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Hospital and the Naval Asylum ;" and asked for leave to bring in a bill to prevent any but persons connected with the naval service from holding situations in either. In this measure, Sir C. Pole, after a very interesting debate, was defeated; but he soon afterwards proposed, and carried, an address to his Majesty, praying that he would be pleased to direct that the Charter of Greenwich Hospital should be so amended, or a new charter so drawn, as to prevent the recurrence of the abuses complained of.
In the debate respecting the Rochfort squadron, May 9. 1808, Sir Charles Pole warmly censured the conduct of the Board of Admiralty, for not having furnished Sir Richard Strahan with adequate supplies to enable him to keep his station off Rochfort, and to prevent the escape of the French squadron from that port.
In the same session, this indefatigable guardian of the welfare of the British Navy endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, to call the attention of the House of Commons to the office of King's Proctor, by moving an address to his Majesty, praying that he would appoint two or more proctors, in order that the naval service might have an option. He also exposed the defective constitution of the Victualling Board.
In 1809, he endeavoured to call the attention of the House to a subject which had been particularly recommended to him by his late friend, Lord Nelson, namely, "The encouragement of a Marine Corps of Artillery," in order to prevent a return of the quarrels which had occurred in the Mediterranean, whilst Lord Nelson had the command in 1803, in consequence of some young artillery officers refusing to allow such of their men as were embarked on board the bombs, to assist, in case of emergency, to support the labours of the crew.
On the motion of Lord Cochrane, in 1810, for papers, with a view to expose the abuses alleged to exist in the Court of Admiralty, his Lordship received the support of Sir. C. Pole; and the latter took occasion, during the same session, to propose certain reforms in the Navy, tending to a reduction of expense, and, at the same time, conducive to the efficiency of the service. He maintained the claim of the Army and Navy to be relieved from the operation of the Income Tax; contrasting their condition with that of the civil officers, the income of some of whom had, within a century, advanced from 400l. and 800l. a year, to 4000l. and 5000l.
When the Navy Estimates were debated in 1811, he complained of the delays that occurred in the adjudication of prizes, instancing particularly the case of a capture by Lord Duncan's fleet
in 1799, which, after a lapse of twelve years, remained sub judice. This charge he reiterated and maintained on a subsequent occasion, when Sir Wm. Scott again brought on the subject, with a view to justify the proceedings of the Court in which he presided.
On General Gascoyne's motion, in 1815, to exempt from the operation of the tax on property, the pay of such military and naval officers as were actually mustered on foreign service, Sir Charles seconded him, but their efforts were unsuccessful.
When Sir M. Ridley, in 1817, brought before the House a question affecting the Lords of the Admiralty, Sir Charles contended that the Board ought to consist of naval persons.
On various other occasions, Sir Charles Pole came forward in his place in Parliament, to support the interests of that profession of which he was so great an ornament.
On the 20th of February, 1818, Sir Charles was nominated Knight Grand Cross of the most honourable Military Order of the Bath. On the accession of his present Majesty he was raised to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet, on the 22d of July, 1830; and, two days after, he was appointed Master of the Robes to his Majesty.
This honour he did not live long to enjoy. His death took place on the 31st of August, 1830, at his seat, Aldenham Abbey, Hertfordshire, in the seventy-third year of his age.
Sir Charles married, June 8. 1792, Henrietta, third daughter of John Goddard, formerly of Rotterdam, and late of Woodfordhall, Essex, Esq., the great Amsterdam merchant. By that lady, who died November 16. 1818, he had three daughters: 1. SarahMaria-Henrietta, who was married August 9. 1821, to William Stuart, Esq., late member of Parliament for Armagh, the eldest son of the late Lord Primate of Ireland; 2. Anna-Maria; and 3. Charlotte-Jemima, who died 13th of September, 1822. Having left no son, his Baronetcy has expired with him.
Of this gallant and useful officer it has been justly said, that he was "by principle a strict disciplinarian; by nature brave and enterprising, yet unassuming; simple in his manners, open in his character, and uniform in his friendship."
For by much the greater part of the foregoing Memoir, we are indebted to Marshall's Royal Naval Biography.
WILLIAM BULMER, ESQ.
THE following little Memoir of Mr. Bulmer we have extracted from the pages of The Gentleman's Magazine.
The name of Bulmer is associated with all that is correct and beautiful in typography. By him the art was matured, and brought to its present high state of perfection.
This celebrated typographer was a native of Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he was apprenticed to Mr. Thompson, in the Burnt House Entry, St. Nicholas' Churchyard, from whom he received the first rudiments of his art. During his apprenticeship he formed a friendship with Thomas Bewick, the celebrated engraver on wood, which lasted with great cordiality throughout life. It was their practice whilst youths to visit together every morning a farmhouse at Elswick, a small village about two miles from Newcastle, and indulge in Goody Coxen's hot rye-cake and butter-milk, who used to prepare these dainties for such of the Newcastle youths who were inclined to enjoy an early morning walk before the business of the day commenced.
During the period of the joint apprenticeships of these young aspirants for fame, Bulmer invariably took off the first impressions of Bewick's blocks, at his master's printing-office at Newcastle, where Bulmer printed the engraving of the Huntsman and Old Hound, which obtained for Bewick the premium from the Society of Arts in London. Mr. Bulmer afterwards suggested to his friend Bewick an improvement, of which he availed himself, of lowering the surfaces of the blocks where the distance or lighter parts of the engraving were to be shown to perfection.
