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§ 8. There is an example both of the Afmdeton and the Polyfyndeton together in DEMOSTHENES; which may very properly clofe our difcourse upon them, so far as it refpects examples. "For as to naval power, and the number of "forces and revenues, and a plenty of martial "preparations, and, in a word, as to other "things that may be esteemed the ftrength of "a ftate, these are all both more and greater

than in former times: but all thefe things *are rendered ufelefs, inefficacious, abortive, through the power of corruption †."

$9. It may be proper to obferve, that the ground of the Afyndeton seems to lie in its happy exprefsion of our impetuous pafsions, or in its happy description of fomething that is fudden, rapid, and instantaneous: whereas the ground of the Polyfyndeton appears to be laid in the fpeaker's desire that every one of his weighty and important ideas may be fully comprehended; and therefore he gives time, by the reduplication of conjunctions, for the leisurely infusion of his fentiments, that they may thereby make the more forcible and lafting impression. A man

* Επει τριήρεις γε και σωμάτων πλήθω, και χρηματων πρόσοδοι, και της αλλης κατασκευης αφθονία, και τ' άλλα, οις αν τις ισχύειν τας πόλεις κρινοί, νυν απανία και πλείω και μειζω εξι των πολε πολλω. Αλλ' απανία ταυλα αχρήσα, απρακία, avornĴæ Uπo Twi Twλerlwi yıyıstas. DEMOSTH. Philip.iй. edit. WOLF11, p. 48.

A man in hafte, or under the power of some passion, will naturally omit fome words, that he may deliver his message as quick as pofsible, or that he may inftantly relieve his mind. which is impatient of all delay. And a man that is desirous that he may entirely and fully communicate what he feels or means himself to mean others, will naturally deliver himfelf with a kind of slow deliberation, and take care that his ideas are imparted diftinct and feparate, rather than in a throng or cluster. "The "Afyndeton," fays the learned Doctor WARD, «leaves out the connecting particles, to repre"fent either the celerity of an action, or the "hafte and eagerness of the fpeaker: and the Polyfyndeton adds a weight and gravity to an expression, and makes what is faid to appear "with an air of folemnity; and, by retarding "the course of the fentence, gives the mind an opportunity to consider and reflect upon every part diftinctly +.”

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+ WARD's Syftem of Oratory, vol. ii. p. 50, 51.

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CHAPTER XVI.

The OXYMORON Confidered.

§ 1. Oxymoron defined. § 2. Examples of it in common, familiar conversation. § 3. Inftances of this Figure from BARROW, DAVIES, ADDISON, POPE, YOUNG, and HORACE. § 4. Infances from Scripture. § 5. Remarks and cautions as to the Oxymoron.

*

§ 1.

Xymoron is a Figure in which the parts of a period or fentence difagree in found, but perfectly accord with one another in meaning; or, if I may so call it, it is fenfe in the masquerade of folly.

§ 2. We may find inftances of this kind in the common language of mankind, or that may appear very easy and natural in familiar converfation. A coward dies often, a brave man but once. He is a living death, said of a man in a confumption, or of a malefactor under condemnation. An idiot or a madman is his own grave.

No

• From o&us, fearp, and wg, foolish; or ingenuity under the appearance of folly.

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No one poorer than that rich man, or he is only a rich beggar, fpoken of a wealthy mifer. An hoary-headed child, the character of a foolish, libidinous old man. So a Christian may be faid, never to be lefs alone, than when alone, becaufe he then converses with his GOD. Such a man is unreasonably reafonable, that is, he does not fo readily as he ought submit himself to divine fovereignty, but will ever be prying into the reasons of the divine conduct, when GOD has evidently seen fit impenetrably to conceal them. He is unmercifully merciful, by which character we mean a Prince who does not punish flagitious offenders in fuch a manner, as a wife regard to the general good of his fubjects requires. And thus we may call the afflictions of a good man, according to that blessed view in which the Scripture represents them, falutary wounds, healthful difeafes, happy pains, profitable loffes, bitter fweets, and exalting abafements.

§ 3. We may meet with examples of the Oxymoron in fome of the finest Writers. "No condition, fays Dr BARROW, in effect, can be evil, "or fad to a pious man; his very forrows are pleafant, his infirmities are wholfome, his "wants enrich him, his difgraces adorn him +." "Alas! fays Mr DAVIES, while you are neglecting the one thing needful, what are you do

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❝ing,

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+ Sermon on the Profitableness of Godliness, vol. I. p. 17. Folio edition.

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"ing, but spending your time and labour in la"borious idlenefs, honourably debasing your

felves, delightfully tormenting yourselves, "wifely befooling yourselves, and frugally impoverishing, and ruining yourselves for ever." May we not range under this Figure the laft of the following lines of Mr ADDISON ?

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Remember what our father oft has told us :
The ways of Heav'n are dark and intricate,
Puzzled in mazes, and perplex'd with errors:
Our understanding traces them in vain,
Loft and bewilder'd in the fruitless fearch;
Nor fees with how much art the windings run,
Nor where the regular confufion ends t.

May we not also afcribe to this Figure the following verfes of Mr POPE?

All nature is but art, unknown to thee;

All chance, direction, which thou canst not fee;
All discord, harmony not understood;

All partial evil, univerfal good:

And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite,
One truth is clear, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT ‡.

Has not Dr YOUNG exemplified the Oxymoron, when he fays,

How poor, how rich, how abject, how auguft,
How complicate, how wonderful is man!

How

• DAVIES's Sermons, vol. ii. page 376.

+ ADDISON'S Works, vol. ii. page 25. Otavo edition. Essay on Man, epift. i. line 289.

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