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quin trimming himself with an hatchet, hewing down a tree with a razor, making his tea "in a cauldron, and brewing his ale in a teapot
§4. Upon a review of our account of the Tropes of Rhetoric, we may fee the justice of Mr BLACKWALL's obfervation, that " it is plain "there is a general analogy and relation be"tween all Tropes; and that in all of them a "man uses a foreign or ftrange word instead of "a proper one, and therefore fays one thing. " and means fomething different. When he
fays one thing, and means another almoft the "fame, it is a Synecdoche or Comprehenfion; when he fays one thing, and means another mutually depending, it is a Metonymy; when he fays one thing, and means another opposite or contrary, it is an Irony; when he fays one thing, and means another like to it, it is a Metaphor; a Metaphor continued, and often "repeated, is an Allegory; a Metaphor, carried "to a great degree of boldnefs, is an Hyper
bole; and when at firft found it feems a little harfh and fhocking, and may be imagined to carry fome impropriety in it, it is a Cata "chrefis +."
§ 5. The celebrated VIDA has given us fuch a very juft and beautiful account of the nature H 4 of
* POPE's Art of Sinking, vol. vi. page 191.
of Tropes, and their feveral kinds, that I think proper to annex to our Discourse concerning them a translation of his very fine verfes upon our fubject; and the Reader will excufe me, if along with them I translate fome lines of our Author that belong not to the Tropes, but the Figures of Rhetoric, the last of which have not as yet been considered by us,
Obferve how proper names afide are thrown,
To things for which they were not first defign'd,
To quit their foreign for their native garb.
His Metaphors are fnatch'd from fighting fields,
So from fome neighb'ring hill, while we furvey
Paftures, and waving woods, and wander o'er
Secure th' attention, bear th' enraptur❜d mind,
A fubject mean and trivial in itfelf;
And, if the proper words are found too few,
Were for the pleasures they infpir'd preferr'd,
The fhout afcends the fkies. All heav'n around "Shakes with th' unfufferable noife." Anon How he repeats his words, that execrate : Ravage and havock and the plagues of war †?
O father! O my country! O the house "Of PRIAM once fo great! O JUPITER! "Imperial Tray is fmoking on the ground."
NEPTUNE fhall fometimes fignify the main 1,. And BACCHUS wine, and CERES corn intend:
• The Hyperbole. The Synecdoche.
+ An Ecphonefu.
The father shall denominate his race,
Their country trembles to its utmost bounds.
And gen'rous wine compos'd--What mean the ftreams
Poets will by a change of speech address
Sometimes a Bard profufe fhall pour his praise In words, while he a fenfe reverse intends †. "She doubtless was a moft deferving wife ‡, "Who, when his foes were rufhing thro' his doors, "Drew from her husband's head his faithful fword." "O to what heights of fame has DRANCES || foar'd! "How has he ftrew'd the fields with heaps of flain "And, fee the trophies which his valour gain'd!
What a rich pleasure oft pervades the mind,
Should PAN, tho' ARCADY was judge, contend; "Ev'n PAN, tho' ARCADY was judge, muft yield §." But tho' a Poet may have leave to foar In bold excurfions on his wing of fire, Let him be caution'd in his use of Tropes Not to exceed all bounds, and croud his verfe With what are scarce related to his theme. By harshness fome most shamefully offend,
A coward in VIRGIL.