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"the fource of his glory, and his glory was the "fource of his envy. And again; the empire "of Greece was firft in the hands of the Athe"nians, the Athenians were conquered by the "Spartans, the Spartans were fubdued by the "Thebans, the Thebans were vanquished by the "Macedonians, who in a fhort time annexed to "the Grecian empire that of Afia, which they re"duced to their dominion by the power of the "fword *."

"There is alfo a Figure, fays HERMOGENES, "remarkable and well adapted for illustration, "which is ftiled a Climax. This Climax is nothing else than a copious repetition; as when "DEMOSTHENES fays, Not only did I not fpeak "these things, but I did not write them; not "only did I not write them, but I did not make "them a part of my embassy; and not only did "I not make them a part of my embassy, but I "did not fo much as advise them t."

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CICERO

Gradatio eft, in qua non ante ad confequens verbum defcenditur, quàm ad fuperius confcenfum eft, hoc modo: nam quæ reliqua fpes manet libertatis, fi illis, & quod libet, licet; & quod licet, poffunt; & quod poffunt, audent; & quod audent, faciunt; & quod faciunt, vobis moleftum non eft? Item, Africano induftria virtutem, virtus gloriam, gloria æmulos comparavit. Item, imperium Græciæ fuit apud Athenienfes, Athenienfium potiti funt Spartiatæ, Spartiatas fuperavere Thebani, Thebani Macedones vicerunt, qui ad imperium Græciæ brevi tempore adjunxerunt Afiam bello fuba&tam. CICER. ad HERENNIUM, lib. iv. § 25.

+ Ετι των επιφανως καλλωπιζονίων εςι μέτα εναργειας, και

Το

CICERO gives us an inftance of the Climax in "Nor did he (MILO) the following passage. "commit himself only to the people, but also " to the fenate; nor to the fenate only, but to "the public forces and arms; nor to these only, "but to his power, with whom the fenate had "intrusted all the commonwealth, the flower “of Italy, and all the arms of the Roman peo"ple *"

"All the actions of men," fays Archbishop TILLOTSON," which are not natural, but pro"ceed from deliberation and choice, have fomething of difficulty in them, when we begin to "practise them; because at firft we are rude and « unexercised that way, but after we have prac"tised them a while, they become more eafy; "and when they are easy, we begin to take plea«fure in them; and when they please us, we do "them frequently, and think we cannot repeat "them too often; and by frequency of acts, a "thing grows into an habit; and a confirmed "habit is a fecond kind of nature: and fo far "as any thing is natural, fo far it is necefsary,

"and

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το κλιμακωίον καλυμενον σχημα—Εςι δε υδεν αλλ' η πλεοναζι σα Ανατροφη. Οιον, εκ ειπον μεν ταυτα, ουκ έγραψα δε, ε έγαψα μεν, εκ επρεσβυσα δε, υδ' επρεσβυσα μεν, ουκ επεισοδίο HERMOGEN. de Ideis, lib. i.

*Neque vero fe populo folum, fed etiam fenatui commifit; neque fenatui modo, fed etiam publicis præfidiis & armis; neque his tantum, verum etiam ejus poteftati, cui fenatus totam rempublicam, omnem Italiæ pubem, cuncta populi Romani arma commiferat. CICER. pro Milon. § 23.

«and we can hardly do otherwise; nay, we do "it many times when we do not think of it +."

§ 3. Inftances of this Figure occur in the facred Writings: Hofea ii. 21. " And it fhall come ss to pafs in that day, I will hear, faith the LORD, s the heavens, and they shall hear the earth, and the earth fhall hear the corn, and the wine, and st the oil, and they fhall hear JEZREEL." So Rom. v. 3. S Tribulation works patience, and patience experience, and experience hope; and hope makes not afhamed." And Rom. viii. 29, 30. For whom GOD did foreknow, them alfo he did predeftinate; and whom he did predeftinate, them he alfo called; and whom he called, them he also justified; and ss whom he juftified, them he alfo glorified." In like manner, Rom. x. 14, 15. "How then s fhall they call on him, on whom they have not Ss believed? and how fhall they believe on him, ss of whom they have not heard? and how fhall they hear without a Preacher? and how shall they preach, except they are fent? We may alfo recite for our purpose 2 Peter i. 5. $5 And s besides this giving all diligence, add to your s faith virtue; and to virtue, knowledge; and to knowledge, temperance; and to temperance, patience; and to patience, godliness; and to godlinefs, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness, charity."

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TILLOTSON'S Sermons, vol. ii. p. 32. Octavo edition.

4. But besides the Climax, which is regular and perfect, according to the definition we have given, there is what I may call a kind of freer Climax, that may be frequently observed in good Writers, in which the fense rises by degrees, though not according to the exact form and order in which we have described this Figure; of which we may take the following inftances.

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CICERO fomewhere fays, "It is a great fault "to lay a freeman of Rome in bonds, worse to fcourge him, and still worse to take away his "life, but what fhall I fay of crucifying him * ?" And again; "It is a miserable thing to be thrust "out of our possessions, more miserable to be "thruft out of them by injustice: it is a bitter thing to be cheated by any person, more bitter "to be cheated by a neighbour: it is a calamity

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to be stript of our goods, more calamitous to "be ftript of them with disgrace: it is shameful "to be beaten by an equal or a fuperior, but it " is more shameful to be thus used by an infe"rior: it is dreadful to have ourselves and our "all delivered into the hands of another, but "it is more dreadful if that perfon is our "enemy †."

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Facinus eft vincire civem Romanum, fcelus verberare, prope parricidium necare; quid dicam in crucem tollere?

+ Miferum eft exturbari fortunis omnibus; miferius eft, injuria. Acerbum eft ab aliquo circumveniri; acerbius à propinquo. Calamitofum eft bonis everti; calamitofius cum dedecore.

There appears evidently a Gradation in thefe celebrated lines of HORACE;

He who does rectitude purfue,
To all his refolutions true,
On the firm bafis of his foul
Can all oppofing force controll;
His citizens tumultuous rage
Urging him headlong to engage
In fome foul scheme; the tyrant's ire
Infifting on fome wild defire;
Th' impetuous hurricanes that sweep
In terror o'er th' afflicted deep;
And the red arm of angry Jove
That darts the thunder from above.

Should the ftrong bonds that earth and sky

In peace unites afunder fly,

His foul would fmile, fecure from fears,
Amidst the ruins of the fpheres *.

"What is every year," fays Mr POPE to Bishop ATTERBURY, " of a wife man's life, but "a cenfure or critic on the past? Thofe, whofe "date

dedecore. Indignum eft à pari vinci, aut fuperiore; indig. nius ab inferiore, atque humiliore. Luctuofum eft tradi alteri cum bonis; luctuofius inimico. CICER. pre QUINT. § 31.

* Juftum & tenacem propofiti virum
Non civium ardor prava jubentium,
Non vultus inftantis tyranni

Mente quatit folida; neque auster,
Dux inquieti turbidus Adriæ,
Nec fulminantis magna Jovis manus.
Si fractus illabatur orbis
Impavidum ferient ruina.

HORAT. Od. lib. iii. od. 3.

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