by fubftituting the figu rative in the room of the simple and plain: it "throws a great variety into the ftile: it raises " and aggrandifes the moft minute and common "things it gives us a great pleasure by the in
genious boldness with which it strikes out in "queft of exprefsions, inftead of the natural "ones which are near at hand: it deceives the "mind agreeably, by fhewing it one thing, and "meaning another. In fine, it gives a body, "if we may fo fay, to the things that are fpiri“tual, and makes them almost the objects of hearing and sight, by the fensible images it "delineates to the imagination *."
Thus we find that the celebrated Writers of ancient and modern times unite in the highest praises of Metaphors: and indeed whoever duly considers their nature, muft confefs, that of all the flowers that embellish the regions of Eloquence, there is none that rises to fuch an eminence, that bears fo rich and beautiful a blof
τροπικαι, και ως υψηλοποιον αι μεταφοραι, και οτι οι παθη τιχοι και φρατικοι κατά το πλείσον αυταις χαίρεσι τοποι, LONGIN. de Sublimitate, § 32.
ROLLIN on the Belles Lettres, Vol. ii. p, 142.
fom, that diffufes fuch a copious and exquisite fragrance, or that fo amply rewards the care and culture of the Poet or the Orator, as the Metaphor.
8. But though the Metaphor is fo excellent and lovely a Trope, when happily produced and nurtured, yet it requires much wisdom and delicacy to conduct it ; and as nothing is more pleas ing than a good and well-regulated Metaphor, fo there is nothing more disgustful than a Metaphor ill-chosen and ill-conducted, according to the old maxim, Corruptio optimi eft peffima.
$9. Two things ought to be efpecially regarded as to Metaphors, that they are not in the leaft degree inconsistent, and that they are not pursued too far.
We fhould take heed that our Metaphors are not in the leaft degree inconsistent. After we have begun à Metaphor, we are to beware left we fpoil it, by introducing fomething repugnant and difsimilar to the firft image. Sometimes we fhall find in Metaphors, when they compose a fentence or fentences, a company of Subftantives, Adjectives and Verbs, whofe meanings can no more accord with one another, than the iron and clay in the feet of the image in NEBUCHADNEZZAR's dream. "Many perfons, fays QUIN"TILIAN, when they have fet out with a tem
peft, have ended with a conflagration; and "thus the effect of all has been a most shameful
inconsistency *." Were there never fuch exprefsions used, either from the pulpit or the prefs, or both, as that of calling GoD a fountain of bowels? or that fuch a virtue is an effential branch of a Chriftian's walk? or that many evils flow from fuch a root? or why fhould we dabble in dry controverfy? Have not the merits of our blefsed LORD been ftiled the rock of falvation, on which we are to cast an chor? when the idea of casting anchor upon a rock is abfolutely abfurd; and were it attempted by a vessel in a storm, would end in its deftruction. These inftances may ferve to fhew what I intend by inconsistent Metaphors; and upon the slighteft consideration the mind difcovers their miferable incongruity.
§ 10. But at the fame time we should be careful to preferve an harmony in our Metaphors, and beware how we heap together in the fame fentence difcordant images; it may be proper we fhould leave a full fcope for rhetorical indulgence and privilege. To this end let it be obferved, that we may on the fame fubject, and in a manner in the fame breath, introduce very different Metaphors, without exposing ourselves to any just cenfure for mixing and confounding them. Lon
Nam id quod imprimis eft cuftodiendum, ut quolex genere cœperis tranflationem hoc defines. Multi enim cum initigm à tempeftate fumpferunt incendio aut ruina finiunt; quæ eft inconfequentia rerum fœdiffima. QUINTIL. lib. viii. cap. 6. § 2.
GINUS obferves, that "as to the number of Metaphors, CECILIUS feems to agree with them "who are for reftraining them to two or three "at the most. DEMOSTHENES, adds LONGINUS, ee is our standard in these matters. The time of using them is when the passions rush like a torrent, and bear along with them a multi«tude of Metaphors as necefsary for the occa"sion. Men, fays DEMOSTHENES, contami«nated, peftilent, crouching, who have every "foul of them mangled their country, and drank "away its freedom in healths, first to PHILIP, " and now to ALEXANDER ; who measure their happiness by their belly, and the gratification of the most brutifh lufts; who have over"thrown that Liberty, and difdain of a Master "over us, which were formerly esteemed by "the Grecians the ftandard and teft of felicity. Here, in a cluster of Tropes, the indignation "of the Orator burfts out against these trai"tors: I aver that feafonable and vehement
pafsions, and a noble fublimity, are a fuffi"cient apology for the number and boldness of . Metaphors; for, it is natural for the passions
and fublimity, by their own impetuous violence, "to feize and carry all before them, and therefore "as by an abfolute necefsity they challenge the "boldeft Metaphors; nor will they give leifure for << the Hearer to cavil against their number, as they "inspire him with all the ardor of the Speaker *."
δε πληθές και μεταφορων, ο μεν Κικιλιβί εοικε σύγ
31 The ingenious Translator of LONGINUS, the Rev. Mr WILLIAM SMITH, in a note upon the passage which LONGINUS quotes from DEMOSTHENES, obferves," that DEMOSTHENES in this inftance
bursts not out upon the traitorous creatures of "PHILIP with fuch bitterness and severity, and “ ftrikes them not dumb with fuch a continua❝tion of vehement and cutting Metaphors, as "St JUDE treats fome profligate wretches in his Epiftle, ver. 12, 13. Thefe are fpots in your feafts of charity, when they feaft with you, feeding themselves without fear. Clouds they are σε roithout water, carried about of winds; trees, σε whofe fruit withers, without fruit, plucked up by σε the roots: raging waves of the fea, foaming out σε their
κατατίθεσθαι τοις δυο, η το πλείςον τρεις επι ταύτα νομοθέτεσι τα τελευαίο Ο γαρ Δημοσθένης, ορθό και των τοιέτων ο της χρειας δε καιρία, ενθα τα πάθη χειμαρρε δίκην ελαυνέται, και την πολυπλήθειαν αυτων, ως αναΓκαιαν ενταυθα, συνεφελκεται. Ανθρωποι, φησί, μιαροι, και αλάτορες, και κολακες ηκρωτή ριασμένοι τας εαυτων εκας οι πατρίδας, την ελευθερίαν προπέτα κοτες, προτερον μεν Φιλιππω, νυνι δε Αλεξανδρω, τη γατρι με τραντες και τους αιχίζοις την ευδαιμονιαν την δ' ελευθέρια» και το μηδενα εχειν δεσπότην, α τοις πρότερον ελλήσιν οροι των αγαθων ησαν και κανονες, ανατετροφολές.” Ενταυθα τω πλήθει των τροπικων ο καλα των προδοτων επιπρεπει το Ρήτορα θυμα Εγω δε και ταυτα μεν αποδεχομαι, όμως δε πλήθες και τολμής μεταφορων τα ευκαιρα και σφόδρα παθη, και το γεναίου υψο είναι φημι ίδια τινα αλεξιφαρμακαι οτι τω ροθίω της φοράς ταυτι πεφυκεν απαντα τ' αλλα παρασύρειν και προωθείν, μαλα λον δε και ως αναγκαια πανίως εισπρατλείθαι τα παράβολα και εκ εα την ακροατην χολάζειν περι τον τε πλήθος ελέξα χον, δια το συνενθεσίαν τω λεγοντι, LowGIN. de Sublimitate, $33.