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pensible. We believe Mr. W. is incorrect in giving to Great Britain the possession both of the Isle of France and that of Bourbon. The Mauritius alone is ours: if we may trust our recollection, the other was restored. We sball trespass on Mr. Wallace's pages for one more extract, containing a most interesting statement.

• Bengal is bounded on nearly its whole eastern line by the wild and extensive district of Tiperah, the mountains of which are inhabited by savages, who have now scarcely any knowledge of the Brahmanical code, nor indeed, of any other, although, in ancient times, this was the seat of an empire which brought armies into the field of 200,000 infantry. From this region and Chittagong, the government of India recruit their establishment of elephants, purchasing none under nine feet high. The inhabitants of Rajemal, a northern district of Bengal contiguous to this tract, are mostly of low stature, but stout and well proportioned. Many of them are not taller than four feet ten inches, with small eyes, flat noses, and thick lips. These savage men were reclaimed and civilized by the poble exertions of Mr. Cleveland, their judge and magistrate, who has a monument in the form of a pagoda, erected to his memory near Boglipore: he died at the early age of 29. An idea of his worth may be entertained from the tribute paid to his memory by the governor-general and council of Bengal, and which remains for a testimony to future times, engraved over his mortal remains. There he lies-- Who, without bloodshed, or the terror of authority, employing only the means of conciliation, confidence, and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajemal, who had long infested the neighbouring lands by their predatory incursions, inspired them with a taste for the arts of civilized life, and attached them to the British government by a conquest over their minds.” To my understanding, this is one of the most honourable monuments that ever was erected, and worthy of being perpetuated till time shall be no more.'

We wish that such monuments as these were more thickly planted.

Art. V. The Christian Ministry: or Excitement and Direction in

Ministerial Duties. Extracted from various Authors. By William Innes, Minister of the Gospel. 8vo. pp. 358. Price 8s.

Edinburgh. 1824. THE HE abridgement of some large works of practical divinity,

has communicated the essence of highly valuable books to a numerous class of readers, who could not afford the expense either of time or money which the originals would claim. But the task of abridging is not without its difficulties, and, like that of translating, has frequently fallen into incompetent hands. Even at the best, he who has leisure to peruse an original work of merit, suffers loss, if induced by an abridgement to decline its perusal. We are therefore disposed to give the preference to that exercise of literary industry, by which the treasures of pious learning are explored with a view to selection and compilation. Such productions have not the same tendency to deter the reader from resorting to the originals when opportunity may offer. An abridgement, like an engraving, gives the outline and composition of its original ; and, after examining it, we are sometimes less concerned to become acquainted with that which, except as to its colouring, seems already known to us. But they who extract, bring us specimens from a mine : we cannot be sure that they have chosen the very best, or the most adapted to our particular use. If we are gratified and enriched by these, perhaps we might be yet more by others. And it is the more probable that we may be disposed to argue thus, when the specimens produced, as in the work before us, are chiefly of one particular kind. Indeed, we consider this mode of compilation, which brings into a distinct work what has been said by several writers upon one subject, as preferable to the miscellaneous extracts from one author that are often presented. At least, the great importance of the duties which belong to the Christian ministry, fully warrants the appropriation of one or more volumes to the production of the counsels of those who have eminently fulfilled it.

Mr. Innes states, that his design · has been, to furnish a • volume as full of useful matter as possible; a volume which

may lie with advantage on the table of every minister of the gospel, and into which he cannot even occasionally look with

out finding some useful hint, either in the way of direction or • excitement in the important work in which he is engaged.' This design is judiciously executed, by extracts from Baxter, Watts, Alleine's life, Witherspoon, Erskine, Martyn's Memoirs, Brainerd, Cecil, and Hall. No one who justly appreciates the characters of these divines, can doubt that the extracts are valuable. There will, indeed, in such a series of selections necessarily occur some repetition of the same thoughts in different forms; but this will be more than tolerated by the reader who wishes to have them practically fixed in his heart. The homestriking energy of Baxter cannot fail of producing some serious impressions, except on the most dull and thoughtless minds. Fine instances of it appear in the extracts, of which the following are portions.

• It is a palpable error in those ministers that make such a dis. proportion between their preaching and living, that they should study to preach exactly, and study liule or not at all to live exactly. All the week long is little enough to study how to speak two hours, and yet, one hour seems too much to study how to live all the week. They are loath to misplace a word in their sermons, or to be guilty of any notable infirmity, (and I blame them not, for the matter is holy and of weight,) but they make nothing of misplacing of affections, words, and actions, in the course of their lives. O! how cautiously have I heard some men preach, and how carelessly have I seen them live.' p. 11.

• I confess, I think necessity should be a great disposer of a minister's course of study and labours. If we are sufficient for every thing, we might fall upon every thing, and take in order the whole Encyclopædia. But life is short; and we are dull; and eternal things are necessary; and the souls that depend on our teaching are precious. I confess, necessity has been the conductor of my studies and life. It chooseth what book I shall read, and tells when and how long. It chooseth my text, and makes my sermon, for matter and manner, so far as I can keep out my own corruption. Though I know the constant expectation of death has been a great cause of this, yet, I know no reason why the most healthful man should not make sure of the necessaries first, considering the shortness and uncertainty of all men's lives. p. 30.

