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"both you and your ancestors, and indeed every “brave man have judged, and still judge, that "the greatest labours are to be endured *"

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§3. We may produce instances of this Figure from the facred Writings. Deut. viii. 3. SS Blefs"ed fhalt thou be in the city, and blessed fhalt ss thou be in the field: blefsed fhall be the fruit "of thy body, and the fruit of thy ground, and ss the fruit of thy cattle, the increase of thy kine, " and the flocks of thy fheep: blefsed fhall be thy basket, and thy ftore: blessed fhalt thou " be when thou comest in, and blessed shalt thou Ss be when thou goeft out." In like manner,. Pfalm xxix. 4. " The voice of the LORD is powerful; the voice of the LORD is full of majesty : "the voice of the LORD breaks the cedars; yea, the LORD breaks the cedars of Lebanon. The ss voice of the LORD divides the flames of fire: ss the voice of the LORD fhakes the wilderness; ss the LORD fhakes the wilderness of Kadesh. "The voice of the LORD makes the hinds to

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" calve, and discovers the forests."

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But

* Quid enim eft tam populare, quàm pax? qua non modo ii, quibus natura fenfum dedit, fed etiam tecta, atque agri mihi lætari videntur. Quid tam populare, quàm libertas? quam non folùm ab hominibus, verum etiam à bestiis expeti, atque omnibus rebus anteponi videtur. Quid tam populare, quàm otium? quod ita jucundum eft, ut & vos, & majores veftri, & fortiffimus quifque vir, maximos labores fufcipiendos putet, ut aliquando in otio poffit effe. CICER, contra RULL. Orat. ii. n 4.

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But there is a very remarkable example of the Epanaphora in DEBORAH's triumphal ode, where fhe describes the death of SISERA by JAEL, Judg. v. 27. " At her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay down; at her feet he bowed, he fell: where she bowed, there he fell down dead." It may not be improbable that Mr DRYDEN had this passage in his eye in those lines of his Ode, intitled, Alexander's Feaft:

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He chofe a mournful mufe
Soft pity to infuse :

He fung DARIUS, great and good,
By too fevere a fate,
Fall'n, fall'n, fall'n, fall'n,
Fall'n from his high eftate,
And welt'ring in his blood.

$ 4. The Epanaphora seems admirably adapted to express lively and violent passions, and particularly that of forrow; of which we may take the following examples.

Thus VIRGIL paints ORPHEUS's grief for the lofs of his beloved EURYDICE:

Thee his lov'd wife along the lonely shores;
Thee his lov'd wife his mournful fong deplores:
Thee, when the rifing morning gives the light,
Thee, when the world was overspread with night †.

Mr POPE has happily adopted this Figure for the

Te, dulcis conjux; te folo in littore fecum,
Te veniente die, te decedente canebat.

VIRGIL, Georgic, lib. iv. ver.,465.

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the fame purpose, in his charming ode on Saint Cecilia's day:

Ah! fee he dies!

Yet ev'n in death EURYDICE he fung,
EURYDICE ftill trembled on his tongue,

EURYDICE the woods,

EURYDICE the floods,

EURYDICE the rocks, and hollow mountains rung.

In like manner PLINY the Younger, lamenting the death of VIRGINIUS, who had been his tutor, and whom he considered as his father, in an epistle to his friend VOCONIUS, fays, “I would "write many other things to you, but my whole "mind is taken up in this contemplation. I "think of VIRGINIUS; I fee VIRGINIUS; I now "hear, I converse with, I embrace, in vain but fresh representations of him to my mind, my "dear VIRGINIUS."

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I fhall add one more example of the Epanaphora, as fuited to express a strong fenfation of forrow, from CICERO: "The goods of C. POм"PEY the Great (O me miserable! for though "I have exhausted my tears upon the account, 66 yet the grief has indelibly fixed itself upon my heart) his goods, I fay, were offered to "fale by the most bitter voice of the common "cryer +."

* Volui tibi multa alia fcribere, fed totus animus in hac una contemplatione defixus eft. Virginium cogito, Virginium video, Virginium jam vanis imaginibus, recentibus tamen, audio, alloquor, teneo. PLINII Epift. lib. ii. epift. 1.

+ Bona (miferum me! confumptis enim lacrimis, tamen infixit

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§ 5. The Epanaphora may be of great ufe for representing, or ftrongly insisting upon any topic. The elder PLINY," fays Mr ROLLIN, "would make us fensible of the folly of men, "who give themselves fo much trouble to se"cure an 'eftablishment in this world; and often "take up arms against one another, to extend "a little the boundaries of their dominions. "After representing the whole earth as a small

point, and almoft indivisible in comparison of "the universe, he says, This is the matter, this "the feat of our glory: here we assume ho6& nours; here we exercise dominion; here we "covet riches; here the human race is in up"roar: here we make wars, wars even upon "our fellow-citizens, and drench the earth with "our mutual bloodshed *. All the vivacity," fays Mr ROLLIN, "of this passage, consifts in "the repetition, which feems in every member "or part to exhibit this little spot of earth, for "which men torment themfelves fo far, as to "fight and kill one another, in order to attain "fome little portion of it †

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$ 6.

infixit animo hæret dolor) bona, inquam, Cn. Pompeii Magni, voci acerbiffimæ fubjecta præconis. CICER. Philip. ii. $26.

* Hæc eft materia gloriæ noftræ, hæc fedes: hic honores gerimus, hîc exercemus imperia, hîc opes cupimus, hîc tumultuatur humanum genus; hîc inftauramus bella civilia, niutuifque cædibus laxiorem facimus terram. cap. 58.

PLINII, lib. ii.

+ ROLLIN on the Belles Lettres, vol. ii.

P. 148.

§ 6. I fhall add, by way of caution, that when we are minded to ingraft this Figure into our compositions, we fhould take heed of running into insipid tautologies, and all affectation of a trifling found, and jingle of insignificant words. Let our repetitions give nerves to our discourses, or diffuse a luftre over them. Let them not be the finical ornaments of an artificial eloquence, but the bold impetuous fallies of real transport, or inflamed imagination.

CHAPTER XIII.

The APOSTROPHE Confidered.

§ 1. The definition of an Apostrophe. § 2. Examples from CICERO, BLACKMORE, THOMSON, WATTS, and MILTON. § 3. Inftances from Scripture. § 4. The use of the Apostrophe, with a paffage from LONGINUS.

§ 1. A Poftrophe * is a Figure in which we in

terrupt the current of our discourse,

and turn to another perfon, or to fome other object, different from that to which our address was first directed t.

* From aπоsgow, I turn away.

Averfus quoque à judice fermo, qui dicitur Amorgon,
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