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him, verfe 18. of his Epiftle: "If he hath wronged
thee, or owes thee aught, put that to my account; I PAUL have written it with my own * hand, I will repay it: albeit I do not fay to
" thee, how thou oweft to me, even thine own ss felf besides. Was there ever a more delicate, ftriking, and perfuasive Apophafis?
$ 4. The use of this Figure in my opinion may be various.
(1) By the aid of the Apophafis, the speaker introduces, without any difficulty, and without any fufpicion of being ill-natured or ungenerous, fome criminal charges against a perfon, which may be foreign indeed from the matter under immediate consideration, and therefore may require art to mention them, but yet may be of such a nature as may considerably assist his general argument and cause *.
(2) By this Figure we may crowd abundance of fentiment into a small compass, and arm our difcourfes as with an invincible ftrength, by collecting and compacting our ideas; and how much is fuch a method to be preferred to a tedious and minute detail of circumftances, which grows languid upon the hearer by a weak and fubtil diffusion?
Hæc utilis eft exornatio, fi aut rem quam non pertineat ab aliis oftendere occulta admonuiffe prodeft. CICER, ad HBREN. lib. iv. n. 47.
(3) The Apophafis may be a grateful furprise to our audience, and powerfully operate upon their minds. While they hear us faying, We omit fuch and fuch things, or we shall not touch upon them, or we shall not mention them, we appear to them as if we thought the things which we pretend to wave were light and inconsiderable; when, to their aftonifhment (and astonishment will always be attended with a strong imprefsion) they are evidently very weighty and momentous. Arguments delivered in this unexpected manner, fall like accidental fire from heaven, which strikes much more powerfully than the regular expanded luftres of the day.
I fhall only add, that I have fomewhere found it obferved concerning the Apophafis, that it is principally used on the following occasions; elther when things are fmall, but yet necessary to be mentioned; or well known, and need no enlargement; or ungrateful, and therefore should be introduced with caution, and not fet in too ftrong a light: though I might add, that the very caution with which we employ the Apophasis, may give it the speedier pafsage into the foul, and enfure and augment its influence over the perfon to whom it is directed, as may be easily obferved in the above-cited inftance from the Apostle PAUL, in his Epiftle to PHILEMON.
The ANACOENOSIS Confidered,
§1. The definition of the Anacoenofis. § 2. InStances of it from QUINTILIAN, CICERO, and VIRGIL. § 3. Examples of this Figure from the facred Writings. § 4. The various ufe of the Anacoinofis.
§1. A Nacoenofis is a Figure by which
the speaker applies to his hearers or opponents for their opinion upon the point in debate; or when a perfon excufes his conduct, gives reafons for it, and appeals to those about him whether they are not fatisfactory.
$.2. QUINTILIAN both defcribes this Figure, and furnishes us with fome very fuitable examples. "That Figure, fays he, is called commu«nication, when we either confult our adverfa"ries, as DOMITIUS AFER pleading for CLOAN"TILLA: But he being timorous, is ignorunt what "liberty a woman may take, or what may be be"coming in a wife; perhaps in that folitude for
"tune has caft you in the way of that miferable woman: but you, brother, and you, paternal friends, what advice do you give? or when we, "as it were, deliberate with our judges, which is "very frequent: What do you perfuade? and I << afk you, what then ought to be done? As when "CATO fays, Tell me, if you were in my place, "what would you have done? and elsewhere, "Suppofe it was a common affair, and that the management was intrusted to you
CICERO makes use of the fame Figure in his Oration for CÆCINA: "For fuppose, Piso, that << any perfon had driven you from your house by violence, and with an armed force, how would (6 you have behaved †?" Another Another example may be produced from the fame Orator: "But "what could you have done in such a case, and "at fuch a juncture? when to have fat ftill, "or to have withdrawn, had been cowardice; "when the wickedness and fury of SATURNINUS
A quo fchemate non procul abest illa quæ dicitur communicatio, cùm aut ipfos adverfarios confulimus, ut Domitius Afer pro Cloantilla: At illa nefcit trepida quod liceat fœminæ, quod conjugem deceat; fortè vos in illa folitudine obvios cafus miferæ mulieri obtulit. Tu, frater, vos paterni amici, quod confilium datis? aut cum judicibus quafi deliberamus, quod eft frequentiffimum; Quid fuadetis? & vos interrogo; Quid tandem fieri oportuit? Ut Cato; cedo, fi vos in eo loco effetis, quid aliud feciffetis? & alibi, communem rem agi putatote; ac vos huic rei propofitis effe. QUINTIL. lib. ix. cap. 2. § 1.
+ Etenim, Piso, fi quis te ex ædibus tuis vi, hominibus armatis dejecerit, quid ageres? CICER. pro CECINA, n. 31.
"had fent for you into the capitol, and the Contfuls had called you to protect the fafety and "liberty of your country, whofe authority, whofe voice, which party would you have "followed, and whofe orders would you have "chosen to obey *?"
Nor has Oratory only adopted this Figure, but we shall find it alfo in Poetry; as where VIRGIL, in his Paftoral, introduces TITYRUS as faying,
What could I do? No other way appear'd
§3. Examples of the Anacoenofis might be furnished in great variety from the facred Writings. As in Ifaiah v. 3, 4. And now, O inhassbitants of Jerufalem, and men of Judah, judge, ss I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard: SS What could have been done more to my vine
yard, that I have not done?" So Jer. xxiii. 23. Am I a GOD at hand, faith the LORD, and am I not a GoD afar off? Can any hide himM 3 $ felf
Tu denique quid faceres tali in re, ac tempore? cùm ignaviæ ratio te in fugam, atque in latebras impelleret: improbitas & furor L. Saturnini in capitolium arcefferet; Confules ad patriæ falutem & libertatem vocarent; quam tandem auc.. toritatem, quam vocem, cujus fe&am fequi, cujus imperio parere potiffimùm velles? CICER. pro C. RABIRIO, n, 8,
+ Quid facerem? Neque fervitio me exire licebat;