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may be branded with something more than being finical and fantastical, though they may undoubt edly merit fuch a cenfure, which we meet with in Mr BERNARD GILPIN'S Life, fpoken by an High Sheriff at Oxford to the Students: "Arriving, fays he, at the mount of St Mary, in the ftony

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ftage where I now ftand, I have brought you "fome fine biscuits carefully conferved for the "Chickens of the Church, the Sparrows of the Spirit, and the fweet Swallows of Salvation."

Such studied ornaments and pedantic conceits are unworthy a place in our compositions; and they should be carefully avoided by all, but efpe cially by fuch as have a lively fancy, and a turn for wit and humour.

Such labour'd nothings in fo ftrange a ftile,

Amaze th' unlearn'd, and make the learned fmile.

Let the peace of oblivion brood over fuch trash, and may they never be called into remembrance, except to excite our dislike, and double our caution.

11. Let us avoid all filthy and impure Tropes. We fhould take heed that no Tropes we make ufe of, either as to found or fenfe, convey any idea that will not be agreeable to a chafte mind, or make any trefpafs upon delicacy. Let us borrow our Tropes from what we find moft pleasing to the ear, the eye, and the other


*POPE'S Efay on Criticism, line 336.

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other senses. “ "Tropes, fays ARISTOTLE, are "to be taken from those things which are agree→ "able, whether in found, or touch, or sight, or << any other fenfe *." CICERO will not admit that the commonwealth fhould be faid to be emafculated by the death of AFRICANUS, nor that another person fhould be called the dung of the court . QUINTILIAN by no means approves of the faying of an Orator, that fuch a perfon had lanced the biles of the commonwealth ‡. "I cannot "fee HORACE's genius, fays the Archbishop of CAMBRAY, in this low piece of satire,

Profcripti regis Rupili pus atque venenum ;

"and we should be apt to ftare at the reading of " it, if we did not know the Author ||.

LONGINUS's remarks and inftructions upon this head are very juft: It by no means, fays 66- he,

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Τας δε μεταφορας έντευθεν οις εον απο καλων, η τη φωνή, η τη δυνάμει, η τη οψει, η αλλη τινι αιθεσει. ARISTOT. Rhetor. lib. iii. cap. 2. § 4.

+ Nolo morte dici Africani caftratam effe rempublicam ; nolo ftercus curiæ dici Glauciam: quamvis fit fimile, tamen eft in utroque deformis cogitatio fimilitudinis. CICER. de Orat. lib. iii. § 41.

Non enim probem illud quoque veteris Oratoris: perfecuifti reipublicæ vomicas. QUINTIL. lib. viii. cap. 6. § 1. Letter to the French Academy. This line of HORACE in plain English may be rendered the filth (the word fignifying the corrupt matter iffuing from a fore) and the poison of the profcribed King RUPILIUS; HORACE thereby intending the railing or abufive tongue of RUPILIUS. HORAT. Sat. lib. i. fat. 7. ver. 1.

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❝he, becomes us to sink into fordid and impure "terms, unless we are compelled by an unavoid "able necefsity; but we fhould make a choice "of words correfpondent to the dignity of the fubject; and fhould imitate nature in her for"mation of the human fabric, who has not placed the parts of our frame which are inde"cent to mention, nor the vents of the body in open sight, but has concealed them as much

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as pofsible; and, as ZENOPHON obferves, re"moved the channels to the greatest distance "from the eyes, thereby to preserve inviolable "the beauty of her workmanship *.”

12. Having given an account of the nature of Tropes in general, I shall conclude the chapter with two observations.

First, If we would have a diftinct and full idea of the beauty of a Trope, let us substitute the natural expressions in the room of the tropical, and diveft a bright phrafe of its ornaments, by reducing it to plain and simple language, and then obferve how inuch we abate the value of the difcourfe.

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* Ou yap δες καταναν εν τοις εψεσιν εἰς τα ρυπαρα και εξυ βρισμένα, αν μη σφόδρα υπό τινος αναγκης συνδιωκωμεθα αλλά των πραγματών πρεποι αν και τας φωνας έχειν αξίας, και μια μείσθαι την δημιεργήσασαν φυσιν τον ανθρώπων, ητις εν ημιν τα μέρη τα απορρητα εκ εθηκεν εν προσώπω, εδε τα της πανθε ο Γκε περιηθήματα· απεκρύψατο δε, ως ενήν, και, κατα τον Ξε * νοφώντα, τις τύτων οτι πορρωταίω σχετες απέτρεψεν,” εδά μη καταίσχυνασα το τε ολε ζωες καλλώ. LONGIN. de Subli mitate, § 43.


difcourfe. Of this method CICERO gives us an example;

"Olive, ULYSSES, while you may,

"Snatch the laft glimpses of the golden day.

"The Poet does not fay, take or seek (for either "of those words would intimate delay on the cr part of the fpeaker, as hoping that ULYSSES "would live fome time longer) but fnatch. This "word agrees with what is faid before, while "" * you may

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Secondly, Tropes and metaphorical expressions are used, according to the obfervation of Mr BLACKWALL," either for neceffity, emphafis, or

decency. For neceffity, when we have not pro"per words to declare our thoughts; for empkafis, when the proper words we have are not fo "comprehensive and significant; for decency, "when plain language would give offence and "diftafte to the Reader +."

Vive, Ulyffes, dum licet

Oculis poftremum lumen radiatum rape.

Non dixit cape, non pete; haberet enim moram fperantis diutius effe fefe victurum, fed rape; hoc verbum eft ad id aptatum, quod ante dixerat, dum licet. CICER. de Orat. - Jib. iii. § 40.

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BLACKWALL'S Introduction to the Clefics, part ii. chap. r.


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§ 1. The definition of a Metaphor. § 2. How diftinguished from a Trope, or how it appears to be only a fpecies of the Trope. § 3. How dif tinguished from a Comparifon. § 4. What neceffary to conftitute a Metaphor or Comparison. $5. Which to be preferred, the Metaphor or Comparison, and upon what account. § 6. Inftances of Metaphors from Scripture. § 7. Encomiums upon the Metaphor, by CICERO, ADDIson, Longinus, and ROLLIN. § 8, The Metaphor requires wisdom and delicacy to manage it. § 9. We should take heed our Metaphors are not inconfiftent. § 10. The indulgence and privilege in the ufe of Metaphors confidered and confirmed by examples. § 11. Method how to avoid inconfiftent Metaphors. § 12. Inftances of inconfiftent Metaphors in Authors of the first reputation, DODDRIDGE, YOUNG, TILLotson, AdDISON, and CICERO. § 13. Examples of beautiful Metaphors from DODDRIDGE, YOUNG, TILLOTSON, ADDISON, and CICERO. $ 14. Metaphors not to be pursued too far; with inftances of faults of this kind. §15. Metaphors

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