When Mr. Bulmer first came to London, his services were engaged by Mr. John Bell, who was then publishing his beautiful miniature editions of the Poets, Shakspeare, &c. About 1787, an accidental circumstance introduced Mr. Bulmer to the late George Nicol, Esq. bookseller to King George III., who was then considering the best method of carrying into effect the projected magnificent national edition of Shakspeare, which he had suggested to Messrs. Boydell, ornamented with designs by the first artists of this country. Mr. Nicol had previously engaged the skilful talents of Mr. William Martin, of Birmingham, in cutting sets of types, after approved models, in imitation of the sharp and fine letter
used by the French and Italian printers; which Mr. Nicol for a length of time caused to be carried on his own house.
Premises were then engaged in Cleveland Row, St. James's, and the "Shakspeare Press" was established under the firm of "W. Bulmer and Co." This establishment soon evinced how judicious a choice Mr. Nicol had made in Mr. Bulmer to raise the reputation of his favourite project.
"This magnificent edition (says Dr. Dibdin), which is worthy of the unrivalled compositions of our great Dramatic Bard, will remain as long as those compositions shall be admired, an honourable testimony of the taste and skill of the individuals who planned and conducted it to its completion. The text was revised by G. Steevens and Isaac Reed. Mr. Bulmer possessed the proof sheets of the whole work, on which are many curious remarks by Steevens, not always of the most courteous description: also some original sonnets, a scene for a burlesque tragedy, some graphic sketches,
"The establishment of the Shakspeare Press (continues Dr. Dibdin) was unquestionably an honour both to the founders in particular, and to the public at large. Our greatest poet, our greatest painter, and two of our most respectable publishers and printers, were all embarked in one common cause; were generally and jointly amalgamated, as it were, in one common white-hot crucible; from which issued so pure and brilliant a flame or fusion, that it gladdened all eyes and hearts, and threw a new and revivifying lustre on the threefold arts of painting, engraving, and printing. The nation appeared to be not less struck than astonished; and our venerable monarch, George the Third, felt anxious not only to give such a magnificent establishment every degree of royal support, but, infected with the matrix and puncheon mania, he had even contemplated the creation of a royal printing-office within the walls of his own palace!"
One of his Majesty's principal hopes and wishes was, for his own country to rival the celebrity of Parma in the productions of Bodoni; and Dr. Dibdin pleasantly alludes to what he calls the Bodoni Hum—of "his Majesty being completely and joyfully taken in, by bestowing upon the efforts of Mr. Bulmer's press, that eulogy which he had supposed was due exclusively to Bodoni's."
The first number of the Shakspeare appeared in January, 1791; and at once established Mr. Bulmer's fame as the first practical printer of the day.
Dr. Dibdin has given (Bibliographical Decameron, ii. 384395.) a curious and copious list of the "Books printed at the
Shakspeare Press," with judicious remarks, to which we must refer our readers; contenting ourselves with noticing some of the articles, chiefly those not printed for general sale.
1. Aulii Persii Flacci Satyre, with Brewster's translation, 1790, 4to. believe to be the first production of Mr. Bulmer's press. It never was published. 3. The Shakspeare, 9 vols. folio, 1791-1805, before noticed.
3. Contemplatio Philosophica, a posthumous work of the late Brook Taylor, with his Life, by his relation the late Sir W. Young, Bart. 1793, 8vo. privately printed.
4. Claudiani Opera, 1793-1796, small 8vo. never published. One copy ON
5. Next to the Shakspeare, perhaps the Edition of The Poetical Works of John Milton, in 3 vols. folio, 1793—1797, is the finest production of Mr. Bulmer's press. Dr. Dibdin seems to prefer this work even to the Shakspeare itself.
6. In 1795 Mr. Bulmer printed a beautiful edition in 4to. of the "Poems of Goldsmith and Parnell," one copy on WHITE SATIN, and three on VELLUM. The volume is dedicated to the Founders of the Shakspeare Printing Office, Messrs. Boydells and Nicol. "The present volume," says Mr. Bulmer, in his Advertisement," in addition to the SHAKSPEARE, the MILTON, and many other valuable works of elegance, which have already been given to the world, through the medium of the Shakspeare Press, are [is] particularly meant to combine the various beauties of PRINTING, TYPEFOUNDING, ENGRAVING, and PAPERMAKING; as well with a view to ascertain the near approach to perfection which those arts have attained in this country, as to invite a fair competition with the best Typographical productions of other nations. How far the different artists, who have contributed their exertions to this great object, have succeeded in the attempt, the public will now be fully able to judge. Much pains have been bestowed on the present publication, to render it a complete Specimen of the Arts of Type and Blockprinting.
"The whole of the Types with which this work has been printed, are executed by Mr. William Martin, in the house of my friend Mr. George Nicol, whose unceasing endeavours to improve the Art of Printing, and its relative branches, are too well known to require any thing to be said on the present occasion; he has particularly patronised Mr. Martin, a very ingenious young Artist, who has resided with him seven years, and who is at this time forming a Foundery, by which he will shortly be enabled to offer to the world a Specimen of Types, that will in a very eminent degree unite utility, elegance, and beauty.*
"The ornaments are all engraved on blocks of wood, by two of my earliest acquaintances, Messrs. Bewicks, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London, after designs from the most interesting passages of the Poems they embellish. They have been executed with great care, and I may venture to say, without being sup
• William Martin was brother of Robert Martin, the apprentice of Baskerville. He afterwards set up a foundery in Duke Street, St. James's. His Roman and Italic types were decided imitations of Baskerville's; but his Greeks and Ori-entals formed the most valuable part of his collection. His foundery in 1817 was united to the Caslon. Hansard's Typographia, p. 360. This ingenious letter-founder died in the summer of 1815, and was buried in St. James's Church, Westminster.