Notwithstanding the superior correctness and polish of style, combined, indeed, with piety and truth of sentiment, which appear in most of the other authors here cited, we feel more fully from Baxter's juxtaposition with them, how effective is the nervous plainness of that venerable non-conformist. If, as the Compiler intimates, a favourable reception of this work should induce him to add a second volume, we wish that an equal portion of it may be allotted to further selections from that powerful writer. Much will be found in this volume to humble, as well as to direct and incite the conscientious pastor. We can conceive that some parts of it may even, in certain minds, produce discouragement. Such persons will feel the force of a remark of Archbishop Leighton's, quoted by Dr. Erskine in a discourse on the difficulties of the pastoral office, from which extracts are given:

Even the best would have cause to faint and give over in it, were not our Lord the chief shepherd, were not all our sufficiency laid up in his richfulness [qu. rich fulness ?], and all our insufficiency covered in his gracious acceptance.' p. 227.

Art. VI. 1. Treatises upon the Life, Walk, and Triumph of Faith.

By the Rev. W. Romaine, A. M. With an Introductory Essay by Thomas Chalmers, D.D. 2 vols. demy 12mo. pp. xxiv, 372, 364. Price 9s. Glasgow. 1822. 2. The Imitation of Christ : in three Books. By Thomas à Kempis. Translated from the Latin, by John Payne. With an Introductory Essay, by Thomas Chalmers, D. D. 12mo. pp. Ixii, 334. Price

11180 4s. Glasgow. 1822. I 3. The Works of the Rev. John Gambold, A. M. Late one of the

Bishops of the United Brethren. With an Introductory Essay, by Thomas Erskine, Esq. Advocate, Author of Remarks on the Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion. pp. xxviii,

286. Price 4s. Glasgow, 1822. THE spirit of trade is to be watched with a jealous eye in its

influence upon religious publication; for, no doubt, things sacred are always in dan er of being profaned, corrupted, and depraved, while they are in the hands of those, whether dignitaries, authors, or booksellers, who find that “godliness is

gain :" and truly no man-no, not a barefooted friar, with a knapsack of indulgences on his shoulders-has better right to whisper a hearty Amen to the text, than a Publisher in these days, whose capital, and connexions, and knowledge of the religious world, and general intelligence in theological matters, enable him to supply the wishes of the thousands and tens of thousands in the three kingdoms, who are constant consumers of good books. Looking at the subject only on one side, one might fear that the simple-hearted and unwary buyers of godly books were exposed, without protection, to every pestilent corruption that should promise to fatten the press, and those who live by it. But there are some effectual securities against any very serious or wide-spreading mischief from this source. For though there are flagrant exceptions, yet, still it is a maxim understood, and acknowledged, and generally acted upon by those whose trade is in books, that the best things sell best; and that if

you wish to provide for the mass of readers, you must pub lish what is of unquestioned reputation, and of plain and obvious utility. There have indeed, been some designedly vicious enterprises, and many ill-judged enterprises in this line of business

$; but, for the most part, capital employed in this department of literature will select, by mere mercantile tact, the very works which would have been selected, if disinterested and well-informed piety had been the sole guide in the choice.

But, besides this, it is far from being a justifiable presumption, that, because a man is a tradesman, he has no views beyond those of a tradesman. Still further from the language of candour, and, we will add, from that of a thorough knowledge of the

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world, is it to impute a species of simoniacal baseness of inteir. tion to every man who deals in Religion. On the contrary, we fully believe, that many enterprises similar to that of which the volumes before us are specimens, have been undertaken from motives altogether becoming to a Christian man of business. And, to say truth, we have good reason to believe that this is actually the case in the present instance.

The form of these republications is commodious, the price reasonable, and their appearance creditable to the parties engaged in the work. It is neither with the merits of the Authors chosen, nor with the propriety of the choice, that we need concern ourselves here ; for, in such undertakings, it is the public, not the publishers, that really makes the choice; and it is, in fact, the voice of the mass of readers that thus breathes into our past writers the breath of a second life. To that part of the plan which regards the Introductory Essays, we might object on several grounds ; yet, after all, if this sort of flourish of trumpets is found to promote the circulation of good books, perhaps we should not do well to be angry. But certainly, consulting our own feelings, we should at once say, that these erpedients of the school of “ Day and Martin," of Bish and Hazard, are inexpedient, and, in the end, injurious to the cause they are in. tended to serve, and perhaps, also, in some slight degree, to the respectable names that are borrowed for the occasion. We have read with great pleasure these Essays by Dr. Chalmers and Mr. Erskine ;—they are quite equal to what these writers might be expected to produce under the given circunstances of requisition, and limitation, and task-work. But, though twenty or thirty pages of the full-toned writing of the one, or of the vigorous reasoning of the other, will certainly gratify the reader-meet with it where he may-yet, he feels that the “ Essay" has the slenderest connexion possible with the book to which it is prefixed; that it yields him no important aid in the perusal of the Author, and, in a word, that the true and sole reason why it is there, is because the words · With an Introductory Essay by, &c.' must appear in the title-page. Now we think that the feeling of this sort of trick having been played upon them, will disgust a greater proportion of readers than the publisher has reckoned for in his calculation. For example; in projecting the scheme, he may have presumed that one reader in five hundred would understand the thing just as he understands it—as a mere means of pushing the sale of the books, but that the four hundred and ninety-nine would take it all for good. Now we verily believe that, supposing the lowest class of readers to be excluded from the estimate, (and such are not the purchasers of works of this sort,) these tricks of trade

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